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TOD and Parking: Matching the Requirements to the Neighborhood by Meea Kang

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Parking is always a challenge for TOD projects and TOD districts. How do you explain parking requirements and results to commissions, councils and citizens? How do you move forward from the rigid standards in many city codes? Learn a systematic approach for matching parking requirements and transit to different kinds of neighborhoods. Hear how experiments in district-by-district requirements have fared. Explore ways to manage a wide range of parking in a TOD district. Issues, controversy and the consequences of changing parking policy to support TOD -- snag your spot for this lively conversation.

Moderator: Paul Roberts, AICP, Council Member, City of Everett; Board Member, Sound Transit, Everett, Washington
Karina Ricks, AICP, Principal, Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Services, Washington, DC
Jason Wittenberg, AICP, Land Use, Design and Preservation Manager, Community Planning & Economic Development, City of Minneapolis, Minnesota
Meea Kang, President Domus Development, Rail~Volution Board of Directors, Irvine, California

Published in: Real Estate
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TOD and Parking: Matching the Requirements to the Neighborhood by Meea Kang

  1. 1. M E E A   K A N G   President  and  Founder   Domus  Development   Rail~Volu<on  2015   TOD and Parking: M A T C H I N G   T H E   R E Q U I R E M E N T S   T O     T H E   N E I G H B O R H O O D   I N   C A L I F O R N I A
  2. 2. Too Many Spaces: T H E   O V E R P A R K I N G   P R O B L E M      
  3. 3. Effects of Overparking •  One-size-fits-all minimum parking standards tend to overproduce parking, needlessly driving up costs and creating unnecessary barriers •  Average cost of a parking space in the U.S.: •  Above-ground space: $24,000 •  Underground space: $34,000 *UCLA Study •  In the SF Bay Area, TransForm’s GreenTRIP program found substantial overdevelopment of residential parking •  31% of multifamily residential parking spaces were unused overnight •  Construction cost of approximately $139 million
  4. 4. Trends Source:  2000  U.S  Census    
  5. 5. Trends
  6. 6. California’s New Parking Statute: A B   7 4 4   ( C h a u )     S i g n e d   i n t o   l a w   o n   O c t o b e r   9 ,   2 0 1 5   E f f e c t i v e J a n u a r y 1 , 2 0 1 6
  7. 7. AB 744 As of January 1, 2016, developments containing affordable housing and located near transit will be entitled to greatly reduced parking requirements in most California communities.   AB 744, an amendment to California’s density bonus law (Government Code Section 65915) provides that, if requested by the developer, no city, county, or city and county may require more parking than allowed by the statute unless the local agency has completed its own parking study meeting specific standards.
  8. 8. AB 744 In adopting the bill, the Legislature found: o  Car ownership increases vehicle miles traveled and greenhouse gas emissions; o  The cost of parking makes housing less affordable and more difficult to build; o  The high cost of land required to provide parking significantly increases the cost of transit-oriented development. Consequently, the bill limits parking requirements for developments containing affordable housing and located near transit.
  9. 9. AB 744 Housing Located Near Major Transit Stops. A housing development cannot be required to provide more than 0.5 parking spaces per bedroom if it: o  Includes either 11% very low income units or 20 % low income units; and o  Is within ½ mile of a “major transit stop;” and o  Has “unobstructed access” to the transit stop.       “Major Transit Stop” a rail station, a ferry terminal served by bus or rail, or the intersection of two or more bus routes that provide service every 15 minutes or less during the morning and afternoon peak commute periods, or a a major transit stop included in a regional transportation plan. This definition permits lower parking requirements even where a major transit stop shown in the regional transportation plan has not yet been constructed.      
  10. 10. AB 744 Affordable Housing. Any rental housing development that is 100% affordable to lower income households, excluding a manager’s unit, cannot be required to provide more than 0.5 parking spaces per unit if it: o  Is a TOD within one-half mile of a major transit stop and has unobstructed access to the transit stop; or o  Is a senior housing development and has either paratransit service or unobstructed access to, and is within ½ mile of, a fixed bus route that operates at least 8 times per day.  
  11. 11. AB 744   Special Needs Housing. Any rental special needs housing development that is 100% affordable to lower income households, excluding a manager’s unit, cannot be required to provide more than 0.3 parking spaces per unit if it: o  It has access to paratransit service or unobstructed access to, and is within ½ mile of, a fixed bus route that operates at least 8 times per day. “Special needs housing” is any housing designed to serve persons with needs related to mental health, physical or development disabilities, or risk of homelessness. (Health & Safety Code Section 51312.)
  12. 12. AB 744 Local Parking Studies. Communities may require more parking only if they have a study in the last 7 years that includes: o  An analysis of available parking; o  Differing levels of transit access; o  Walkability to transit; o  Potential for shared parking; o  Effect of parking requirements on housing costs; and car ownership rates for lower income households, seniors, and residents with special needs. However, the most parking that may be required is that allowed by Section 65915(p)(1) of the density bonus law:   o  1 space for studio and one-bedroom units; o  2 spaces for two- to three-bedroom units; and o  2 and ½ spaces for units with four or more bedrooms.
  13. 13. Too Many Spaces: D o m u s   D e v e l o p m e n t   C a s e   S t u d i e s    
  14. 14. La Va l e n t i n a 8 1 U N I T S F O R F A M I L I E S S A C R A M E N T O , C A Required Parking: 2.5 spaces / unit Provided Parking: 81 spaces Utilized Parking: 75 spaces *40% of residents walk, bike, or take transit for their daily commute
  15. 15. S i e n a Court 1 1 1 U N I T S F O R S E N I O R S S F B A Y A R E A Required Parking: 1.5 spaces / unit Provided Parking: 100 spaces Utilized Parking: 50 spaces
  16. 16. Temple A r t L o f t s 2 9 U N I T S S F B A Y A R E A Required Parking: 45 spaces Provided Parking: 0 spaces
  17. 17. M E E A   K A N G   Domus  Development   meea@domusd.com   www.domusd.com   @MeeaKang     Thank you!

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