Defining relative clauses

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Defining relative clauses

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Defining relative clauses

  1. 1. Defining Relative Clauses
  2. 2. Defining Relative ClausesYou use defining relative clauses to giveinformation that helps to identify the person orthing you are talking about.The man who you met yesterday was mybrother.The car which crashed into me belonged toPaul.
  3. 3. Defining Relative ClausesWhen you are talking about people, you use‘that’ or ‘who’ in the relative clause.He was the man that bought my house.You are the only person here who knows me.
  4. 4. Defining Relative ClausesWhen you are talking about things, you use‘that’ or ‘which’ in the relative clause.There was ice cream that Mum had madeherself.I will tell you the first thing which I canremember.
  5. 5. Defining Relative Clauses ‘That’, ‘who’, or ‘which’ can be:• the subject of the verb in a relative clause The thing that really surprised me was his attitude. The woman who lives next door is very friendly. The car which caused the accident drove off.
  6. 6. Defining Relative Clauses ‘That’, ‘who’, or ‘which’ can also be:• The object of the verb in the relative clause The thing that I really liked about it was its size. The woman who you met yesterday lives next door. The car which I wanted to buy was not for sale.
  7. 7. Defining Relative ClausesIn formal English, ‘whom’ is used instead of‘who’ as the object of the verb in the relativeclause.She was a woman whom I greatly respected.
  8. 8. Defining Relative ClausesYou can leave out ‘that’, who’, or ‘which’ whenthey are the object of the verb in the relativeclause.The woman you met yesterday lives next door.The car I wanted to buy was not for sale.The thing I really liked about it was its size.
  9. 9. Defining Relative ClausesWARNING: You cannot leave out ‘that’, ‘who’, or‘which’ when they are the subject of the verb inthe relative clause. For example, you say ‘Thewoman who lives next door is very friendly’. Youdo not say ‘The woman lives next door is veryfriendly’.
  10. 10. Defining Relative ClausesA relative pronoun in a relative clause can bethe object of a preposition. Usually thepreposition goes at the end of the clause.I wanted to do the job which I’d been trainingfor.The house that we lived in was huge.
  11. 11. Defining Relative ClausesYou can often omit a relative pronoun that is theobject of a preposition.Angela was the only person I could talk to.She’s the girl I sang the song for.
  12. 12. Defining Relative ClausesThe preposition always goes in front of ‘whom’and in front of ‘which’ in formal English.These are the people to whom Catherine wasreferring.He was asking questions to which there were noanswers.
  13. 13. Defining Relative ClausesYou use ‘whose’ in relative clauses to indicatewho something belongs to or relates to. Younormally use ‘whose’ for people, not for things.A child whose mother had left him was cryingloudly.We have only told the people whose work isrelevant to this project.
  14. 14. Defining Relative ClausesYou can use ‘when’, ‘where’, and ‘why’ indefining relative clauses after certain nouns. Youuse ‘when’ after ‘time’, or time words such as‘day’, or ‘year’. You use ‘where’ after ‘place’ orplace words such as ‘room’ or ‘street’. You use‘why’ after ‘reason’.
  15. 15. Defining Relative ClausesThere had been a time when she hated all men.This is the year when profits should increase.He showed me the place where they work.That was the room where I did my homework.There are several reasons why we can’t do that.
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