An interactive reading model is a reading model that recognizes the interaction of bottom- up and top-down processes simultaneously throughout the reading process.http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ReferenceMaterials/GlossaryOfLiteracyTerms/WhatIsAnInteractiveReadingMode.htm
Emerald Dechant: o The interactive model suggests that the reader constructs meaning by the selective use of information from all sources of meaning (graphemic, phonemic, morphemic, syntax, semantics) without adherence to any one set order. The reader simultaneously uses all levels of processing even though one source of meaning can be primary at a given time. (Dechant, 1991) Kenneth Goodman: o An interactive model is one which uses print as input and has meaning as output. But the reader provides input, too, and the reader, interacting with the text, is selective in using just as little of the cues from text as necessary to construct meaning. (Goodman, K., 1981) David E. Rumelhart: o Reading is at once a perceptual and a cognitive process. It is a process which bridges and blurs these two traditional distinctions. Moreover, a skilled reader must be able to make use of sensory, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic information to accomplish the task. These various sources of information appear to interact in many complex ways during the process of reading (Rumelhart, D. 1985).http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ReferenceMaterials/GlossaryOfLiteracyTerms/WhatIsAnInteractiveReadingMode.htm
It focuses on the belief that what motivates a student to read is important. A reader is more likely to retain knowledge of the material they are reading if they have an interest in what they are reading. A student’s attitude toward reading is important, and a way to help students have a positive attitude toward reading is to allow them to pick topics of reading that interest them.(Ruddell & Unrau, 1994)
What does a teacher of the Interactive Reading Model looks like?
Does not ‘teach’ in the sense of transferring knowledge to the pupil; rather, the teacher serves as a mediator to assist the student in becoming consciously aware of knowledge already possessed Engages the student in a collaborative process of inquiry and self improvement Models through action and allows the student to discover answers for (Ruddell & Unrau, 1994, p. 1489)
Use clearly formulated instructional strategies that embody focused goals, plans, and monitoring feedback Possess in-depth knowledge of reading, literacy processes and content knowledge; understands how to teach these effectively Tap internal student motivation, stimulate intellectual curiosity, explore students’ self-understanding, uses aesthetic imagery and expression and encourages problem solving Are warm, caring, and flexible Have high expectations of themselves and their students. Are concerned about their students as individuals. (Ruddell & Unrau, 1994, p. 1489)
A teacher’s role is helping those students use their skills and prior knowledge to discover the information on their own. o The teacher provides the connection between the knowledge and the students. o In Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development, students cannot go outside the zone they begin in until they receive help from a teacher, parent, or coach. o The teacher is someone who can guide them to reach the outer zones by helping them scaffold on the knowledge and skills they already possess. A highly qualified teacher must be able to effectively teach in a classroom setting. A prepared teacher has clear and concise instructional strategies ready beforehand. The teacher has focused goals, plans, and knows to use formative and summative assessments to monitor student learning.
What is needed in a classroom using the Interactive Reading Model?
Materials Plenty of interesting texts which people are highly motivated to read. These can be preprinted or student-generated, or both. o Offer a variety of books on different reading levels and different topics, both fiction and non-fiction. o Programs that categorize books so that students and teachers can find books on their level that interest the reader • AR (Accelerate Reader) • Lex (Lexile) • DRA (Diagnostic Reading assessment) A phonics or syllable-based primer with lessons linked to meaningful texts (optional). A teachers guide listing the sounds or syllables to be taught (optional). http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/InteractiveInstructionalProgra.htm Marzano, R. J. (2004).
Literature Circles Using trade books and reading levels, teachers can also set up a book club environment called Literature Circles. o Literature Circles have guidelines, which are set up by the teachers, but which are run by students. o The students choose their own reading material, and groups are formed based on the book choice. o These groups meet on a regularly scheduled basis to discuss their reading, and the topics discussed come from the students. • The goal of these meetings is to open up with conversations about books so the personal connections can be made. o Evaluations are made by teacher observations and by students’ self evaluations. o Then when groups finish books, the readers share with their classmates about their reading, and then new groups are formed based on new reading choices. Literature Circles have been endorsed by the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading AssociationDaniels, H. (2002).
Building Background Knowledge Background knowledge is an important part of the Interactive Reading Model. It is important that, prior to reading, the students can tap into their prior knowledge about a topic by talking about what they already know or how the topic might relate to something they already know about or have experienced in their own lives. One way to do this is by using graphic organizers to relate students’ own experiences to the topic they are going to read about. Graphic organizers can be used in whole or in small group discussions, or students with more experience can complete a graphic organizer on their ownMarzano, R. J. (2004).
Parts of the Program Reading Readiness Language experience activities or themes Shared reading experiences Primer lessons (optional) Writing lessons to teach letter formation Writing lessons to encourage process writing Opportunities to develop fluencyhttp://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/InteractiveInstructionalProgra.htm
Reading readiness skills help prepare learners for the task of reading. The particular skills they need to learn will depend on their previous experience with and exposure to reading. Reading readiness skills need to be taught in a context which gives the expectation that reading is for meaning. The learners need to hear stories read aloud and observe that reading and writing are useful and meaningful. Reading readiness skills are those abilities necessary for a person to begin the process of learning to read.
Examples Auralphonemic awareness Teaching someone to handle a book correctly Using a pencil correctly Understanding and interpreting illustrations Discerning shapes Understanding the alphabetic principle Understanding some concepts and conventions of printhttp://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/InteractiveInstructionalProgra.htm
A language experience activity is usually an activity that learners do together. It could also be any experience an individual or group has had. After the experience, a teacher or leader helps the learners write about what they have experienced. Here are some examples of language experience activities: o Taking a trip to an interesting location o Bringing an animal or object to the classroom to observe and discuss o Inviting a guest to class o Taking a walk and observing the people and surroundings http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ReferenceMaterials/Glossary OfLiteracyTerms/WhatIsALanguageExperienceActiv.htm
Shared reading is a reading activity where a teacher reads a story while a group of learners look at the text being read and follow along.http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/InteractiveInstructionalProgra.htm
Primers are tools used in teaching reading and writing. Even though a primer is usually designed to be used with a specific literacy method, the primer is not itself a method for teaching reading. A primer is a book, or series of books, that contains instructional material for teaching reading and writing to beginners or semiliterate learners. It is normally divided into a series of lessons.
Parts and functions Preprimer Materials o Designed for people who have had little or no exposure to reading and writing, o Focused on reading readiness skills. Basic Primer Materials o Designed for people who have reading readiness skills in place o Focused on word attack skills, certain basic comprehension skills, and basic reading skills, and writing skills. Postprimer Materials o Designed for people who have completed a basic reading instruction program o Focused on higher level comprehension skills and critical reading skills. A teachers guide containing directions for using the materials in the primer or primer series. The design of a primer or primer series will vary depending on o the reading and writing program in which it is being used, and o the needs of the learners.http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ReferenceMaterials/GlossaryOfLiteracyTerms/WhatIsAPrimer.htm
What kind of professional development is necessary?
By receiving professional development, teachers can better understand the principles of the interactive model and how it looks in the classroom. Teachers need guidance and instruction on how to teach students to engage in meaningful conversations and how to model these conversations and use of language to students Teachers can learn what concepts need to be focused on at different reading levels and based on the students’ needs. Teachers will be provided with training on how to access physical resources, especially engaging texts to keep their students motivated to read.
Videos are a great way to share with teachers how the model looks in classrooms of different grades. Workshop series that focus on questioning. o Teachers learn to model questioning and how to teach students to ask deeper questions about their and their peers’ reading. Workshops based around how teachers can bring experiences into the classroom and bring the students outside of the classroom for experiences. Workshops guiding in how to create meaningful lessons using motivating and exciting texts before and after the experiences to help all students better understand what they have seen, heard and discussed. Training workshops on how to access physical resources, especially engaging texts to keep their students motivated to read.
What does the Interactive Reading Model look like in the classroom?
First Grade Materials: o Phonics primers o Phonics workbooks o Phonics charts and posters o Plentiful authentic literature Students: o Struggle to decode words in oral reading. o Re-read sentences after decoding unknown words to assist with fluency and comprehension. o Practice correct letter formation through writing activities o Writing activities based on language experiences Teachers: o Access prior knowledge of students before shared reading. o Draw attention to concepts of print, phonics elements o Monitors students for correct holding of pencils, proper book handling, comprehending and comprehension. o Demonstrates student knowledge and meaning through use of graphic
Third Grade Materials: o Postprimers o Postprimer workbooks o Plentiful authentic literature Students: o Struggle to decode fewer words in reading. o Begin word study by examining roots and affixes. o Writing activities based upon language experiences. o Participate in Writing Workshop o Begin to create their own graphic organizers. o Amount of independent reading time is increased. Teachers: o Access prior knowledge of students before shared reading. o Read aloud fewer picture books than in previous grades. Instead read more chapter books. Classroom: o Whole class or small group sharing of meaning making. Meaning making changes as students share and interact with each other, the teacher, and the text.
Fifth Grade Materials: o Plentiful authentic literature Students: o Struggle to decode fewer words in reading. o Continued word study by examining roots and affixes. o Writing activities based upon language experiences. o Continue to create their own graphic organizers. o Amount of independent reading time is increased. o May participate in literature circles. Teachers: o Access prior knowledge of students before shared reading. o Read aloud fewer picture books than in previous grades. Instead read more chapter books. o Supervise literature circles. o Conduct writing workshops. Classroom: o Whole class or small group sharing of meaning making. Meaning making changes as students share and interact with each other, the teacher, and the text.
http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/InteractiveInstructionalProgra.htm http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ReferenceMaterials/GlossaryOfLiteracyTerms/WhatIsAnInteractive ReadingMode.htm http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ReferenceMaterials/GlossaryOfLiteracyTerms/WhatIsALanguageEx perienceActiv.htm http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ReferenceMaterials/GlossaryOfLiteracyTerms/WhatIsAPrimer.htm http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/Literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/InteractiveInstructionalProgra.htm Daniels, H. (2002). Literature circles: Voice and choice in book clubs & reading groups. Ontario: Stenhouse Publishers. Marzano, R. J. (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement. Alexandria: ASCD.Ruddell, R., & Unrau N.J. Reading as a meaning-construction process: The reader, the text, and the teacher.From Ruddell, M.R., & Singer, H. (Eds.). Theoretical models and processes of reading (4th ed., pp. 996- 1056). (1994). International Reading Association.