The Linux kernel released on
17th September, 1991
Windows was first released in
Linux was developed by
Windows OS was developed
first version of Linux was
first version of Windows
OS was Windows 1.0
combined with the GNU Windows OS is neither open
system to produce a complete
source nor free OS and is the
free operating system
property of Microsoft Company
Windows and Linux
Both Linux and Windows are based on foundations
developed in the mid-1970s
A commercial version of Linux
Windows OS was developed by
was released by Red Hat in the
early 1990’s (combining the OS with
technical support and
Linux is an example of Open
Source software development and
Free Operating System (OS).
Windows is the family of operating
system (OS) from Microsoft, which is
the most famous OS in the world.
Linux can be freely distributed,
downloaded freely. There are priced
versions for Linux also, but they are
normally cheaper than Windows.
For desktop or home use, Windows
Linux can be used by everyone
(from home users to developers)
Windows can also be used by
can be expensive. A single copy can
cost around $50 to $ 450 depending
on the version of Windows.
everyone (from home users to
Linux can be installed on a wide
On PC's servers and some
variety of computer hardware,
ranging from mobile phones, tablet
computers and video game consoles,
to mainframes and supercomputers.
In Linux, till now there are 60 to
100 viruses listed.
In windows, till now there are
60,000 viruses listed.
Linux kernel is developed by the
Microsoft created the Windows
operating system, but allows other
computer manufactures to distribute
their own computers with Windows
Both Windows and Linux come in many flavors. All the flavors
of Windows come from Microsoft, the various distributions of
Linux come from different companies (i.e. Linspire ,Red
The flavors of Linux are
referred to as distributions .
The older flavors are referred
to as "Win9x" and consist of
Windows 95, 98, 98SE and Me.
All the Linux distributions
The newer flavors are referred
to as "NT class" and consist of
Windows NT3, NT4, 2000, XP ,
Vista ,7 and 8 .
released around the same time
frame will use the same kernel .
What is it?
Linux is an example of Open Source software development
and Free Operating System (OS).
Windows is the family of operating system (OS) from
Microsoft, which is the most famous OS in the world.
Windows can be expensive.
Linux can be freely distributed,
There are priced versions for
Linux also, but they are normally
cheaper than Windows.
A single copy can cost around
$50 to $ 450 depending on the
version of Windows.
Linux kernel is developed Microsoft created the
by the community. Linus
Windows operating system,
Torvalds oversees things.
but allows other computer
manufactures to distribute
their own computers with
Linux can be installed on Windows can be instelled
a wide variety of computer On PC's servers and some
hardware, ranging from
mobile phones, tablet
computers and video game
consoles, to mainframes
Linux file system in
windows file system is flat
everything as files
(even printer, hard disk,
Linux process the
But not in case of
But not in case of
Linux is developed by Windows is developed
and distributed by
through sharing and
collaboration of code
and it is distributed by various
vendors such as Red Hat, SUSE,
Linux typically provides two GUIs,
KDE and Gnome. But Linux GUI is
The Windows GUI is an
integral component of the
OS and it is mainly
influenced by Apple
Macintosh OS and Xerox.
Linux has had about 60-100 viruses
listed till date. None of them actively
According to Dr. Nic
Peeling and Dr.Julian
Satchel's “Analysis of the
Impact of Open Source
there have been more than
60,000 viruses in Windows.
In case of Linux, threat
After detecting a major threat
detection and solution is very in Windows OS, Microsoft
generally releases a patch that
can fix the problem and it can
take more than 2/3 months.
To run Windows, it has to first be installed to
your hard disk. same thing true for Linux BUT
there are quite a few version of Linux that run
completely from a CD without installing to
hardware called as Active CD. Moreover Linux
can run on Window Like Cygwin but opposite
is not true..
Comparing the Architectures
Both Linux and Windows are monolithic
All core operating system services run in a shared address space in
All core operating system services are part of a single module.
Windowing is handled differently:
Windows has a kernel-mode Windowing subsystem.
Linux has a user-mode X-Windowing system.
Two scheduling classes
“Real time” (fixed) - priority 16-31
Dynamic - priority 1-15
Higher priorities are favored
Priorities of dynamic threads get
boosted on wakeups
Thread priorities are never lowered
Has 3 scheduling classes:
Normal – priority 100-139
Fixed Round Robin – priority 0-99
Fixed FIFO – priority 0-99
Lower priorities are favored
Priorities of normal threads go up
(decay) as they use CPU
Priorities of interactive threads go down
System Components of Linux
Kernel: responsible for maintaining all the
important abstractions of the operating
system, including such things as virtual
memory and processes
System libraries: a standard set of functions
through which applications can interact with
the kernel, and which implement much of the
operating system functionality that does not
need the full privileges of kernel code
System utilities: programs that perform
individual, specialized management tasks.
System Components of
The architecture of windows is a layered
system of modules.
The main layers are the hardware, abstraction
layer, the kernel and the executive that run in
protected mode, and a large collection of
subsystems that run in user mode.
Memory Management of Linux
Two components to memory management
a. First: Physical memory-management
system deals with allocating and freeing
pages, groups of pages, and small blocks
b. Second: Handles virtual memory, which is
memory mapped into the address space
of running processes.
Memory Management of
The Win32 API provides several ways for an
application to use memory: virtual memory,
memory-mapped files, heaps, and threadlocal storages.
One way to use memory is by memory
mapping a file into its address space. Memory
mapping is also a convenient way for two
processes to share memory – both processes
map the same file into their virtual memory.
Memory mapping is a multistage process.
File Systems of Linux
Linux kernel handles various different types of
file by hiding the implementation details of any
single file type behind a layer of software, the
virtual file system (VFS)
File Systems of Windows
Historically, MS-DOS systems have used the file-
allocation table (FAT) file system. The 16-bit FAT
file system has several shortcomings, including
internal fragmentation, a size limitation of 2 GB,
and a lack of access protection for files. The 32bit FAT file system has solved the size and
fragmentation problems, but the performance and
features are still weak by comparison with
modern file systems. The NTFS is much better. It
was designed with many features in mind,
including data recovery, security, fault tolerance,
large files and file systems, multiple data streams,
UNICODE names, and file compression.
Security of Linux
It’s security model can be classified in two
a. Authentication: Making sure that nobody
can access the system without first
providing that he has entry rights
b. Access control: Providing a mechanism
for checking whether a user has the right
to access a certain object, and preventing
access to objects as required
Security of Windows
Security of an NTFS volume is derived from
the windows object model. Each file object
has a security descriptor attribute stored in its
MFT record. This attribute contains the access
token of the owner of the file, and an accesscontrol list that states the access privileges
that are granted to each user that has access
to the file.
Linux OS Vs Windows OS
Thanking You !!!!