 
KRISTY WRIGHT
Lucio Costa Oscar Niemeyer
April 21, 1960
“50 years of development in 5”
Why is this a problem?
• Going into Plano Piloto, you can take BR 070
or EPTG, connects into Estrutural
• Going back into ...
• Listed as a World Cultural
Heritage site in 1987
• Entire Plano Piloto has a
preservation order
• Not allow new
expressw...
Lago Sul
Ceilandia
• Wealthy center with
impoverished outskirts
• Social disparities are
spatially divided
• IPK (PKR) Passenger Per Kilometer Index
Ratio: mean number of paying
passengers, transported per kilometer and
reflects ...
 National Secretariat for Urban Development knew in
2002, bus fares were rising
 Two federal government proposals in 200...
• Pioneered in 70’s in Curitiba
• High quality, low carbon
transport
• reduces air
pollution, greenhouse gas
emissions, no...
• effective in transporting large
volumes of commuters
efficiently and without
detriment to the environment
• have greater...
• Metro serves mainly the population of the largest satellite cities and not many
people from central areas have access to...
2010 Population
Consensus
 Brazil’s growth in inflation rates risen in public transportation
by bus
 IPCA (Calculation of the Consumer Price Index...
Fund linked to other public
policies
 ADVANTAGES- prevents
users from bearing costs
of gratuities
 DISADVANTAGES- a
port...
Homeowners who benefit by investing in transportation
 ADVANTAGE- already tools provided for a legal
framework, regarding...
• Last 15 years, as middle class rose, brazil invested in
transportation for individuals,
• Increasing Cars and motorcycle...
exclusive line of buses from Santa Maria to the Pilot
Plan
 an expansion of the METRO with 4 new stations
Viaduct of th...
• No shock to hear
• Governors impeached get rehired
• Presidents impeached get rehired
• 2009- fraud between companies
Da...
 ACCESSIBLE BUS STOPS, STOPS LOCATED ON HIGHWAY IS A
SAFETY CONCERN
 MORE BICYCLE AND WALK PATHS
 METRO SHOULD BE RUN 2...
 MORE PARKING LOTS BY STATIONS TO HELP FOSTER USE OF
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
 HOLD ELECTED OFFICIALS ACCOUNTABLE, SO CORRU...
Kristy Wright "Beats and Paths of Brasilia"
Kristy Wright "Beats and Paths of Brasilia"
Kristy Wright "Beats and Paths of Brasilia"
Kristy Wright "Beats and Paths of Brasilia"
Kristy Wright "Beats and Paths of Brasilia"
Kristy Wright "Beats and Paths of Brasilia"
Kristy Wright "Beats and Paths of Brasilia"
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Kristy Wright "Beats and Paths of Brasilia"

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Presentation slides investigating “corruption, costs and inequality” in Brasilia’s urban transportation development. Exploring the tangled web of overcrowded buses, highways and metros in the city that have recently provoked widespread public protest. The aim is to explore the origin of this unrest, the allocation of public spending as well as potential solutions to Brasilia’s compromised transportation system.

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  • Chart A explains the average commute time length and Chart B explains the share of the population that commutes longer than one hour from the poorest to the wealthiest. As you can see Brasilia has 75% of a gap between the poorest decile to the richest in their journey to work trips.This can again emphasize the spatial segregation and lack of neighborhood accessibility. Rio de Janeiro, a city not even as rich as the Federal District, has a significantly less gap in commuting time between the wealthy and poor. This however is because the favelas are centered in the middle of the city where transportation is accessible. What is shocking to see is Curitiba. Besides the reputation of being successful in transport planning, Curitiba has the second largest gap in commute time between the highest and lowest income groups. This is due to the fact that strong urban policy and regulation in Curitiba have been responsible for high, increasing residential land prices, and this has pushed low income population to remote areas where commuting conditions are not advantageous, the federal government has granted concessions for existing highways to private companies, which “promise” to restore and expand the highways in exchange for toll revenues generated. The country alone faces an infrastructure deficit estimated at US $500 billion. Decades of under investment in basic infrastructure have produced a steady decline in government infrastructure spending. With a mounting pressure to finish in time for the World Cup in 2014, this is an incentive for Brazil to finally invest in transport infrastructure.
  • Therefore, rise is any transport costs and the fall of service demands (or) IPK can lead to financial imbalance of the transportation system, which tends to recover by raising fares
  • Figure 4- urban bus fares in brazil during this period experienced a vicious cycle in which rising fares reduced the number of paying passengers, in turn reducing fare revenues appreciating fare unit costs, causing further reductions in demand Between 2003 and 2009. families spent on an average of 3% of their incomes.Among poorest households this percentage represents a larger share of incomeWith upward income trends, a policy supporting bus fare reduction could trigger greater demand for transit services while a gap between rising fares and income will lead to a decreaseWhen people’s income goes up, there will be more of a demand for transit servicesHowever, while poor are paying for larger percentage, and then high bus fares, the demand for transit services decreases
  • Hindered competitiveness in public transport services as compared with informal and private transportHad pressure from sectors of Brazilian society to reduce the tax burden on bus services, persistent rise was not addressed by any effective federal policy 63% of these projects have been completed. problem however is not just the means of transport; it also encompasses urban planning as well. If people lived and worked in the same place, it would prevent unnecessary commuting. This is the one of the keys to making cities socially fair and equitable.
  • BRT is cheaper and its faster deployment." It is the expertise to create corridors explains, is already familiar to the Brazilian and the vehicle manufacturers are all installed in the country, there is no need to import buses.The implementation of a BRT is also simpler and less time consumingYou make a BRT corridor in two and a half years, from basic design, executive and deployment," said, then added that "one VLT not done in less than six years."
  • The cost of financing urban transportation is another challenge. Currently, urban public transport services are being questioned due to the high cost in relation to the level of service provided. In recent years, Brazil’s growth in inflation rates has risen in public transportation by bus. Looking at the IPCA (Calculation of the Consumer Price Index) there has been a rise from 125% starting back in 2000 to 192% last year in 2012. 67 percentage points above the inflation rate. Private transportation has become on a day to day basis cheaper than public transportation. Looking at the demand side, the volume of paying passengers fell towards the end of the last century. Reducing the level of paying passengers and increasing costs, contributed to the rise in price fares. To bring benefits to the population, the public transport sector should lower tariffs to improve quality of services. With contracts and operating parameters, this will be an incentive for efficiency Subsidies to operators allow the reduction of tariffs which are important to regulate and discourage the increase in operating costs without improving the quality of services.
  • Kristy Wright "Beats and Paths of Brasilia"

    1. 1.   KRISTY WRIGHT
    2. 2. Lucio Costa Oscar Niemeyer April 21, 1960
    3. 3. “50 years of development in 5”
    4. 4. Why is this a problem? • Going into Plano Piloto, you can take BR 070 or EPTG, connects into Estrutural • Going back into Ceilandia and Taguatinga, after work from Plano Piloto, Estrutural is only alternative to take along with EPTG, which has Vincente Pires and Taguatinga residents, therefore is more crowded • Can’t be only means of transportation • bottlenecking Who is on highways? • Cars • buses • Motorcycles • carriages with horses • Trucks WHAT IS RESULT? • Traffic, due to accidents, which cause
    5. 5. • Listed as a World Cultural Heritage site in 1987 • Entire Plano Piloto has a preservation order • Not allow new expressways or arteries to be built • “We have to manage what is there, without being able to even make the streets wider.” -Jose
    6. 6. Lago Sul Ceilandia • Wealthy center with impoverished outskirts • Social disparities are spatially divided
    7. 7. • IPK (PKR) Passenger Per Kilometer Index Ratio: mean number of paying passengers, transported per kilometer and reflects a proxy for productivity • In Brazil, costs are covered exclusively by bus fare revenue • Final calculation is an apportionment of total transportation system cost among paying passengers • Market equilibrium reached when bus fare charged to paying passengers ensures revenues = total cost of system during given
    8. 8.  National Secretariat for Urban Development knew in 2002, bus fares were rising  Two federal government proposals in 2002 and 2006- (National Policy for Urban Transport and Proposal for a cheapening of rates of urban public transport)  PAC- prioritize public and private investments in big cities, sum amounting to $U.S. 526 billion, US$ 57, 3 billion (R$ 104.5 billion) which was to be used for highways, railways, ports, waterways, airports, and equipment for local roads from 2011-2014.  PAC 2- included 600 kilometers of roads, 200 kilometers, of railway tracks, 381 terminals and the purchase of light rail carriages
    9. 9. • Pioneered in 70’s in Curitiba • High quality, low carbon transport • reduces air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, noise and traffic • ADVANTAGES: BRT’s use dedicated lanes to segregate buses from the rest of traffic • DISADVANTAGES: may be difficult to implement in the already cramped streets of Brazil’s many older city centers, In Brasilia, the metro system linking the cities of Ceilandia and Samambaia to the Pilot Plan are already overcrowded
    10. 10. • effective in transporting large volumes of commuters efficiently and without detriment to the environment • have greater flexibility in tight corners • Estimated at $60 million per • ADVANTAGES- light rail systems are generally cheaper to construct than, for example, the traditional underground or suburban commuter train or train • DISADVANTAGES- can not be completely independent of traffic and this can cause accidents. And sharing space with other traffic makes the commercial speed is lower than, for example, the typical subway
    11. 11. • Metro serves mainly the population of the largest satellite cities and not many people from central areas have access to the Metro • Currently more people living in the satellite cities than in the Pilot Plan • Metro is set to expand to the airport in time for the World Cup
    12. 12. 2010 Population Consensus
    13. 13.  Brazil’s growth in inflation rates risen in public transportation by bus  IPCA (Calculation of the Consumer Price Index) there has been a rise from 125% in 2000 to 192% in 2012  This is 67 percentage points above the inflation rate!!!  Reducing level of paying passengers and increasing costs, contributed to the rise in price fares  Looking at demand side, volume of paying passengers fell towards end of last century  To bring benefits, public transport sector should lower tariffs to improve quality of services  Contracts and operating parameters, incentive for efficiency  Subsidies to operators allow reduction of tariffs which are important to regulate and discourage increase in operating
    14. 14. Fund linked to other public policies  ADVANTAGES- prevents users from bearing costs of gratuities  DISADVANTAGES- a portion of proceeds is committed from each social policy sector Revenues taken from trade, services, and advertising  ADVANTAGES- external funding would generate revenue that could fund shuttles  DISADVANTAGES- business models are complex therefore they would have to be linked to a regulatory system accounting for business
    15. 15. Homeowners who benefit by investing in transportation  ADVANTAGE- already tools provided for a legal framework, regarding real estate  DISADVANTAGE- application can be spatially restricted, and could prove unlikely that there would be a fund for the system operations
    16. 16. • Last 15 years, as middle class rose, brazil invested in transportation for individuals, • Increasing Cars and motorcycles helped lead to boom • Brazil instituted new policies aimed at promoting industry’s recovery between government, auto companies, and labor • Public transportation was not… • In 2009, FIFA announced 12 host cities, including Brasilia, then Brazil focused on public transportation • Had to invest in big infrastructure for tourists arriving for World Cup 2014 • Brazil government launched a program of investment, giving Brasilia $U.S. 1.5 billion • Opted for LRV (Light Rail Vehicle)
    17. 17. exclusive line of buses from Santa Maria to the Pilot Plan  an expansion of the METRO with 4 new stations Viaduct of the W3 and South Express West Adjustment of the DF 047, which connects the passenger station of the Airport Juscelino Kubitchek to central part of the capital (exclusive track dedicated to passenger buses, tourists and
    18. 18. • No shock to hear • Governors impeached get rehired • Presidents impeached get rehired • 2009- fraud between companies Dalcon Altran Engineering and TCBR • 2013- Siemens came forward with criminal proceedings, allegedly involved in rigging prices for construction of Metro in Sao Paulo and Brasilia • What does this do for people of
    19. 19.  ACCESSIBLE BUS STOPS, STOPS LOCATED ON HIGHWAY IS A SAFETY CONCERN  MORE BICYCLE AND WALK PATHS  METRO SHOULD BE RUN 24 HOURS, WITH POLICE MANNING STATIONS  INVESTMENT IN BRT OR VLT RUNNING FROM SATELLITE CITIES TO PILOT PLAN  LOOKING AT EUROPEAN MODELS, WITH SIMILAR CONDITIONS, INTEGRATE TRANSPORTATION systems  GREENER TRANSPORTATION MODES, INVEST IN ETHANOL, NOT OIL, RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES, ELECTRIC, MANY ALTERNATIVES
    20. 20.  MORE PARKING LOTS BY STATIONS TO HELP FOSTER USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION  HOLD ELECTED OFFICIALS ACCOUNTABLE, SO CORRUPTION ISN’T ALWAYS UNDERLTING SOURCE, DURING ELECTIONS TIME TO SPEAK UP, WITH THEIR VOTES  INCREASE IN BUSES!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!  ELIMINATE COBRADORS, HIRE THEM AS NEW BUS DRIVERS  SHORTER WAIT TIME, LESS PEOPLE ON BUSES  TRANSPORT MORE PASSENGERS AT A FASTER PACE  LONGER HOURS FOR BUSES  STIMULATE ECONOMY, PEOPLE WOULDN’T RUSH OUT OF CITY, WOULD ATTRACT MORE BUSINESS FOR RESTAURANTS, MALLS, ETC.  OFFSET TO COSTS WOULD BE EFFICIENT BUS SYSTEM AND INCREASING RIDERSHIP, LESS TRAFFIC AND POLLUTION  IF PEOPLE SPEND LESS TIME GETTING TO WORK AND MORE

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