SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Materials
Development in ELT:
A Historical Overview
Sajjad Talebi
Sheikhbahaee University, Fall 2016
talebisajjad@gmail.com
1
2
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
1. Introduction to Materials Development
What are materials?
Materials are anything that facilitates
the learning of language.
3
4
Types of materials:
• Printed Materials
(books, workbooks, worksheets , or readers)
• Non-printed Materials
(cassette, CDs or other audio materials, videos or computer-based materials)
• Materials that comprise both print and non-print sources
(self-access materials and materials on the internet)
• Materials that are not designed for instructional use: authentic materials
(magazines, newspapers, and TV materials)
1. Introduction to Materials Development
1. Introduction to Materials Development
‘Materials development is both a field of study and a practical
undertaking.’
What is materials development?
As a field: It studies principles and procedures of the design,
implementation and evaluation of language teaching material.
As an undertaking: It involves production, evaluation and adaptation
of language teaching materials. (Tomlinson 2001: 66)
5
6
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches
in ELT
2.1. Grammar translation method
• It originated from the practice of teaching Latin; in the early 1500s.
• It was influential until the 1950’s.
• It reached its height in the period between 1880 and 1920.
• Students learned grammatical rules.
• Applied rules by translating sentences between the languages.
• Advance students translate whole texts word-for-word.
Materials?
7
• The mainstay of materials is the textbook.
• Textbooks codified the grammar of the target LG into rules to memorize.
• A chapter in a textbook would begin with a bilingual vocabulary list, after
which there would be grammar rules for students to study and sentences for
them to translate.
• Sentences were chosen to illustrate grammar, with no relation to actual
communication.
Some typical sentences from 19th-century textbooks are as follows:
The philosopher pulled the lower jaw of the hen.
My sons have bought the mirrors of the Duke.
The cat of my aunt is more treacherous than the dog of your uncle.
• Written essays as the most communicative activity
• Dictation
Materials in GTM
8
9
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches
in ELT
2.2. The direct method
• It was established in Germany and France around 1900, contrasts with the GTM
• The Direct Method was influential in the 1950’s and beyond.
• totally avoided the use of L1
• focused on the development of oral skills.
• strongly linked to the IPA and dealt with phonetics
• Inductive grammar (no rules)
Materials?
10
• everyday language rather than literature
• teaching concepts and vocabulary through pantomiming, real-life
objects and other visual materials
• Syllabus based on:
• Everyday speech in TL
• Vocabulary emphasized over grammar
• Oral interviews
• Concrete vocabulary was taught through pictures and objects, while
abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas
Materials in the Direct Method
11
12
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches
in ELT
2.3. Audio-lingual method
• based on behaviorist theory (Behaviorist learning theories of Pavlov's dog which Skinner
applied to human learning)
• conditioning and habit formation through a system of reinforcement
• Like the direct method, learning is directly, without using L1 to explain
new words or grammar in TL (No L1 permitted)
• learners as empty vessels
• focus shifted from teaching vocabulary to grammar
• Implicit grammar via memorized forms
• Chomsky and Hymes attacked it Materials?
13
Materials in Audio-lingual Method
• Dialogues usually adapted or in some cases, written by the teacher.
• Dialogues presented as a story in TL, using simple language.
• Different role-plays used to present the dialogue.
• Practicing the dialogue with the students, changing roles and partners from time to time.
• Repetition of the entire dialogue at normal rate speed.
• Pattern practice, based on material taken from the dialogue.
• Pronunciation at language labs
• Vocabulary appearing in dialogues defined through gestures, visual aids, synonyms, etc.
• The learner has little control over the material studied or the method of study.
• Tests for evaluating progress in listening comprehension, but no specific learning materials
designed for the systematic development of listening.
• All reading material is introduced as orally first.
• True and false activity can improve comprehension.
14
15
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches
in ELT
2.4. The Silent Way (created by Caleb Gattegno in 1963)
• Students seen as vast amount of experience and knowledge i.e. their L1.
• The students begin their study of the language by studying its sound system.
• Extensive use of silence as a teaching method.
• Always moving from the known to the unknown (already available sounds in L1,
then new ones in L2)
• Learners develop independence and autonomy and cooperate to solve
language problems.
• Teacher was distant and the classroom environment was not conducive to
learning.
Materials? 16
Materials in The Silent Way
• The silent way makes use of specialized teaching materials: colored
Cuisenaire rods, the sound-color chart, word charts, and Fidel charts.
• These sound-color associations are later used to help the students with
spelling, reading, and pronunciation.
• The sound-color chart consists of blocks of color, with one color
representing one sound in the language being learned.
17
The sounds are
associated to
different colors
using a
that is specific
to the language.
Materials in The Silent Way
18
are wooden,
and come in ten different lengths,
but identical cross-section; each
length has its own assigned color.
At the beginning stages they can
be used to practice colors and
numbers, and later they can be
used in more complex vocabulary
and grammar.
Materials in The Silent Way
19
for
teaching vocabulary
Materials in The Silent Way
20
for teaching pronunciation
Materials in The Silent Way
21
Materials in The Silent Way
for teaching pronunciation
22
23
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
• Developed by the Bulgarian psychotherapist Georgi
Lozanov.
• This method is teacher-controlled and not student-
controlled.
• Physical surroundings and atmosphere in classroom
make "the students feel comfortable and confident”
• Various techniques, including art and music, are used
by the trained teachers.
• A relaxed mind is an open mind and it can help a
student to feel more confident.
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches
in ELT
2.5. Desuggestopedia (Suggestopedia, 1970s)
24
A lesson of Suggestopedia consisted of four phases:
o Introduction:
The teacher teaches the material in "a playful manner" instead of analyzing lexis
and grammar of the text in a directive manner.
o Concert session (active and passive):
In the active session, the teacher reads with intoning as selected music is played.
Occasionally, the students read the text together with the teacher, and listen only to
the music as the teacher pauses in particular moments. The passive session is done
more calmly.
o Elaboration:
The students sing classical songs and play games while "the teacher acts more like
a consultant”.
o Production:
The students spontaneously speak and interact in the target language without
interruption or correction. 25
Classes Applying
Desuggestopedia
26
Materials in Desuggestopedia
Several posters on the wall
27
Materials in Desuggestopedia
Textbooks have the text on one
side and translation of the text on
the other side, facilitating
comprehension
28
Materials in Desuggestopedia
Hats, masks and name tags, give students new identity that enhances
their feeling of security and allows them to be more open.
Performing as another person makes them feel less inhibited.
29
• Materials propose positive attitude (text: “to want to is to be able to”)
• Teaching with personal participation through games, songs, classical arts, and
pleasure.
• The instructor was expected to create situations where students were most
‘suggestible’, and then present material in a way that encourages retention.
• Vocabulary, readings, role-plays and drama were presented with classical
music in the background and students sitting in comfortable seats. In this way,
students became "suggestible.“
Materials in Desuggestopedia
30
31
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
• Resembles the Natural Approach: learner is not expected to speak until he has achieved some
basic level of comprehension
• Based on the Counselling-approach: Teacher as a counselor, paraphraser or interpreter
• Whole-person learning: teachers consider students' intellect, understand the relationship among
students ' feelings, physical reactions, instinctive protective reactions, and desire to learn.
• Students as a group develop what aspects of LG they like to learn; Cooperation not Competition
• Interaction as a vehicle of learning
• Learners should:
1. apprehend the sound system of the language
2. assign fundamental meanings to individual lexical units
3. construct a basic grammar
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches
in ELT
2.6. Community Language Learning (by American psychologist Charles Curran)
32
CLL Classroom
33
• No specific material
• Tape-recorder
• A table and chairs around it
• Syllabus by the students (students more willing to learn when creating materials)
• Fluency then accuracy (constant and consistent practice of speaking)
• Integrative testing (paragraph writing or interview)
• Human computer: pronunciation
Materials in Community Language Learning
34
35
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches
in ELT
2.7. Total Physical Response (by James Asher)
• based on the comprehension approach to language teaching
• based on the coordination of language and physical movement
• valuable way to learn vocabulary
• three hypotheses
1. language is learned primarily by listening
2. language learning must engage the right hemisphere of the brain
3. learning language should not involve any stress
• Gesture, use of voice, and mime are very important
• Krashen’s hypotheses on language acquisition reinforced
• TPR and Asher’s claim that what you understand you will later produce
automatically 36
• Uses a wide variety of realia, posters, and props
• There are a number of specialized TPR teaching products available,
including student kits developed by Asher and an interactive CD-ROM for
students to practice with privately
Materials in TPR
TPR Story telling
37
38
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
39
• Grew out of sociolinguistics in the 1970s
• Emphasis on the process of communication, interaction & language functions rather than forms
• Wilkins defined lg learning as using "notions" & "functions", rather than grammar & vocabulary
Notional categories: time, location, frequency, and quantity
Functional categories: communicative acts such as offers, complaints, denials, and requests
• Students may know the rules of linguistic usage, but be unable to use the language (Widdowson 1978)
• Being able to communicate requires more than linguistic competence; it requires communicative
competence (Hymes 1971)-knowing when and how to say what to whom to make yourself
understood in socially appropriate ways
• L2 is learned best when students try to say something that they really want or need to say
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches
in ELT
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
40
• Materials allow learners to choose freely what they want to communicate
• Materials concentrate on the various social activities
• Materials were used in TTCs and workshops to encourage teachers to change to
using a communicative syllabus
• Whenever possible, ‘authentic language’ should be introduced
• Unscrambling sentences as an opportunity to work with language at the
discourse or suprasentential level teaching students ‘cohesion’ and ‘coherence’
• Strip stories, using a problem-solving task as a communicative technique
Problem-solving tasks work well in CLT because they usually include the three
features of communication.
• Games in CLT as valuable communicative practice
• Role plays as an opportunity to practice communicating in different social
contexts and in different social roles
Materials in CLT
41
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
42
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches
in ELT
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
• Subcategories of CLT, but with different focus
• Give priority to process over predetermined linguistic content
• ‘Use English to learn it’ rather than ‘learn English to use it’
• Teaching through communication rather than for it
• Providing the learner with natural context
• Top-down processing
43
Materials in Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
In CBI:
• Using realia related to the content i.e. a globe for geographical contents
• Vocabulary lists related to the content
• Videos related to the content
• Cloze passages to be completed while watching videos
• Games related to the content not language
In TBLT:
• Pre-tasks
• Jigsaw tasks while listening to instructions providing authentic speaking
and listening (focus on meaning)
44
TEACHING METHODS AND TEACHER & LEARNER ROLES
Method Teacher Roles Learner Roles
Situational Language Teaching
Context Setter
Error Corrector
Imitator
Memorizer
Audio-lingualism
Language Modeler
Drill Leader
Pattern Practicer
Accuracy Enthusiast
Communicative Language Teaching
Needs Analyst
Task Designer
Improvisor
Negotiator
Total Physical Response
Commander
Action Monitor
Order Taker
Performer
Community Language Learning
Counselor
Paraphraser
Collaborator
Whole Person
The Natural Approach
Actor
Props User
Guesser
Immerser
Suggestopedia
Auto-hypnotist
Authority Figure
Relaxer
True-Believer
Classroom Roles Reflecting the Belief Systems
45
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
46
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
 The 1950s to the mid-1960s
• The cognitive revolution
George A. Miller
Donald Broadbent
Noam Chomsky
• Behaviorism had overwhelming dominance
and inspired language teaching materials
with drills, substitution tables and so on.
47
 The late 1960s to the late 1970s
Krashen’s input hypothesis and the emergence of humanistic methodologies
that lead to Stevick’s (1976) “Memory, Meaning and Method”, helped the
development of:
 Silent Way (Gattegno, 1972)
 Suggestopaedia (Lozanov, 1978)
 Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Class” (Moskowitz 1978):
language aims + humanistic aims
 Popularity of DIY (Do It Yourself):
Featuring self-study materials
Teacher-less language learning
Self-access work
Pairs of learners could work on the same material
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
48
 The 1980s onwards
• Naiman et al.’s landmark “The Good Language Learner” study (1978):
learning was a person-centered activity
• Development of multiculturalism
• Concerns with individuals’ linguistic wants and needs
• Social changes effects materials development in language teaching
• Language teaching professionals sought to implement shifts in social
attitudes into the design of classroom work
49
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
50
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
• The advent of the Communicative Approach in
the 1970s was a major turning point as materials
moved from audiolingual approaches to an
approach which encouraged learners to use the
language for communication.
• One of the positive after-effects of the world war
was an increase in world trade and air travel.
Hence, the materials developed in a way that
made trade and travel easier.
51
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
52
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
• In the past, materials development was merely the
production accompanying a wide range of learning
resources to illustrate methods. Until the 1990s it was
considered to be a theoretical and something which
teachers did for their classes and/or for publication.
• Very few post-graduate courses paid much attention
to materials development and if they did it was as an
add-on to a Methodology course.
How is materials development evolved?
53
However, in the late 1990s with the publication of a number of books and
articles, the founding of associations such as MATSDA, and the proliferation
of post-graduate courses which included modules on materials development,
things started to change.
This procedure raised teachers’ awareness of two issues:
1. The huge production in the interest of methodologies and materials used
for teaching
2. The importance of including students’ voices in order to update teaching
materials in terms of the way learners would like to learn and what they
need to learn in today’s increasingly globalized world
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
54
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
55
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
• In the past teachers would
put together a book from
their successful classroom
materials and submit it to a
publisher. If it was favorably
reviewed it was published
and the author(s) received
royalties.
• In the past, published
materials were driven by the
writers' experience,
imagination and intuitions.
• Nowadays, publishers
commission books from
professional writers. They
tell the writers exactly what
they want them to do and
how to do it and then pay the
writers fees if their
submissions are acceptable.
• Now they are driven by the
publishers’ perceptions of
what they can successfully
sell.
56
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
Uncertain global market Market-led
Artificial texts and tasks Authenticity gets more focus
English for its own sake English for specific purpose
low risk/competition high risk/competition
Native speaker expertise Non-native speaker competence
culturally insensitive culturally sensitive
57
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
little design design rich
single-volume titles Multicomponent / multimedia
culture and methodology of origin international or local culture
sell what is published specific fragmental markets
UK/US publisher dominance rise in local publishing
author and academic centered indigenous learning situations
more productive teams
to develop materials
more scope for
collaboration
58
Outline
1. Introduction to Materials Development
2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT
2.1. Grammar Translation Method
2.2. The Direct Method
2.3. Audiolingual Method
2.4. The Silent Way
2.5. Desuggestopedia
2.6. Community Language Learning
2.7. Total Physical Response
2.8. Communicative Language Teaching
2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction
3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development
5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development
7. Professionality of the Profession
59
7. Professionality of the Profession
Ad hoc materials are developed or in imitation of
bestselling course books
The materials are random recreations from repertoire
The materials are crafty clones of previously successful
materials
The
professionality
of the
profession is
NOT met if:
60
7. Professionality of the Profession
Theories of language acquisition and development
Principles of teaching
Our current knowledge of how the target language is
actually used
The results of systematic observation and evaluation of
materials in use
Materials
development
IS a
professional
profession if it
is coherent
and principled
applications
of:
We should bring
together researchers,
teachers, writers and
publishers. ‘Only by
pooling resources will
we ever be able to
answer some of the
questions we need to
ask if we are to really
increase the
effectiveness of the
materials which we
produce’.
61
7. Professionality of the Profession
How can we
make materials
development
professional?
Not all theories should be applied to
practice but all theories should be
communicated in ways which make
them accessible to practitioners and that
practitioners at all levels should keep in
touch with relevant research findings
and consider ways of applying
potentially useful findings to their local
context.
Materials development
is one of the few areas
of applied linguistics in
which theory is applied
to practice and practice
informs theory.
62

More Related Content

What's hot

English Language Teaching Materials and Media: Instructional Material and Med...
English Language Teaching Materials and Media: Instructional Material and Med...English Language Teaching Materials and Media: Instructional Material and Med...
English Language Teaching Materials and Media: Instructional Material and Med...
Musfera Nara Vadia
 
Approaches to teaching literature in efl classrooms
Approaches to teaching literature in efl classroomsApproaches to teaching literature in efl classrooms
Approaches to teaching literature in efl classrooms
Aprilianty Wid
 
Materials for developing writing skills
Materials for developing writing skillsMaterials for developing writing skills
Materials for developing writing skills
Sarah Cruz
 
Materials evaluation
Materials evaluationMaterials evaluation
Materials evaluation
Karen Villalba
 
Language based approach
Language based approachLanguage based approach
Language based approach
ekafathe
 
Language teaching materials
Language teaching materialsLanguage teaching materials
Language teaching materials
Carlos Mayora
 
The oral approach and situational language teaching
The oral approach and situational language teachingThe oral approach and situational language teaching
The oral approach and situational language teaching
camiss20
 
ESP (Course Design and skills and strategies)
ESP (Course Design and skills and strategies)ESP (Course Design and skills and strategies)
ESP (Course Design and skills and strategies)
Lord Mark Jayson Ilarde
 
Language Based Approach
Language Based ApproachLanguage Based Approach
Language Based Approach
Rauchane Tim Battikin
 
History of Children and Adolescent Literature
History of Children and Adolescent LiteratureHistory of Children and Adolescent Literature
History of Children and Adolescent Literature
Bren Dale
 
Children & Adolescent Literature
Children & Adolescent LiteratureChildren & Adolescent Literature
Children & Adolescent Literature
Sherwin Daquioag
 
Bilingual Education
Bilingual EducationBilingual Education
Remedial English Instruction (5 of 16)
Remedial English Instruction (5 of 16)Remedial English Instruction (5 of 16)
Remedial English Instruction (5 of 16)
Nheru Veraflor
 
Teaching grammar
Teaching grammarTeaching grammar
Teaching grammar
macabalbontin
 
CONTEMPORARY-POPULAR-AND-EMERGENT-LITERATURE-EDZ.pptx
CONTEMPORARY-POPULAR-AND-EMERGENT-LITERATURE-EDZ.pptxCONTEMPORARY-POPULAR-AND-EMERGENT-LITERATURE-EDZ.pptx
CONTEMPORARY-POPULAR-AND-EMERGENT-LITERATURE-EDZ.pptx
EdithaBallesteros3
 
Teaching grammar
Teaching grammarTeaching grammar
Teaching grammar
Montse Irun
 
material development
material developmentmaterial development
material development
ahmad muhajir
 
Materials development
Materials developmentMaterials development
Materials development
Hasan BİLOKCUOGLU
 
Functional notional approach
Functional notional approachFunctional notional approach
Functional notional approach
amr2706
 
Adapting courses-Developing Materials for Language Teaching
Adapting courses-Developing Materials for Language TeachingAdapting courses-Developing Materials for Language Teaching
Adapting courses-Developing Materials for Language Teaching
Shidak Rahbarian
 

What's hot (20)

English Language Teaching Materials and Media: Instructional Material and Med...
English Language Teaching Materials and Media: Instructional Material and Med...English Language Teaching Materials and Media: Instructional Material and Med...
English Language Teaching Materials and Media: Instructional Material and Med...
 
Approaches to teaching literature in efl classrooms
Approaches to teaching literature in efl classroomsApproaches to teaching literature in efl classrooms
Approaches to teaching literature in efl classrooms
 
Materials for developing writing skills
Materials for developing writing skillsMaterials for developing writing skills
Materials for developing writing skills
 
Materials evaluation
Materials evaluationMaterials evaluation
Materials evaluation
 
Language based approach
Language based approachLanguage based approach
Language based approach
 
Language teaching materials
Language teaching materialsLanguage teaching materials
Language teaching materials
 
The oral approach and situational language teaching
The oral approach and situational language teachingThe oral approach and situational language teaching
The oral approach and situational language teaching
 
ESP (Course Design and skills and strategies)
ESP (Course Design and skills and strategies)ESP (Course Design and skills and strategies)
ESP (Course Design and skills and strategies)
 
Language Based Approach
Language Based ApproachLanguage Based Approach
Language Based Approach
 
History of Children and Adolescent Literature
History of Children and Adolescent LiteratureHistory of Children and Adolescent Literature
History of Children and Adolescent Literature
 
Children & Adolescent Literature
Children & Adolescent LiteratureChildren & Adolescent Literature
Children & Adolescent Literature
 
Bilingual Education
Bilingual EducationBilingual Education
Bilingual Education
 
Remedial English Instruction (5 of 16)
Remedial English Instruction (5 of 16)Remedial English Instruction (5 of 16)
Remedial English Instruction (5 of 16)
 
Teaching grammar
Teaching grammarTeaching grammar
Teaching grammar
 
CONTEMPORARY-POPULAR-AND-EMERGENT-LITERATURE-EDZ.pptx
CONTEMPORARY-POPULAR-AND-EMERGENT-LITERATURE-EDZ.pptxCONTEMPORARY-POPULAR-AND-EMERGENT-LITERATURE-EDZ.pptx
CONTEMPORARY-POPULAR-AND-EMERGENT-LITERATURE-EDZ.pptx
 
Teaching grammar
Teaching grammarTeaching grammar
Teaching grammar
 
material development
material developmentmaterial development
material development
 
Materials development
Materials developmentMaterials development
Materials development
 
Functional notional approach
Functional notional approachFunctional notional approach
Functional notional approach
 
Adapting courses-Developing Materials for Language Teaching
Adapting courses-Developing Materials for Language TeachingAdapting courses-Developing Materials for Language Teaching
Adapting courses-Developing Materials for Language Teaching
 

Similar to Materials Development in ELT

History of language teaching
History of language teachingHistory of language teaching
History of language teaching
Annasta Tastha
 
Dm Fareed Ashtab
Dm Fareed AshtabDm Fareed Ashtab
Dm Fareed Ashtab
Fareed Ashtab
 
Unit2_Accessible.pptx
Unit2_Accessible.pptxUnit2_Accessible.pptx
Unit2_Accessible.pptx
AbbosbekMominov1
 
History of Language Teaching
History of Language TeachingHistory of Language Teaching
History of Language Teaching
Ignatius Joseph Estroga
 
Binti khoirul uluum 16108810034
Binti khoirul uluum 16108810034Binti khoirul uluum 16108810034
Binti khoirul uluum 16108810034
Maratus Shofiyah
 
Lecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptx
Lecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptxLecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptx
Lecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptx
ArielVillar2
 
Applied linguistics
Applied linguisticsApplied linguistics
Applied linguistics
Jordán Masías
 
Audiolingualmethod.nadia.bat
Audiolingualmethod.nadia.batAudiolingualmethod.nadia.bat
Audiolingualmethod.nadia.bat
Nadia Bat
 
Language methodologies
Language methodologiesLanguage methodologies
Language methodologies
Wesley Peter
 
Inggris
InggrisInggris
Inggris
fatchulgani
 
16108810032 Suci nurjanah
16108810032 Suci nurjanah16108810032 Suci nurjanah
16108810032 Suci nurjanah
SuciNurjanah7
 
Language teaching methods (1)
Language  teaching methods (1)Language  teaching methods (1)
Language teaching methods (1)
casagerard
 
Methods and Approaches of ELT
Methods and Approaches of ELTMethods and Approaches of ELT
Methods and Approaches of ELT
Department of English MKBU
 
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHINGA VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
Libardo Ospino
 
Language teaching: Approaches and methods
Language teaching: Approaches and methodsLanguage teaching: Approaches and methods
Language teaching: Approaches and methods
Ma Alejandra Soto
 
Week One - Sessions 1, 2.ppt
Week One - Sessions 1, 2.pptWeek One - Sessions 1, 2.ppt
Week One - Sessions 1, 2.ppt
AlirezaZarea
 
Bilingualism
BilingualismBilingualism
Bilingualism
Jazzyzee
 
Audio linguial method
Audio linguial methodAudio linguial method
Audio linguial method
Dr. Abbas Abdelrady
 
[TEFL] Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches
[TEFL] Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches[TEFL] Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches
[TEFL] Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches
Miyu Hoshizora
 
21 st century teaching language approaches
21 st century teaching language approaches21 st century teaching language approaches
21 st century teaching language approaches
ronadelarosa
 

Similar to Materials Development in ELT (20)

History of language teaching
History of language teachingHistory of language teaching
History of language teaching
 
Dm Fareed Ashtab
Dm Fareed AshtabDm Fareed Ashtab
Dm Fareed Ashtab
 
Unit2_Accessible.pptx
Unit2_Accessible.pptxUnit2_Accessible.pptx
Unit2_Accessible.pptx
 
History of Language Teaching
History of Language TeachingHistory of Language Teaching
History of Language Teaching
 
Binti khoirul uluum 16108810034
Binti khoirul uluum 16108810034Binti khoirul uluum 16108810034
Binti khoirul uluum 16108810034
 
Lecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptx
Lecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptxLecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptx
Lecture 1 - TESL - A Brief History of Language Teaching.pptx
 
Applied linguistics
Applied linguisticsApplied linguistics
Applied linguistics
 
Audiolingualmethod.nadia.bat
Audiolingualmethod.nadia.batAudiolingualmethod.nadia.bat
Audiolingualmethod.nadia.bat
 
Language methodologies
Language methodologiesLanguage methodologies
Language methodologies
 
Inggris
InggrisInggris
Inggris
 
16108810032 Suci nurjanah
16108810032 Suci nurjanah16108810032 Suci nurjanah
16108810032 Suci nurjanah
 
Language teaching methods (1)
Language  teaching methods (1)Language  teaching methods (1)
Language teaching methods (1)
 
Methods and Approaches of ELT
Methods and Approaches of ELTMethods and Approaches of ELT
Methods and Approaches of ELT
 
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHINGA VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
A VIEW OF THE HISTORY OF LANGUAGE TEACHING
 
Language teaching: Approaches and methods
Language teaching: Approaches and methodsLanguage teaching: Approaches and methods
Language teaching: Approaches and methods
 
Week One - Sessions 1, 2.ppt
Week One - Sessions 1, 2.pptWeek One - Sessions 1, 2.ppt
Week One - Sessions 1, 2.ppt
 
Bilingualism
BilingualismBilingualism
Bilingualism
 
Audio linguial method
Audio linguial methodAudio linguial method
Audio linguial method
 
[TEFL] Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches
[TEFL] Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches[TEFL] Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches
[TEFL] Language Teaching Methods/ Approaches
 
21 st century teaching language approaches
21 st century teaching language approaches21 st century teaching language approaches
21 st century teaching language approaches
 

Recently uploaded

مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
سمير بسيوني
 
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in useHow to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
Celine George
 
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdfREASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
giancarloi8888
 
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
ImMuslim
 
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptxRESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
zuzanka
 
78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx
78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx
78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx
Kalna College
 
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptxContiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Kalna College
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
nitinpv4ai
 
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxSimple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
RandolphRadicy
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
RamseyBerglund
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
TechSoup
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
Jyoti Chand
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
deepaannamalai16
 
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
IsmaelVazquez38
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
MJDuyan
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
nitinpv4ai
 
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
RidwanHassanYusuf
 
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
khuleseema60
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Krassimira Luka
 
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapitolTechU
 

Recently uploaded (20)

مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdfمصحف القراءات العشر   أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
مصحف القراءات العشر أعد أحرف الخلاف سمير بسيوني.pdf
 
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in useHow to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
How to Fix [Errno 98] address already in use
 
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdfREASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
REASIGNACION 2024 UGEL CHUPACA 2024 UGEL CHUPACA.pdf
 
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
 
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptxRESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
 
78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx
78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx
78 Microsoft-Publisher - Sirin Sultana Bora.pptx
 
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptxContiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
Contiguity Of Various Message Forms - Rupam Chandra.pptx
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
 
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxSimple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Simple-Present-Tense xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
 
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger HuntElectric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
Electric Fetus - Record Store Scavenger Hunt
 
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
Elevate Your Nonprofit's Online Presence_ A Guide to Effective SEO Strategies...
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
 
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
Standardized tool for Intelligence test.
 
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
 
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray  (9)
Bonku-Babus-Friend by Sathyajith Ray (9)
 
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
 
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
MDP on air pollution of class 8 year 2024-2025
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
 
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptxCapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
CapTechTalks Webinar Slides June 2024 Donovan Wright.pptx
 

Materials Development in ELT

  • 1. Materials Development in ELT: A Historical Overview Sajjad Talebi Sheikhbahaee University, Fall 2016 talebisajjad@gmail.com 1
  • 2. 2 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 3. 1. Introduction to Materials Development What are materials? Materials are anything that facilitates the learning of language. 3
  • 4. 4 Types of materials: • Printed Materials (books, workbooks, worksheets , or readers) • Non-printed Materials (cassette, CDs or other audio materials, videos or computer-based materials) • Materials that comprise both print and non-print sources (self-access materials and materials on the internet) • Materials that are not designed for instructional use: authentic materials (magazines, newspapers, and TV materials) 1. Introduction to Materials Development
  • 5. 1. Introduction to Materials Development ‘Materials development is both a field of study and a practical undertaking.’ What is materials development? As a field: It studies principles and procedures of the design, implementation and evaluation of language teaching material. As an undertaking: It involves production, evaluation and adaptation of language teaching materials. (Tomlinson 2001: 66) 5
  • 6. 6 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 7. 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar translation method • It originated from the practice of teaching Latin; in the early 1500s. • It was influential until the 1950’s. • It reached its height in the period between 1880 and 1920. • Students learned grammatical rules. • Applied rules by translating sentences between the languages. • Advance students translate whole texts word-for-word. Materials? 7
  • 8. • The mainstay of materials is the textbook. • Textbooks codified the grammar of the target LG into rules to memorize. • A chapter in a textbook would begin with a bilingual vocabulary list, after which there would be grammar rules for students to study and sentences for them to translate. • Sentences were chosen to illustrate grammar, with no relation to actual communication. Some typical sentences from 19th-century textbooks are as follows: The philosopher pulled the lower jaw of the hen. My sons have bought the mirrors of the Duke. The cat of my aunt is more treacherous than the dog of your uncle. • Written essays as the most communicative activity • Dictation Materials in GTM 8
  • 9. 9 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 10. 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.2. The direct method • It was established in Germany and France around 1900, contrasts with the GTM • The Direct Method was influential in the 1950’s and beyond. • totally avoided the use of L1 • focused on the development of oral skills. • strongly linked to the IPA and dealt with phonetics • Inductive grammar (no rules) Materials? 10
  • 11. • everyday language rather than literature • teaching concepts and vocabulary through pantomiming, real-life objects and other visual materials • Syllabus based on: • Everyday speech in TL • Vocabulary emphasized over grammar • Oral interviews • Concrete vocabulary was taught through pictures and objects, while abstract vocabulary was taught by association of ideas Materials in the Direct Method 11
  • 12. 12 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 13. 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.3. Audio-lingual method • based on behaviorist theory (Behaviorist learning theories of Pavlov's dog which Skinner applied to human learning) • conditioning and habit formation through a system of reinforcement • Like the direct method, learning is directly, without using L1 to explain new words or grammar in TL (No L1 permitted) • learners as empty vessels • focus shifted from teaching vocabulary to grammar • Implicit grammar via memorized forms • Chomsky and Hymes attacked it Materials? 13
  • 14. Materials in Audio-lingual Method • Dialogues usually adapted or in some cases, written by the teacher. • Dialogues presented as a story in TL, using simple language. • Different role-plays used to present the dialogue. • Practicing the dialogue with the students, changing roles and partners from time to time. • Repetition of the entire dialogue at normal rate speed. • Pattern practice, based on material taken from the dialogue. • Pronunciation at language labs • Vocabulary appearing in dialogues defined through gestures, visual aids, synonyms, etc. • The learner has little control over the material studied or the method of study. • Tests for evaluating progress in listening comprehension, but no specific learning materials designed for the systematic development of listening. • All reading material is introduced as orally first. • True and false activity can improve comprehension. 14
  • 15. 15 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 16. 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.4. The Silent Way (created by Caleb Gattegno in 1963) • Students seen as vast amount of experience and knowledge i.e. their L1. • The students begin their study of the language by studying its sound system. • Extensive use of silence as a teaching method. • Always moving from the known to the unknown (already available sounds in L1, then new ones in L2) • Learners develop independence and autonomy and cooperate to solve language problems. • Teacher was distant and the classroom environment was not conducive to learning. Materials? 16
  • 17. Materials in The Silent Way • The silent way makes use of specialized teaching materials: colored Cuisenaire rods, the sound-color chart, word charts, and Fidel charts. • These sound-color associations are later used to help the students with spelling, reading, and pronunciation. • The sound-color chart consists of blocks of color, with one color representing one sound in the language being learned. 17
  • 18. The sounds are associated to different colors using a that is specific to the language. Materials in The Silent Way 18
  • 19. are wooden, and come in ten different lengths, but identical cross-section; each length has its own assigned color. At the beginning stages they can be used to practice colors and numbers, and later they can be used in more complex vocabulary and grammar. Materials in The Silent Way 19
  • 21. for teaching pronunciation Materials in The Silent Way 21
  • 22. Materials in The Silent Way for teaching pronunciation 22
  • 23. 23 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 24. • Developed by the Bulgarian psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov. • This method is teacher-controlled and not student- controlled. • Physical surroundings and atmosphere in classroom make "the students feel comfortable and confident” • Various techniques, including art and music, are used by the trained teachers. • A relaxed mind is an open mind and it can help a student to feel more confident. 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.5. Desuggestopedia (Suggestopedia, 1970s) 24
  • 25. A lesson of Suggestopedia consisted of four phases: o Introduction: The teacher teaches the material in "a playful manner" instead of analyzing lexis and grammar of the text in a directive manner. o Concert session (active and passive): In the active session, the teacher reads with intoning as selected music is played. Occasionally, the students read the text together with the teacher, and listen only to the music as the teacher pauses in particular moments. The passive session is done more calmly. o Elaboration: The students sing classical songs and play games while "the teacher acts more like a consultant”. o Production: The students spontaneously speak and interact in the target language without interruption or correction. 25
  • 27. Materials in Desuggestopedia Several posters on the wall 27
  • 28. Materials in Desuggestopedia Textbooks have the text on one side and translation of the text on the other side, facilitating comprehension 28
  • 29. Materials in Desuggestopedia Hats, masks and name tags, give students new identity that enhances their feeling of security and allows them to be more open. Performing as another person makes them feel less inhibited. 29
  • 30. • Materials propose positive attitude (text: “to want to is to be able to”) • Teaching with personal participation through games, songs, classical arts, and pleasure. • The instructor was expected to create situations where students were most ‘suggestible’, and then present material in a way that encourages retention. • Vocabulary, readings, role-plays and drama were presented with classical music in the background and students sitting in comfortable seats. In this way, students became "suggestible.“ Materials in Desuggestopedia 30
  • 31. 31 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 32. • Resembles the Natural Approach: learner is not expected to speak until he has achieved some basic level of comprehension • Based on the Counselling-approach: Teacher as a counselor, paraphraser or interpreter • Whole-person learning: teachers consider students' intellect, understand the relationship among students ' feelings, physical reactions, instinctive protective reactions, and desire to learn. • Students as a group develop what aspects of LG they like to learn; Cooperation not Competition • Interaction as a vehicle of learning • Learners should: 1. apprehend the sound system of the language 2. assign fundamental meanings to individual lexical units 3. construct a basic grammar 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.6. Community Language Learning (by American psychologist Charles Curran) 32
  • 34. • No specific material • Tape-recorder • A table and chairs around it • Syllabus by the students (students more willing to learn when creating materials) • Fluency then accuracy (constant and consistent practice of speaking) • Integrative testing (paragraph writing or interview) • Human computer: pronunciation Materials in Community Language Learning 34
  • 35. 35 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 36. 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.7. Total Physical Response (by James Asher) • based on the comprehension approach to language teaching • based on the coordination of language and physical movement • valuable way to learn vocabulary • three hypotheses 1. language is learned primarily by listening 2. language learning must engage the right hemisphere of the brain 3. learning language should not involve any stress • Gesture, use of voice, and mime are very important • Krashen’s hypotheses on language acquisition reinforced • TPR and Asher’s claim that what you understand you will later produce automatically 36
  • 37. • Uses a wide variety of realia, posters, and props • There are a number of specialized TPR teaching products available, including student kits developed by Asher and an interactive CD-ROM for students to practice with privately Materials in TPR TPR Story telling 37
  • 38. 38 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 39. 39 • Grew out of sociolinguistics in the 1970s • Emphasis on the process of communication, interaction & language functions rather than forms • Wilkins defined lg learning as using "notions" & "functions", rather than grammar & vocabulary Notional categories: time, location, frequency, and quantity Functional categories: communicative acts such as offers, complaints, denials, and requests • Students may know the rules of linguistic usage, but be unable to use the language (Widdowson 1978) • Being able to communicate requires more than linguistic competence; it requires communicative competence (Hymes 1971)-knowing when and how to say what to whom to make yourself understood in socially appropriate ways • L2 is learned best when students try to say something that they really want or need to say 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
  • 40. 40 • Materials allow learners to choose freely what they want to communicate • Materials concentrate on the various social activities • Materials were used in TTCs and workshops to encourage teachers to change to using a communicative syllabus • Whenever possible, ‘authentic language’ should be introduced • Unscrambling sentences as an opportunity to work with language at the discourse or suprasentential level teaching students ‘cohesion’ and ‘coherence’ • Strip stories, using a problem-solving task as a communicative technique Problem-solving tasks work well in CLT because they usually include the three features of communication. • Games in CLT as valuable communicative practice • Role plays as an opportunity to practice communicating in different social contexts and in different social roles Materials in CLT
  • 41. 41 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 42. 42 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction • Subcategories of CLT, but with different focus • Give priority to process over predetermined linguistic content • ‘Use English to learn it’ rather than ‘learn English to use it’ • Teaching through communication rather than for it • Providing the learner with natural context • Top-down processing
  • 43. 43 Materials in Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction In CBI: • Using realia related to the content i.e. a globe for geographical contents • Vocabulary lists related to the content • Videos related to the content • Cloze passages to be completed while watching videos • Games related to the content not language In TBLT: • Pre-tasks • Jigsaw tasks while listening to instructions providing authentic speaking and listening (focus on meaning)
  • 44. 44 TEACHING METHODS AND TEACHER & LEARNER ROLES Method Teacher Roles Learner Roles Situational Language Teaching Context Setter Error Corrector Imitator Memorizer Audio-lingualism Language Modeler Drill Leader Pattern Practicer Accuracy Enthusiast Communicative Language Teaching Needs Analyst Task Designer Improvisor Negotiator Total Physical Response Commander Action Monitor Order Taker Performer Community Language Learning Counselor Paraphraser Collaborator Whole Person The Natural Approach Actor Props User Guesser Immerser Suggestopedia Auto-hypnotist Authority Figure Relaxer True-Believer Classroom Roles Reflecting the Belief Systems
  • 45. 45 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 46. 46 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development  The 1950s to the mid-1960s • The cognitive revolution George A. Miller Donald Broadbent Noam Chomsky • Behaviorism had overwhelming dominance and inspired language teaching materials with drills, substitution tables and so on.
  • 47. 47  The late 1960s to the late 1970s Krashen’s input hypothesis and the emergence of humanistic methodologies that lead to Stevick’s (1976) “Memory, Meaning and Method”, helped the development of:  Silent Way (Gattegno, 1972)  Suggestopaedia (Lozanov, 1978)  Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Class” (Moskowitz 1978): language aims + humanistic aims  Popularity of DIY (Do It Yourself): Featuring self-study materials Teacher-less language learning Self-access work Pairs of learners could work on the same material 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development
  • 48. 48  The 1980s onwards • Naiman et al.’s landmark “The Good Language Learner” study (1978): learning was a person-centered activity • Development of multiculturalism • Concerns with individuals’ linguistic wants and needs • Social changes effects materials development in language teaching • Language teaching professionals sought to implement shifts in social attitudes into the design of classroom work
  • 49. 49 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 50. 50 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development • The advent of the Communicative Approach in the 1970s was a major turning point as materials moved from audiolingual approaches to an approach which encouraged learners to use the language for communication. • One of the positive after-effects of the world war was an increase in world trade and air travel. Hence, the materials developed in a way that made trade and travel easier.
  • 51. 51 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 52. 52 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History • In the past, materials development was merely the production accompanying a wide range of learning resources to illustrate methods. Until the 1990s it was considered to be a theoretical and something which teachers did for their classes and/or for publication. • Very few post-graduate courses paid much attention to materials development and if they did it was as an add-on to a Methodology course. How is materials development evolved?
  • 53. 53 However, in the late 1990s with the publication of a number of books and articles, the founding of associations such as MATSDA, and the proliferation of post-graduate courses which included modules on materials development, things started to change. This procedure raised teachers’ awareness of two issues: 1. The huge production in the interest of methodologies and materials used for teaching 2. The importance of including students’ voices in order to update teaching materials in terms of the way learners would like to learn and what they need to learn in today’s increasingly globalized world 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History
  • 54. 54 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 55. 55 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development • In the past teachers would put together a book from their successful classroom materials and submit it to a publisher. If it was favorably reviewed it was published and the author(s) received royalties. • In the past, published materials were driven by the writers' experience, imagination and intuitions. • Nowadays, publishers commission books from professional writers. They tell the writers exactly what they want them to do and how to do it and then pay the writers fees if their submissions are acceptable. • Now they are driven by the publishers’ perceptions of what they can successfully sell.
  • 56. 56 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development Uncertain global market Market-led Artificial texts and tasks Authenticity gets more focus English for its own sake English for specific purpose low risk/competition high risk/competition Native speaker expertise Non-native speaker competence culturally insensitive culturally sensitive
  • 57. 57 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development little design design rich single-volume titles Multicomponent / multimedia culture and methodology of origin international or local culture sell what is published specific fragmental markets UK/US publisher dominance rise in local publishing author and academic centered indigenous learning situations more productive teams to develop materials more scope for collaboration
  • 58. 58 Outline 1. Introduction to Materials Development 2. Materials in Different Methods and Approaches in ELT 2.1. Grammar Translation Method 2.2. The Direct Method 2.3. Audiolingual Method 2.4. The Silent Way 2.5. Desuggestopedia 2.6. Community Language Learning 2.7. Total Physical Response 2.8. Communicative Language Teaching 2.9. Content-Based & Task-Based Instruction 3. Different Phases Affecting Materials Development 4. Turning Points in the History of Materials Development 5. Evolution of Materials throughout History 6. Past vs. Current Trends in Materials Development 7. Professionality of the Profession
  • 59. 59 7. Professionality of the Profession Ad hoc materials are developed or in imitation of bestselling course books The materials are random recreations from repertoire The materials are crafty clones of previously successful materials The professionality of the profession is NOT met if:
  • 60. 60 7. Professionality of the Profession Theories of language acquisition and development Principles of teaching Our current knowledge of how the target language is actually used The results of systematic observation and evaluation of materials in use Materials development IS a professional profession if it is coherent and principled applications of:
  • 61. We should bring together researchers, teachers, writers and publishers. ‘Only by pooling resources will we ever be able to answer some of the questions we need to ask if we are to really increase the effectiveness of the materials which we produce’. 61 7. Professionality of the Profession How can we make materials development professional? Not all theories should be applied to practice but all theories should be communicated in ways which make them accessible to practitioners and that practitioners at all levels should keep in touch with relevant research findings and consider ways of applying potentially useful findings to their local context. Materials development is one of the few areas of applied linguistics in which theory is applied to practice and practice informs theory.
  • 62. 62