ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE I
ELEMENTS OF
CLIMATE
BALKHIZ ISMAIL . FSPU, UiTM SARAWAK
♦ The weather elements are used to describe climate
and also to determine the type of climate for a
region.
♦ Three most s...
1. Temperature
• Measured in degree Celsius
(ºC) with a mercury
thermometer.
• The dry-bulb te m pe rature or
‘True Air Te...
1. Temperature (cont’d)
STEVENSON SCREEN
Louvered Wooden
Box
1.20 m to 1.80 meter
high from ground
1. Temperature (cont’d)
2. Humidity
 Defined as the mass of water vapor present in unit
volume of air or space and is expressed in g/kg or
g/m3
1...
2. Humidity (cont’d)
• Measured with wet and dry-bulb hygrometer
• Hygrometer consists of 2 ordinary mercury
thermometer m...
Dry and wet bulb hygrometer
Whirling sling
hygrometer
3. Precipitation
• the collective term used for rain, snow, hail, dew
and frost – all forms of water deposited from the
at...
Rain gauges
3. Precipitation (cont’d)
• Convectional rain
- results from the heating of the earth’s surface that
causes air to rise rapidly
- as the air rises, ...
• Orographic rain
- results when warm moist air of the ocean is forced
to rise by large mountains
- as the air rises it co...
4. Vapor pressure
• the partial pressure of water present in the air
• varies in different places from time to time
• temp...
5. Wind / Air movement
• resulting from the differences of two vapour
pressures
• there are three global belts of winds in...
6. Vegetation
• can influence the local or site climate
• it is an important element in the design of outdoor
spaces, prov...
7. Solar radiation
• an electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun
• the solar spectrum is broadly divided into three
...
7. Solar radiation (cont’d)
8. Sky condition
• usually described in terms of presence or absence
of clouds
• the sky conditions between morning and af...
8. Sky condition (cont’d)
Cloud
• can be differentiate by its shape and height
• can be divided into 3 categories :
i) Low...
8. Sky condition (cont’d)
A LOCAL FACTORS IN
PLANNING &
DESIGNING
BALKHIZ ISMAIL . FSPU, UiTM SARAWAK
Factors in Planning & Designing
A study of local climate is needed in planning &
design. The factors to be considered are ...
Factors in Planning & Designing
i) Wind Direction
~ Should be recognize to make sure other building
are not obstructed.
A ...
i) Wind Direction(cont’d)
~ It is also influenced by the roof shape of the building.
Wind
direction
Flat roof
Wind directi...
ii) Selection of building material
~ Depends on climate.
~ In example, used of cavity brick to reduce heat loss
from build...
iv) The condition of surrounding area
~ Eg. In industrial area
~ Building materials must be durable to acid rain
v) Precip...
FACTORS THE
DIFFERENCE OF
WEATHERCONDITION
WITHSURROUNDING
AREABALKHIZ ISMAIL . FSPU, UiTM SARAWAK
1) Radiation
~ Direct radiation – esp. in the desert, no obstruction
~ Indirect radiation – Vegetation – obstruct the sun
...
3) Altitude
~ The higher the place, the temperature is become lower
~ Eg : Fraser Hill, Cameron Highland
4) Vegetation
~ V...
THANK YOU
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Dbn163 # 02. elements, factors planning & designing

555 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
555
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
43
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Dbn163 # 02. elements, factors planning & designing

  1. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE I ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE BALKHIZ ISMAIL . FSPU, UiTM SARAWAK
  2. 2. ♦ The weather elements are used to describe climate and also to determine the type of climate for a region. ♦ Three most significant climate elements used to determine climate are temperature(1) , precipitation(2) and wind(3) . ♦ The other parameters are humidity(4) , vapor pressure(5) , vegetation(6) , solar radiation(7) and sky condition(8) . Introduction
  3. 3. 1. Temperature • Measured in degree Celsius (ºC) with a mercury thermometer. • The dry-bulb te m pe rature or ‘True Air Te m pe rature ’ – value taken in the shade – thermometer being mounted inside a louvered wooden box – Stevenson Screen at a height of 1.2 to 1.8m – place at open area or space
  4. 4. 1. Temperature (cont’d) STEVENSON SCREEN Louvered Wooden Box 1.20 m to 1.80 meter high from ground
  5. 5. 1. Temperature (cont’d)
  6. 6. 2. Humidity  Defined as the mass of water vapor present in unit volume of air or space and is expressed in g/kg or g/m3 1. Absolute Humidity (AH) The actual amount of moisture present in unit mass of air 2. Saturation-point Humidity (SH) The amount of moisture the air can hold 3. Relative Humidity (RH) The ratio of the actual amount of moisture present to the amount of moisture the air could hold at the given temperature RH = AH/SH x 100%
  7. 7. 2. Humidity (cont’d) • Measured with wet and dry-bulb hygrometer • Hygrometer consists of 2 ordinary mercury thermometer mounted side by side • The first one measured the air (dry-bulb) temperature (DBT) and the other one is covered with a gauze or wick and is kept wet which measures the wet-bulb temperature (WBT)
  8. 8. Dry and wet bulb hygrometer Whirling sling hygrometer
  9. 9. 3. Precipitation • the collective term used for rain, snow, hail, dew and frost – all forms of water deposited from the atmosphere • measured by rain gauges and expressed in millimeters per time unit = mm/month, mm/day
  10. 10. Rain gauges 3. Precipitation (cont’d)
  11. 11. • Convectional rain - results from the heating of the earth’s surface that causes air to rise rapidly - as the air rises, it cools and moisture condenses into clouds and precipitation 3. Precipitation (cont’d)
  12. 12. • Orographic rain - results when warm moist air of the ocean is forced to rise by large mountains - as the air rises it cools, moisture in the air condenses and clouds and precipitation result on the windward side of the mountain while the leeward side receives very little - common in British Columbia     3. Precipitation (cont’d)
  13. 13. 4. Vapor pressure • the partial pressure of water present in the air • varies in different places from time to time • temperatures gives the main influence to vapour pressure • measured in the standard SI pressure unit, N/m2 or milibar (mb) • measured with Barometer
  14. 14. 5. Wind / Air movement • resulting from the differences of two vapour pressures • there are three global belts of winds in each hemisphere : trade winds, westerlies and polar winds • there are wind systems known as the monsoons which are the result of annual differences in heating of land and sea areas
  15. 15. 6. Vegetation • can influence the local or site climate • it is an important element in the design of outdoor spaces, providing sun shading and protection from glare • their shape and color, also their preferred orientation and situation will give the influence to the climate
  16. 16. 7. Solar radiation • an electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun • the solar spectrum is broadly divided into three regions : ultra violet (uv), visible light and infra red (ir) • the solar energy at upper limit of the atmosphere varies from 1.8 – 2.0 cal/cm2 /min according to the earth’s distance from the sun and the solar activity • selectively absorbed in the atmosphere according to the wavelength
  17. 17. 7. Solar radiation (cont’d)
  18. 18. 8. Sky condition • usually described in terms of presence or absence of clouds • the sky conditions between morning and afternoon are different and this will affect the design of roofs, overhangs and shading devices • sky luminance values are needed if daylighting in buildings is to be predicted
  19. 19. 8. Sky condition (cont’d) Cloud • can be differentiate by its shape and height • can be divided into 3 categories : i) Low cloud – ground level to 6000 feet, made of water drops, name start with cumulo ii) High cloud – 20000 to and above, made of ice crystal, name start with cirro or cirrus iii) Intermediate cloud – 6000 to 20000 feet, made of water drops and ice crystal, name start with alto
  20. 20. 8. Sky condition (cont’d)
  21. 21. A LOCAL FACTORS IN PLANNING & DESIGNING BALKHIZ ISMAIL . FSPU, UiTM SARAWAK
  22. 22. Factors in Planning & Designing A study of local climate is needed in planning & design. The factors to be considered are : 1. Wind Directions 2. Selection of Materials 3. Radiation (direction of sun) 4. Condition of surrounding 5. Precipitation 6. Airmovement
  23. 23. Factors in Planning & Designing i) Wind Direction ~ Should be recognize to make sure other building are not obstructed. A good of building arrangement Poor of building arrangement
  24. 24. i) Wind Direction(cont’d) ~ It is also influenced by the roof shape of the building. Wind direction Flat roof Wind direction Pitch roof Factors in Planning & Designing
  25. 25. ii) Selection of building material ~ Depends on climate. ~ In example, used of cavity brick to reduce heat loss from buildings. iii) The Direction of sunrise & sunset (Radiation) ~ The balcony is built to prevent radiation from entering the buildings. ~ Built a window hood. Factors in Planning & Designing
  26. 26. iv) The condition of surrounding area ~ Eg. In industrial area ~ Building materials must be durable to acid rain v) Precipitation ~ Heavy rain for the whole year ~ Pitch roof is used ~ Gutter built to ensure the rain water goes to the drains ~ Corridor to prevent dirty on wall vi) AirMovement ~ Large opening for doors & window ~ Enable warm air flow outside the building. Factors in Planning & Designing
  27. 27. FACTORS THE DIFFERENCE OF WEATHERCONDITION WITHSURROUNDING AREABALKHIZ ISMAIL . FSPU, UiTM SARAWAK
  28. 28. 1) Radiation ~ Direct radiation – esp. in the desert, no obstruction ~ Indirect radiation – Vegetation – obstruct the sun radiation 2) Humidity ~ Different region/place will experience the different humidity/moisture content of air. ~ It’s depends on the amount of rainfall & evaporation process Factors – Weather vs. Surrounding
  29. 29. 3) Altitude ~ The higher the place, the temperature is become lower ~ Eg : Fraser Hill, Cameron Highland 4) Vegetation ~ Vegetation (trees) absorbed the heat / radiation. ~ Evaporation rate is reduce. Factors – Weather vs. Surrounding
  30. 30. THANK YOU

×