Ch. 18 Gothic


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    The vaults of Gothic’s cathedral have subliminal symbolism. Nobody will get into a Gothic cathedral seeing the temple as before. THE NEXT LINK TO MY WEB, INCLUDED A UNIVERSAL TRANSLATOR



    Las bóvedas de las catedrales (s.XII-XIV) revelan una imagen subliminal del rostro de Cristo en esquema. Es “Luz del espíritu”según la Biblia.

    Al conocer mi investigación, nadie volverá a entrar en una catedral gótica viéndola como antes.
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Ch. 18 Gothic

  1. 1. Chapter 18 The Age of the Great Cathedrals: Gothic Art Gardner’s Art Through the Ages,
  2. 2. Europe About 1200
  3. 3. Gothic Art <ul><li>Early Gothic – ca. 1140 to 1194 </li></ul><ul><li>High Gothic – ca. 1194 to 1300 </li></ul><ul><li>Late Gothic – ca. 1300 to 1500 </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic period/style began and ended at different dates in different places </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-16 th century – Giorgio Vasari (father of art history) used Gothic as term of ridicule to describe late medieval art and architecture/ Vasari , along with Ghiberti, thought Gothic art was invented by the Goths who were uncouth and responsible for the downfall of Rome and the destruction of the classical style in art and architecture </li></ul><ul><li>13 th and 14 th centuries- Gothic style was the rage in most of Europe (especially north of Alps)/ considered opus modernum (modern work) or opus francigenum (French work)/ Clergy and lay public regarded new cathedrals as images of the City of God which they were privileged to build on earth </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic style first appeared in northern France around 1140/ In southern France and elsewhere in Europe, Romanesque style still flourished </li></ul><ul><li>By 13 th century Gothic style had spread throughout western Europe/ The Gothic style was regional - to east and south of Europe Islamic and Byzantine styles still prominent </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gothic Period – Turmoil and Change <ul><li>1337 – Hundred Years’ War began (shattered peace between England and France) </li></ul><ul><li>14 th century – Black Death (killed at least ¼ of western Europe’s population) </li></ul><ul><li>1378-1417 – Great Schism (political/religious crisis) </li></ul><ul><li>Shift in Society: From monasteries in countryside and pilgrimage churches to rapidly expanding secular cities with great new cathedrals </li></ul><ul><li>In Gothic urban centers – prosperous merchants made homes, universities run by professional guilds of scholars formed – independent secular nations of modern Europe beginning to take shape (starting with France) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Figure 18-1 Ambulatory and radiating chapels, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140–1144. French Gothic – Architecture & Architectural Decoration Abbot Suger and Saint-Denis <ul><li>Abbot Suger: right-hand man of Louis’ VI and VII/ during Second Crusade was regent of France/ rebuilt France’s royal church Saint-Denis </li></ul><ul><li>Saint-Denis (Benedictine abbey church): Carolinigian basilica was France’s royal church- symbol of monarchy/ housed St. Denis’ tomb and those of French kings </li></ul><ul><li>Abbot Suger began to rebuild in 1135 – erected new west façade with sculptured portals/ 1140-44 – added new choir, ambulatory and radiating chapels </li></ul>Remodeled nave of Saint-Denis Early Gothic
  6. 6. Figure 18-2 Plan of the east end, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140–1144 (after Sumner Crosby). Saint-Denis: Key Monument of Early Gothic Sculpture <ul><li>Suger’s sculpture for west side of abbey did not survive French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-12 th century structure intact </li></ul><ul><li>Had double-tower westwork/ massive walls in Romanesque tradition/ restored large rose window (new feature that became standard in French Gothic architecture/ three portals with statues of Old testament kings, queens and prophets attached to columns </li></ul>
  7. 7. Figure 18-3 Vaults of the ambulatory and radiating chapels of the choir, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140–1144 . <ul><li>Hallmarks of New French Gothic style appears: rib vaults on pointed arches covering ambulatory and chapels – these vaults enable builders to eliminate walls, open space and add stained-glass windows </li></ul><ul><li>Suger called the colored light coming through the sacred stained-glass “LUX NOVA” (new light) </li></ul>Hallmarks of New French Gothic Style at Saint-Denis
  8. 8. Figure 18-7 West facade of Laon Cathedral, Laon, France, begun ca. 1190. Early Gothic – Laon Cathedral, France (begun 1190) <ul><li>Typical Gothic features on west façade: </li></ul><ul><li>Huge central rose window, deep porches in front of doorways, open structure of towers </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper penetration of wall mass </li></ul><ul><li>Operating principle (Gothic style): </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce sheer mass and replace it with intricately framed voids </li></ul>
  9. 9. Figure 18-8 Interior of Laon Cathedral (view facing northeast), Laon, France, begun ca. 1190. Figure 18-8 Alternate View General view of Nave and Choir (w rectangular E end) seen from W <ul><li>Retained many Romanesque features in design and combined them with rib vaults resting on pointed arches </li></ul><ul><li>Romanesque features: nave bays with large sexpartite rib vaults, flanked by two small groin-vaulted squares in each aisle </li></ul><ul><li>New feature: TRIFORIUM (band of arcades below the clerestory windows)/ used because had desire to break up and eliminate all continuous wall surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Now see 4-PART nave elevation: </li></ul><ul><li>nave arcade, vaulted gallery, triforium, clerestory with single LANCET windows (tall, narrow windows ending in pointed arches) </li></ul><ul><li>Also employed alternate-support system (Romanesque) in nave arcade with compound piers alternating with simple piers </li></ul>Laon Cathedral/ Early Gothic <ul><li>Gothic architects wanted to create a unified interior space that swept uninterrupted from east to west/ moved away from compartmentalized spaces </li></ul>
  10. 10. Figure 18-9 Nave elevations of four French Gothic cathedrals at the same scale (after Louis Grodecki): (a) Laon, (b) Paris, (c) Chartres, (d) Amiens. Nave Elevation Comparison for Early/High Gothic Cathedrals 80 ft. 107 ft. 118 ft. 144 ft. Height of nave vaults
  11. 11. Figure 18-10 Notre-Dame (view from the south), Paris, France, begun 1163; nave and flying buttresses, ca. 1180–1200; remodeled after 1225. Early/High Gothic – Notre-Dame, France (begun 1163, remodeled after 1225) <ul><li>1130 Louis VI moved official residence to Paris which caused more commercial activity and a building boom </li></ul><ul><li>New Cathedral necessary = Notre-Dame of Paris located on island in Seine River called Ile-de-la-Cite </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced a large Merovingian basilica/ sexpartite vaults cover nave/ 4-story nave elevation- in place of triforium is stained glass OCULI (small round windows) below clerestory lancets </li></ul>
  12. 12. Figure 18-10 Alternate View General view of choir with flying buttresses Notre-Dame – Paris, France <ul><li>Two of four stories in nave elevation filled by windows = thinner and taller walls = need for external support </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown architect introduced FLYING BUTTRESSES (exterior arches that spring from the lower roofs over the aisles and ambulatory and counter the outward thrust of the nave vaults) </li></ul>FLYING BUTTRESSES: Important element contributing to the distinctive “look” of Gothic Cathedrals
  13. 13. Figure 18-4 Aerial view of Chartres Cathedral (from the northwest), Chartres, France, begun 1134; rebuilt after 1194. Early Gothic Beginnings – Chartres Cathedral, France (begun 1134) <ul><li>Building histories of urban churches often extended over decades and sometimes over centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Financing depended largely on collections and public contributions (not always voluntary) and lack of funds interrupted building programs as did wars, plagues, etc. = not finishing churches for years </li></ul><ul><li>Chartres Cathedral construction started in 1134 during the Early Gothic period and was destroyed by fire in 1194 which led to reconstruction in the High Gothic style </li></ul>
  14. 14. Figure 18-5 Royal Portal, west facade, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1145–1155. Royal Portal – Chartres Cathedral (Early Gothic, 1145) <ul><li>Statue-columns of kings and queens flank the 3 doorways/ episodes of Christ’s life are carved on the column capitals and form a frieze/link from one entrance to the next/ most complete and impressive surviving ensemble of Early Gothic sculpture </li></ul><ul><li>Right Portal: archivolts depict 7 female Liberal Arts and their male companions (figures represent core of medieval learning and symbolize human knowledge which was believed to lead to true faith)/ in the tympanum, Christ appears in lap of Virgin Mary (like Byzantine Theotokos and Romanesque Throne of Wisdom) </li></ul><ul><li>Cult of the Virgin Mary reached a high point in the Gothic age/ the severity of Romanesque themes stressing the Last Judgment yielded to the gentleness of Gothic art, in which Mary is the kindly Queen of Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Left Portal: Christ’s Ascension into Heaven/ archivolts have signs of zodiac and scenes representing various labors of months of year = symbols of cosmic and earthly worlds </li></ul><ul><li>Central Portal: Second Coming (Last Judgment theme) still important/ Theme became a symbol of salvation rather than damnation </li></ul>
  15. 15. Figure 18-6 Old Testament kings and queens, jamb statues, central doorway of Royal Portal, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1145–1155 . Figure 18-6 Alternate View Saints from left jamb, central portal (west), braided lady, two male saints Chartres’ Royal Portal – Old Testament kings and queens <ul><li>Old Testament kings and queens are considered royal ancestors of Christ/ these characters support the New Testament figures above the doorways/ they wear 12 th century clothes and are regarded as images of kings and queens of France = symbols of secular as well as of biblical authority </li></ul><ul><li>Romanesque: linear folds in garments and elongated proportions </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic figures are attached to columns/ Classical statues (caryatids) replaced the columns </li></ul><ul><li>Statues display first signs of a new naturalism / they have 3-D volume/ human faces (not masks) which personalize/individualize the portraits </li></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 18-11 Plan of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, as rebuilt after 1194 (after Paul Frankl). High Gothic Plan – Chartres Cathedral (rebuilt 1194) <ul><li>Architectural historians consider the post-1194 Chartres Cathedral the first High Gothic building </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporated the old crypt and west façade in the new building </li></ul><ul><li>New kind of organization in plan: RECTANGULAR BAYS flanked by one single square in each aisle rather than two, no alternate-support system, vaults had 4-parts not 6 = nave looks like one continuous hall </li></ul><ul><li>Planned from beginning with flying buttresses which made possible the elimination of the tribune/gallery </li></ul><ul><li>Tripartite (3) nave elevation: arcade, triforium and clerestory with enlarged windows (double lancets crowned by a single oculus) </li></ul>Figure 18-12 Interior of Chartres Cathedral (view facing east), Chartres, France, begun 1194.
  17. 17. Figure 18-15 Saints Martin, Jerome, and Gregory, jamb statues, Porch of the Confessors (right doorway), south transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220–1230. Porch of the Confessors - High Gothic Spirit – Sculptures of New Chartres <ul><li>Statues of saints on portal jambs are more independent from the architectural framework </li></ul><ul><li>Great changes in Gothic sculpture seen: </li></ul><ul><li>-Right Figure 18-15 - Architectural setting does not determine poses- the saints appear to be communicating with one another, turn slightly toward and away from each other </li></ul><ul><li>-Drapery folds are not stiff- fabric softly falls and laps over the bodies </li></ul><ul><li>-Faces have individualized features and distinctive personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Left Figure 18-16 – Theodore as ideal Christian knight (Gothic crusader)/ clothed in crusader attire/ head turned to left, hip to right – body’s sway recalls Classical Greek statuary contrapposto stance </li></ul>13 th Century Gothic Sculpture = Second “Classical revolution” Figure 18-16 Saint Theodore, jamb statue, Porch of the Martyrs (left doorway), south transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1230.
  18. 18. Figure 18-13 Virgin and Child and angels (Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière), window in the choir of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1170, with 13th century side panels. Stained glass, 16’ X 7’ X 8”. Stained Glass – Mystical Lux Nova <ul><li>Use of stained glass in Gothic period: it does not conceal walls, but replaces them/ transmits light rather than reflecting light </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of stone window frames into which glass was set: plate tracery and bar tracery </li></ul><ul><li>Our Lady of the Beautiful Window – tall single lancet/ survived fire of 1194/ central section depicting Virgin Mary enthroned with Christ Child in her lap is original from 1170/ framing angels against blue background added 13 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic and Byzantine builders used light to transform the material world into the spiritual, but in opposite ways – (discuss the difference) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Figure 18-14 Rose window and lancets, north transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220. Stained glass, rose window approx. 43’ in diameter. Chartres’ Rose Window – A Gift From the Queen of France <ul><li>Rose window = approx. 43 ft. in diameter/ bar tracery/ center of rose is enthroned Virgin and Child/ around her are 4 doves of the Holy Spirit and 8 angels/ square panels contain images of Old Testament kings </li></ul><ul><li>Royal motifs = yellow castles and fleurs-de-lis </li></ul><ul><li>Lancets = St. Anne and baby Virgin in center flanked by 4 of Christ’s Old Testament ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>Color Symbolism of the time: Blue = heaven, Red = Passion, White = Purity, Green = Fertility, Yellow = Presence of God </li></ul>
  20. 20. Figure 18-17 ROBERT DE LUZARCHES, THOMAS DE CORMONT, and RENAUD DE CORMONT, interior of Amiens Cathedral (view facing east), Amiens, France, begun 1220. High Gothic – Amiens Cathedral, France (begun 1220) <ul><li>Architects: Robert de Luzarches, Thomas and Renaud de Cormont </li></ul><ul><li>Began construction 1220/ nave completed 1236/ radiating chapels by 1247/ choir by approx. 1270 </li></ul><ul><li>Uses complete High Gothic structural vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><li>-rectangular bays/ 4-part rib vault/ buttressing system/ no alternate-support system, only compound piers </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of a self-sustaining skeletal architecture reached full maturity with Amiens/ no need for heavy masses or thick weight-bearing walls because of buttressing system </li></ul>
  21. 21. Figure 18-18 Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de Cormont, and Renaud de Cormont, vaults, clerestory, and triforium of the choir of Amiens Cathedral, Amiens, France, begun 1220. Amiens Cathedral – Quest for Height <ul><li>Nave vault height is 144 ft. </li></ul><ul><li>3-part nave elevation: </li></ul><ul><li>-nave arcade, triforium and clerestory with greater number and complexity of lancet windows </li></ul><ul><li>The structure has a light appearance even though it is stone architecture (because of increased number of windows and broken spaces) </li></ul><ul><li>Amiens is the Gothic counterpart to the Byzantine Hagia Sophia </li></ul>
  22. 22. Figure 18-19 ROBERT DE LUZARCHES, THOMAS DE CORMONT, and RENAUD DE CORMONT, west facade of Amiens Cathedral, Amiens, France, begun 1220. Amiens Cathedral – High Gothic Facade <ul><li>Portals similar to Laon </li></ul><ul><li>Upper part more complex: </li></ul><ul><li>-deeper piercing of walls and towers/ covered with network of colonnettes, arches, pinnacles, rosettes and other decorative stonework </li></ul><ul><li>Sculpture extends to the areas above the portals/ band of statues below rose window is called “kings’ gallery” </li></ul><ul><li>Towers were added in 14 th and 15 th centuries </li></ul>
  23. 23. Figure 18-20 Christ (Beau Dieu), trumeau statue of central doorway, west facade, Amiens Cathedral, Amiens, France, ca. 1220–1235. Amiens Cathedral – Trumeau – Beau Dieu (Beautiful God) <ul><li>Fully modeled figure of Christ </li></ul><ul><li>Massive drapery folds </li></ul><ul><li>Stands freely and is independent of its architectural setting </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural canopy over figure’s head </li></ul><ul><li>He does not strike fear into sinners, instead he blesses those who enter the church and tramples a lion and dragon symbolizing evil forces in the world </li></ul><ul><li>This image of Christ gives humankind hope in salvation </li></ul>
  24. 24. Figure 18-21 West facade of Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, ca. 1225–1290. High Gothic – Reims Cathedral, France (begun 1225) <ul><li>Every detail is “stretched” on the façade: </li></ul><ul><li>-Kings’ gallery is above rose window/ figures are taller and in more ornate frames </li></ul><ul><li>-Openings in towers and left and right of rose window are taller and narrower and more intricately decorated </li></ul><ul><li>-Pinnacles over the portals are taller and more elaborate </li></ul><ul><li>Most striking: tympanums over doorways are stained glass windows instead of stone relief sculptures </li></ul>
  25. 25. Figure 18-22 Visitation, jamb statues of central doorway, west facade, Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, ca. 1230. Reims Cathedral – Jamb Statues Converse <ul><li>Biblical narrative- Visitation: St. Elizabeth visiting the Virgin Mary before the birth of Jesus/ subject is celebrating Mary’s life = important in Gothic period </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptor shrank the supporting columns so they would not interfere with the movement of the figures </li></ul><ul><li>Figures depicted in classical naturalistic style/ the artist probably studied actual classical statuary in France/ faces look like Roman portraits/ Greek contrapposto posture/ dramatic (deeply carved) drapery folds with knees pressing through/ arms in motion as they converse through gesture </li></ul><ul><li>Part of a series of statues celebrating Mary’s life/her central role in Gothic iconography </li></ul>
  26. 26. Figure 18-23 Interior of the upper chapel, Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, France, 1243–1248. High Gothic – Sainte-Chapelle Rayonnant (Radiant) Style <ul><li>Built by Louis IX (1243-48) </li></ul><ul><li>Louis IX – royal patron behind Parisian “Court Style” </li></ul><ul><li>Louis IX inherited throne at age 12/ mother, Blanche of Castile served as France’s regent until he reached adulthood/ declared a saint after death/ united best qualities in his person: Christian knight (lost his life in service of the Church), benevolent monarch and holy man/ He became the model of medieval Christian kingship/ during his reign the art and architecture of France was admired and imitated throughout Europe </li></ul><ul><li>SEE ADDITIONAL POWERPOINT FOR DETAILS ON SAINTE-CHAPELLE </li></ul>
  27. 27. Figure 18-24 Virgin and Child (Virgin of Paris), Notre-Dame, Paris, France, early fourteenth century. “ Court Style” of Louis IX Virgin of Paris – Late Gothic <ul><li>Late Gothic (early 14 th century) – mannered elegance </li></ul><ul><li>Located in Parisian Cathedral of Notre-Dame </li></ul><ul><li>Mary portrayed as worldly queen/ royal garment and gem-encrusted crown/ Christ Child as infant prince </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic style – more of a playful interaction between the two figures </li></ul><ul><li>“ S” curve = exaggerated sway of the Virgin’s body </li></ul><ul><li>The “S” curve had nothing to do with the structure of the body (like Greek statuary) but was a decorative device to produce the desired effect of ELEGANCE </li></ul>
  28. 28. Figure 18-25 West facade of Saint-Maclou, Rouen, France, ca. 1500–1514. Late Gothic – Saint-Maclou, France (begun 1500) Flamboyant Style <ul><li>Flamboyant Style – named for the flamelike appearance of its pointed bar tracery/ began in 14 th century but matured in 15 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Normandy is rich in Flamboyant architecture/ its capital Rouen houses the Saint-Maclou Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Saint-Maclou – tiny in size (75 ft. high, 180 ft. long) </li></ul><ul><li>Façade is unique: 5 portals (two are blind) which are bent outward in an arc/ ornate gables crown doorways pierced through and filled with “flickering” Flamboyant tracery made up of curves and countercurves that form a decorative web and masks the building’s structure/ through the pinnacles you can see the rose window and flying buttresses/ overlapping of all features and a complexity of views is hallmark of Flamboyant style </li></ul>
  29. 29. Figure 18-26 Aerial view of the fortified town of Carcassonne, France. Bastions and towers, 12th–13th centuries, restored by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in the 19th century. Famous Gothic Fortified Town – Carcassonne in S. France <ul><li>Gothic Age: also saw building of secular structures (town halls, palaces, private residences) </li></ul><ul><li>Feudal barons constructed fortified castles with thick defensive wall circuits (ramparts) enclosing the entire town/ battlements (low parapets/walls) with crenellations (composed of alternating solid merlons and open crenels) protected guards patrolling the stone ring surrounding the town/ had keep (a secure tower that could serve as a place of last refuge/ had Cathedral of Saint-Nazaire (right) </li></ul>Carcassonne fortified since Roman times
  30. 30. Figure 18-27 Hall of the cloth guild, Bruges, Netherlands, begun 1230. Figure 18-28 House of Jacques Coeur, Bourges, France, 1443–1451. Guild Hall – growth of secularization in urban life/ built for clothmakers of Bruges/ shows important role artisans and merchants had in Gothic society/ lofty tower was intended to compete for attention and prestige with towers of city cathedrals New Class of Wealthy Merchants - French trader and financier Jacques Coeur/ example of Late Gothic architecture and a monumental symbol of the period’s new secular spirit/ arranged around courtyard, service areas on ground level, offices and family living upper level/ façade has large section with stained glass, Flamboyant tracery, two doorways (pedestrian and horse/carriage)/ two false windows with servant statues looking down on passing people
  31. 31. Figure 18-35 Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreux, from the abbey church of Saint-Denis, France, 1339. Silver gilt and enamel, 2’ 3 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris. Luxury Arts – Late Gothic <ul><li>Popular among wealthy were statuettes of sacred figures/ purchased either for private devotion or as gifts to churches/ Virgin Mary favor subject reflecting her prominence </li></ul><ul><li>Costly statuette (silver gilt and enamel): Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreux (queen of Charles IV donated this image to Saint-Denis) </li></ul><ul><li>Mary stands on base decorated with enamel scenes of Christ’s Passion </li></ul><ul><li>Playful interaction of figures/ Mary as Queen of Heaven (once wearing a crown)/ Mary’s swaying posture/ heavy drapery folds = a contemporary version of Virgin of Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a reliquary (scepter contained hairs believed to come from Mary’s head) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Figure 18-31 Blanche of Castile, Louis IX, and two monks, dedication page (folio 8 recto) of a moralized Bible, from Paris, France, 1226–1234. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 1’ 3” X 10 1/2”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. Book Illumination – High/Late Gothic Paris – Intellectual Center of Gothic Europe <ul><li>Paris- renowned center for production of fine books </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic Period: book manufacture shifted from monastic scriptoria to urban workshops staffed by laypersons/ these Gothic shops were the forerunners of modern publishing houses </li></ul><ul><li>Louis IX was avid book collector/ his mother Blanche of Castile commissioned this moralized Bible for her teenage son </li></ul><ul><li>Dedication page: Louis and Blanche enthroned beneath triple-lobed arches and miniature cityscapes (like architectural canopies over heads of statues in French cathedral portals)/ below are monk and scribe (showing Gothic book production)/ golden background very costly </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration for page design = Gothic stained-glass windows (Chartres and Sainte-Chapelle) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Figure 18-32 Abraham and the three angels, folio 7 verso of the Psalter of Saint Louis, from Paris, France, 1253–1270. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 5” X 3 1/2”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Same Urban Workshops Produce Both Glass and Books <ul><li>Psalter of St. Louis – produced by artists associated with those who made stained glass for his Sainte-Chapelle </li></ul><ul><li>Backgound architectural setting resembles royal buildings such as Sainte-Chapelle/ figures depicted in elegant Rayonnant “court style” of architecture favored by royal Paris/ intense colors emulate glass/ borders resemble glass partitioned by leading/ gables and rose window with bar tracery = standard Rayonnant architectural features </li></ul><ul><li>Subject: Abraham with 3 angels (prefigures the Christian Trinity)/ two episodes depicted on same page separated by tree (greeting and entertaining) </li></ul><ul><li>Parisian court style: elegant proportions, facial expressions, theatrical gestures, swaying poses </li></ul>
  34. 34. Figure 18-33 MASTER HONORÉ, David anointed by Samuel and battle of David and Goliath, folio 7 verso of the Breviary of Philippe le Bel, from Paris, France, 1296. Ink and tempera on vellum, 7 7/8” X 4 7/8”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Master Honore pioneered naturalism in figure painting <ul><li>Honore illuminated a breviary (book of selected prayers and psalms) for Philippe le Bel </li></ul><ul><li>Two Old Testament scenes involving David: upper, Samuel anoints youthful David/ bottom, King Saul looks on as David prepares to hurl his slingshot at the giant Goliath (who already touches the wound on his forehead), then David is shown slaying Goliath with sword </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Parisian court style shown: linear treatment of hair, figures’ delicate hands and gestures, elegant swaying postures </li></ul><ul><li>Honore adds: an interest in giving figures sculptural volume and showing play of light on their bodies/ not concerned with locating figures in space (feet overlap borders) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Figure 18-34 JEAN PUCELLE, David before Saul, folio 24 verso of the Belleville Breviary, from Paris, France, ca. 1325. Ink and tempera on vellum, 9 1/2” X 6 3/4”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Jean Pucelle – Belleville Breviary <ul><li>Subject: David and Saul </li></ul><ul><li>Placed his fully modeled figures in 3-D architectural settings rendering convincing perspective (3/4 view of Saul on throne) </li></ul><ul><li>Pucelle may have visited Italy and was influenced by Duccio’s work </li></ul><ul><li>Rendering of birds, dragonfly, butterfly, monkey, etc. in border shows interest in close observation of natural world </li></ul><ul><li>Pucelle’s name and name of assistants appear at end of book along with payment they received (was a professional guild member and was like a brand name which guaranteed quality of their work) </li></ul><ul><li>The centuries-old monopoly of the Christian Church in book production had ended </li></ul>
  36. 36. Figure 18-37 Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England, 1220–1258; west facade completed 1265; spire ca. 1320–1330. Salisbury Cathedral, England (begun 1220) Gothic Outside of France - ENGLAND See Separate PowerPoint for detailed information
  37. 37. Figure 18-39 Interior of Salisbury Cathedral (view facing east), Salisbury, England, 1220–1258. Salisbury Cathedral See Separate PowerPoint for detailed information
  38. 38. Figure 18-40 Choir of Gloucester Cathedral (view facing east), Gloucester, England, 1332–1357. Figure 18-40 Alternate View View upward into the complex perpendicular vaulting of the choir (1337-51) Late Gothic – Gloucester Cathedral, England (begun 1332) PERPENDICULAR STYLE <ul><li>Perpendicular Style: took its name from the pronounced verticality of its decorative details </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical lines dominant (example window on right) </li></ul><ul><li>Choir vaults covered with ornamental strands that serve no structural purpose (look at the Romanesque barrel vault) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Figure 18-42 Tomb of Edward II, Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, England, ca. 1330–1335. Edward II as Relic Gloucester Cathedral <ul><li>Freestanding tombs are permanent and immovable units of church furniture/ preserve both remains and memory of a person/ served as reminder of human mortality/ brought distinction, pilgrims, patronage to the church </li></ul><ul><li>Edward II’s son paid for the memorial of his murdered father </li></ul><ul><li>Dead king is idealized Christlike figure/ regal robes with crown/ on each side of his head an angel touches his hair/ at his feet the guardian lion </li></ul><ul><li>Intricate Perpendicular Gothic canopy encases the coffin, forming a kind of miniature chapel protecting the deceased </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive feature is use of OGEE ARCHES (arches made up of two double-curved lines meeting at a point), a characteristic Late Gothic form </li></ul>
  40. 40. Figure 18-41 ROBERT and WILLIAM VERTUE, Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster Abbey, London, England, 1503–1519. Late Gothic – Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster Abbey, England See Separate PowerPoint for detailed information
  41. 41. Figure 18-44 Gerhard of Cologne, aerial view of Cologne Cathedral (from the south), Cologne, Germany, begun 1248; nave, facade, and towers completed 1880. High Gothic – Cologne Cathedral, Germany (begun 1248) <ul><li>French Gothic style began to make impact in Germany with Cologne Cathedral mid-13 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Cologne Cathedral not completed until more than 600 years after 1248 = longest building project on record </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic/Gothic Revival structure is largest cathedral in N. Europe </li></ul>
  42. 42. Figure 18-45 GERHARD OF COLOGNE, Choir of Cologne Cathedral (view facing east), Cologne, Germany, completed 1322. <ul><li>422 ft. long nave with two aisles on each side </li></ul><ul><li>150 ft. high 14 th century choir – double lancets in triforium, tall and slender single windows in clerestory above and in choir arcade below </li></ul>Cologne’s Soaring Vaults
  43. 43. Figure 18-47 Interior of Saint Elizabeth (view facing west), Marburg, Germany, 1235–1283. Hallenkirche (Hall Church) – Saint Elizabeth at Marburg <ul><li>Hall Church – aisles are same height as nave/ has no tribune, triforium, or clerestory </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates French-inspired rib vaults with pointed arches and tall lancet windows </li></ul><ul><li>German interior is more unified and free flowing, less narrow and divided, and more brightly illuminated than interiors of French and English Gothic churches </li></ul>
  44. 44. Figure 18-48 Death of the Virgin, tympanum of left doorway, south transept, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France, ca. 1230. Strasbourg Cathedral, France Death of the Virgin – A Passionate Drama <ul><li>Today Strasbourg is a French city but not so in the 13 th century (German) </li></ul><ul><li>Stylistically the Strasbourg Cathedral is mostly Romanesque, but the tympanum on the south-transept portal is Gothic </li></ul><ul><li>12 Apostles gather around the Virgin/ at center Christ receives his mother’s soul/ Mary Magdalene crouching at bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Figures express EMOTION/ dramatic poses and gestures/ deeply incised drapery adds to drama/ wants to stir emotion in observer/ humanizing, natural, passionate </li></ul>
  45. 45. Figure 18-49 Ekkehard and Uta, statues in the west choir, Naumburg Cathedral, Naumburg, Germany, ca. 1249–1255. Painted limestone, approx. 6’ 2” high. Naumburg Cathedral, Germany Ekkehard and Uta – Secular Images <ul><li>Sculptor of west choir had task to carve statues of 12 benefactors of the original 11 th century church for a fundraising campaign </li></ul><ul><li>German military governor Ekkehard II of Meissen and his wife Uta </li></ul><ul><li>Well-preserved because located indoors (can still see paint) </li></ul><ul><li>French influence: attached to columns/ architectural canopies </li></ul><ul><li>Wearing period costumes/ individualized features and personalities </li></ul><ul><li>Shows body under clothing (Uta’s arm)/ rendering of drapery folds indicates that was working from a model </li></ul><ul><li>REAL PEOPLE/ SECULAR IMAGES FOUND IN THE CHURCH </li></ul>
  46. 46. Figure 18-50 Equestrian portrait (Bamberg Rider), statue in the east choir, Bamberg Cathedral, Germany, ca. 1235–1240. Sandstone, 7’ 9” high. Bamberg Cathedral, Germany Bamberg Rider <ul><li>Equestrian statue – derived from ancient Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Seems to be a true portrait (German Emperor) </li></ul><ul><li>Proportions of rider and horse are correct/ artist did not understand the animal’s anatomy so it is stiffly schematic </li></ul>
  47. 47. Figure 18-51 Virgin with the Dead Christ (Röttgen Pietà), from the Rhineland, Germany, ca. 1300–1325. Painted wood, 2’ 10 1/2” high. Rheinisches Landemuseum, Bonn. Virgin with the Dead Christ ( Rottgen Pieta), German <ul><li>14 th Century – war, plague, famine, social strife – awareness of suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Artists emphasized the traits of human suffering in powerful, expressive exaggeration </li></ul><ul><li>Pieta = pity or compassion in Italian </li></ul><ul><li>Christ is distorted, stiff in death covered with blood/ Virgin Mary cradles him and has oversized face twisted in expression of unbearable grief </li></ul><ul><li>Viewer is confronted with an appalling icon of agony, death and sorrow that humanizes these two sacred people </li></ul><ul><li>HUMANIZING OF RELIGIOUS THEMES AND RELIGIOUS IMAGES </li></ul>Direct Appeal to the Emotions
  48. 48. Figure 18-52 NICHOLAS OF VERDUN, the Klosterneuburg Altar, from the abbey church at Klosterneuburg, Austria, 1181. Gilded copper and enamel, 3’ 6 3/4” high. Stiftsmuseum, Klosterneuburg. Figure 18-53 NICHOLAS OF VERDUN, Sacrifice of Isaac, detail of the Klosterneuburg Altar, from the abbey church at Klosterneuburg, Austria, 1181. Gilded copper and enamel, 5 1/2” high. Stiftsmuseum, Klosterneuburg. Nicholas of Verdun – Mosan Artist Mosan Region = from Germany’s Meuse River Valley <ul><li>Pulpit converted into altarpiece after fire in 1330 </li></ul><ul><li>Klosterneuburg Altar (triptych) – 51 enamels set into trefoil-arched niches framed by explanatory inscriptions (New and Old Testament themes) </li></ul><ul><li>Gold figures against blue background/ biblical actors twist and turn/ exaggerated gestures/ intricate linear folds in drapery/ intense emotionalism </li></ul>
  49. 49. Figure 18-55 LORENZO MAITANI, west facade of Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy, begun 1310. Late Gothic – Orvieto Cathedral, Italy (begun 1310) <ul><li>Few Italian architects accepted the northern Gothic style </li></ul><ul><li>French influence seen : pointed gables over three doorways, rose window framed by statues in niches, four large pinnacles that divide façade into three bays </li></ul><ul><li>The Gothic façade masks the building behind it which is a marble-revetted basilica in the Tuscan Romanesque tradition/ timber-roofed nave with two-story elevation/ round arches frame the apse and nave arcade not pointed </li></ul><ul><li>The Orvieto façade resembles a great altar screen, carefully carved and painted </li></ul>
  50. 50. Figure 18-56 Doge’s Palace, Venice, Italy, begun ca. 1340–1345; expanded and remodeled, 1424–1438. Doge’s (Duke’s) Palace – Venice, Italy Venice – one of the wealthiest cities of Late medieval Italy and of Europe <ul><li>Most ornate public building in medieval Italy/ first level has short, heavy columns support pointed arches – their rhythm is doubled in the upper arcades where more slender columns carry ogee arches with quatrefoils on top/ each story is taller than the one beneath it/ colorful (cream and rose-colored marbles), decorative, light and airy in appearance – floats between water and air </li></ul>
  51. 51. Discussion Questions <ul><li>What are the key architectural and decorative elements of the Gothic cathedrals? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you compare sculpture in the Gothic era to the earlier Romanesque sculpture? What are the reasons for the differences? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider a person’s reaction in 14 th -century upon viewing a Gothic cathedral for the first time. What might the reaction be to viewing an enormous building supported by glass walls? </li></ul>