GOTHIC ART 13 TH - 15 TH CENTURY WESTMINSTER ABBEY, LONDON TOWN HALL, BRUGES, BELGIUM
WHY GOTHIC? <ul><li>“ Gothic” was a pejorative name used during Renaissance period to describe the art of the Late Middle Ages. It was considered to be a style of Goth (Germanic) origin and of lower quality than Reanissance art. </li></ul>NOTRE DAME OF PARIS CATHEDRAL
CHRONOLOGY <ul><li>Gothic art appeared in the 12 th century in France and spread throughout all Europe. It was the predominant art style in Europe until the 15 th century. </li></ul>SAINT ETIENNE DE SENS CHURCH, 12 TH CENTURY
EXPANSION Cistercian monks had an important role in the spread of Gothic art. The most important Gothic innovations started at Saint Denis´ Abbey, in the North of Paris. Abbot Suger built a new church copying new elements from Saint Etienne de Sens. SAINT DENIS CHURCH, FRANCE
MAIN FEATURES <ul><li>It was mainly a religious art , related to Christianity, but it was also a citizen’s art , related to the growth of cities and the powerful people who lived there. </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture and painting continued having and educational purpose, but they started becoming independent of architecture </li></ul>SAINT DENIS CHURCH, FRANCE
ARCHITECTURE - Main works of art: cathedrals, but also civil buildings, such as palaces, town halls, markets,… - In religious buildings, a new conception of space appeared, related to the new conception of God (“God is light”): Buildings became lighter, high, full of light, trying to transport the congreation to heaven. DUCAL PALACE, FLORENCE, ITALY CHOIR OF SAINT DENIS CHURCH, FRANCE
NEW ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS POINTED ARCH RIB VAULT LATIN CROSS PLAN WITH POLIGONAL APSE FLYING BUTTRESS PINNACLE ROSE WINDOW
Can you find the differences between Romanesque and Gothic vaults?
CENTRAL NAVE IS MUCH HIGHER THAN THE SIDE AISLES FLYING BUTTRESS PINNACLE RIB VAULT CLERESTORY POINTED ARCH
EXAMPLES OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE REIMS CATHEDRAL, FRANCE
CHARTRES CATHEDRAL, FRANCE NOTRE DAME OF PARIS, FRANCE
COUTANCES CATHEDRAL, FRANCE SAINTE CHAPELLE, PARIS, FRANC E What kind of vaults are these? What other Gothic features can you observe in these pictures?
SCULPTURE AND PAINTING <ul><li>Although sculpture and painting continued to be subordinated to architecture, it started becoming independent from architecture, especially paintings. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the main purpose was educational (didactic), sculpture and painting also had a decorative purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Artists started becoming famous and respected, but they were still considered to be craftsmen. </li></ul>
SCULPTURE <ul><li>MAIN FEATURES </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture continued having a religious and educational purpose , but new elements were introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: stone was the most used material, but wood started becoming more popular. </li></ul><ul><li>Figures became i ndependent from architecture, more realistic and natural: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of curved lines and intention of showing movement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest in expressing feelings (suffering, happiness…) </li></ul></ul>ADAM AND EVE, NOTRE DAME OF PARIS CATHEDRAL
WHERE DID SCULPTURES APPEAR? <ul><li>Portals </li></ul><ul><li>Altarpieces of cathedrals and churches </li></ul><ul><li>Choir stalls </li></ul><ul><li>Capitals of columns </li></ul><ul><li>Tombs </li></ul><ul><li>Gargoyles on the outside </li></ul><ul><li>of cathedrals </li></ul>SARMENTAL PORTAL, BURGOS CATHEDRAL How can you know that this is a Gothic portal?
STRASBOURG CATHEDRAL, FRANCE THREE FOOLISH VIRGINS, MAGDEBURG CATHEDRAL, GERMANY
WHITE VIRGIN, SCULPTED ON THE TRUMEAU OF LEÓN CATHEDRAL Can you describe the main features of this sculpture?
ALTARPIECE OF THE MAIN ALTAR OF MIRAFLORES MONASTERY, BURGOS What material was used to carve this altarpiece?
GARGOYLES GARGOYLES OF NOTRE DAME OF PARIS CATHEDRAL Gargoyle comes from French and it means “throat”. They were statues used to expell water from the cathedral roofs. They were used as representations of evil many times.
Can you explain the differences between Romanesque and Gothic Virgins with Child?
Can you explain the differences between Romanesque and Gothic Christ on the Cross?
EXAMPLES OF TOMBS TOMB OF THE BISHOP GONZALO DE HINOJOSA TOMB OF MARTÍN VÁZQUEZ DE ARCE, SIGÜENZA CATHEDRAL, GUADALAJARA
PAINTING <ul><li>MAIN FEATURES </li></ul><ul><li>- Mainly religious subjects, altough rich people started commisioning portraits to show their power </li></ul><ul><li>Use of bright colours and gold </li></ul><ul><li>Background landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Realism and movement of the figures </li></ul><ul><li>- Stained glass windows were used to illuminate the interior of churches. Rich polychromy (circular windows were called rose windows). </li></ul>MINIATURES OF THE BOOK OF THE HOURS OF THE DUKE OF BERRY, 15 TH CENTURY
WHERE DID PAINTINGS APPEAR? <ul><li>Stained glass windows, except in Italy, where paintings were located on walls (mural paintings) </li></ul><ul><li>Miniatures to illustrate books </li></ul><ul><li>Altarpieces painted on wood, in one or more panels. </li></ul>STAINED GLASS WINDOWS, LEÓN CATHEDRAL ROSE WINDOW, SAINT DENIS´ CHURCH, FRANCE
MURAL PAINTINGS (FRESCOES), BY GIOTTO, ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS ITALIAN PAINTERS