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Climate vs Weather

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Climate vs Weather

  1. 1. DBN 163 : Building Environment (I) CLIMATE PUAN BALKHIZ BINTI ISMAIL Department of Building Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying UiTM Sarawak
  2. 2. Overview Not every building has the same weather exposure. Regional climate conditions, macro environment and micro environment all affect the risk of moisture damage, and must be taken into account in design. 2
  3. 3. Weather DEFINED AS;  general atmospheric conditions at a given place and a given time with respect to temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, radiation and other meteorological events. OR  a collection of atmospheric phenomena that occur over some place for a short period of time (few hours, a week). 3
  4. 4. Weather (cont’d)  A dynamic process, changing from moment to moment, from day to night and from season to season.  The phenomenon – movement of air, the presence of water vapor, pressure of the atmosphere and transfer of thermal energy  Described using air temperature, moisture content/humidity, wind, pressure, cloud and precipitation. 4
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  6. 6. 6 Monday Nov 21st Tuesday Nov 22nd Wednesday Nov 23rd Thursday Nov 24th Friday Nov 25th Morning: Cloudy Afternoon : Thunderstorms Night : Rain Morning: Cloudy Afternoon : Thunderstorms Night : Rain Morning: Cloudy Afternoon : Rain Night : Rain Morning: Cloudy Afternoon : Rain Night : Cloudy Morning: Cloudy Afternoon : Rain Night : No Rain Max : 30°C Min : 23°C Max : 30°C Min : 23°C Max : 30°C Min : 23°C Max : 30°C Min : 23°C Max : 30°C Min : 23°C Weather Forecast for Kuching (Week 3)
  7. 7. Climate  Climate (from Greek; klima) is defined as a region with certain conditions of temperature, dryness, wind, light and etc. or  Climate is a statistical composite of weather conditions for some place viewed over a long period of time (20 – 30 years). 7
  8. 8. Climate (cont’d)  More scientific definition of climate is an integration in time of the physical states of the atmospheric environment, characteristic of a certain geographical location. 8
  9. 9. Climate Zone 9
  10. 10. Climate Map 10
  11. 11. WEATHER CLIMATE • Refer to small area • Short Period • Change from time to time • Every place has a different weather conditions (e.g : rainy day, sunny day) • Involves large area • Long Period • Doesn’t change – fixed/suits every area • Same climate within each area (e.g : Tropical, Mediterranean) Weather vs Climate 11
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  14. 14. Global Climatic Factors 14
  15. 15. 1. Quality of Solar Radiation  The earth receives almost all its energy from the sun in the form of radiations.  Thus, the SUN is the dominating influence on climate.  Some of the shorter wave length are absorbed by the atmosphere and radiated at much longer wave length 15
  16. 16. 1. Quality of Solar Radiation (cont’d) ☼ According to human means of perception, we can distinguish : a. ultra-violet radiation, 290 – 380 nm (producing photo-chemical effects, bleaching, sunburn, etc) b. visible light, 380 (violet) – 700 (red) nm c. short infra-red radiation, 700 – 2300 nm, (radiant heat with some photo-chemical effects) 16
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  18. 18. 1. Quality of Solar Radiation (cont’d) 18
  19. 19. 2. Quantity of Solar Radiation  The intensity of radiation reaching the upper surface of the atmosphere is taken as the solar constant  The earth moves around the sun in a slightly elliptical orbit. 19
  20. 20. 2. Quantity of Solar Radiation (cont’d) 20
  21. 21. 3. Tilt of The Earth’s Axis ☼ The earth rotates around its own axis (Rotational Axis) ☼ Each complete rotation making a day = 24hour/day (1000 miles/hour) ☼ Due to the tilted position, however, the area receiving the maximum intensity moves north and south between the tropic of Cancer (latitude 23.5ºN) and the tropic of Capricorn (latitude 23.5ºS). ☼ This is the main cause of seasonal changes. 21
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  24. 24. 4. Radiation at The Earth’s Surface  The earth-sun relationship affects the amount of radiation received at a particular point on the earth’s surface in three ways : 24
  25. 25. 4. Radiation at The Earth’s Surface 1. The cosine law  which states that the intensity on a tilted surface equals the normal intensity times the cosine of the angle of incidence 25 β β B C Figure shows how the same amount of radiation is distributed over a larger area, therefore less radiation falls on unit area.
  26. 26. 4. Radiation at The Earth’s Surface (cont’d) 2. Atmospheric Depletion  The observation of radiation by ozone, vapors and dust particles in the atmosphere.  The lower the solar altitude angle, the longer the path of radiation through the atmosphere = smaller part reaches Earth’s surface. 26
  27. 27. 4. Radiation at The Earth’s Surface (cont’d) 3. Duration of sunshine  The length of the daylight period 27 C A B D AB > CD Earth Atmosphere Figure above indicates the geometrical relationship between solar altitude and path of radiation through the atmosphere.
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  29. 29. Reflection  Can you define climate and weather?  What are the differences of climate and weather?  Named and explain global climatic factors. 29

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