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Bruner's Narrative Framework


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Brief overview of Bruner's narrative framework for brand psychology and transmedia storytelling. Bruner's work is particularly important in transmedia projects to inform storyworld coherence.

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Bruner's Narrative Framework

  1. 1. NARRATIVE FRAMEWORK Dr. Pamela Rutledge Brand Psychology & Transmedia Storytelling JEROME BRUNER’S
  2. 2. Paradigmatic knowing uses reasoned analysis, logical proof, and empirical observation. We use it to explain cause and effect, to predict and to create unambiguous truths that can be proven or disproved. Narrative knowledge is created and constructed through the stories we tell about lived experiences and the meanings we create from them. We use narrative knowing to help make sense out of ambiguity and the complexity of human lives. WAYS OFKNOWING: PARADIGMATIC ANDNARRATIVE2
  3. 3. ‘to narrate’ derives from both ‘telling’ (narrare) and ‘knowing in some particular way’ (gnarus) - the two tangled beyond sorting’
  4. 4. • NARRATIVES – Combines the recounting of events with a specific understanding of them. – Is more than sequencing of events; it is a form of meaning-making • STORIES – Narratives that have sequential and temporal ordering – Have some kind of rupture or disturbance in the normal course of events, some kind of unexpected action that provokes a reaction and/or adjustment – Have context, characters, plot, place, turning point – Mean something to the teller • TERMS OFTEN USED INTERCHANGEABLY IN PRACTICE DEFININGNARRATIVEANDSTORIES
  5. 5. 10MAINIDEAS The Human Mind Structures Reality Through Cultural Products and Symbolic Systems 1. Time 2. Specific vs. General 3. People + Events = People Explained 4. Dependent upon ability to interpret them 5. Normal and Different 6. What feels right vs. what ‘fact’ 7. Genre 8. Confirms cultural norms 9. Context of background knowledge 10. Narrative accrual
  6. 6. 1. Narrative diachronicity: The notion that narratives take place over some sense of time. 2. Particularity: Narratives deal with particular events, although some events may be left vague and general 3. Intentional state entailment: Within a narrative, characters have intention, i.e. "beliefs, desires, theories, values, and so on” 4. Hermeneutic composability: Narratives are a selected series of events that can be interpreted as a "story.” 5. Canonicity and breach: Stories are about something unusual happening that "breaches" the canonical or normal state. 6. Referentiality: A story in some way references reality; narrative truth can offer verisimilitude but not verifiability. Veracity versus verisimilitude or Narratives “feel” true. 7. Genericness: The flip side to particularity, where the story can be classified as a genre which frames meaning. 8. Normativeness: Narrative supposes a social norm. This follows from canonicity and breach. 9. Context sensitivity and negotiability: Requires an implicit negotiated role between author and reader, including reader understanding of context to the narrative and agreement to suspend disbelief. 10.Narrative accrual: Stories are cumulative; new stories follow from older ones BRUNER’S10SIDESTONARRATIVE
  8. 8. 1. Narrative diachronicity: The three pigs story takes place in a sequence. In particular, we see the wolf moving from the straw to sticks to brick in accordance with the pig’s effort and work ethic 2. Particularity: The story deals with the wolf’s attacks on the pigs house, not how the pigs get food or how they learned to play the cute instruments. 3. Intentional state entailment: The story makes it clear that the wolf is ‘bad,’ and is in pursuit of the pigs, as well as the motivations of the pigs 4. Hermeneutic composability: The events presented are linked in such as way that we know them to be related and to further the story 5. Canonicity and breach: The three pigs is a morality play, so the breach occurs when the pigs build substandard houses putting themselves at risk of the wolf’s ability to blow their houses down. 6. Referentiality: While this is a cartoon and a fairy tale, we recognize the truth in hard work paying off and making us safer 7. Genericness: We recognize the cartoon as having comedic references and the morality play as giving us a message 8. Normativeness: The story reinforces the ethic of hard work and the lesson that it pays off 9. Context sensitivity and negotiability: We recognize this as a story and are willing to participate in the lesson without being overly critical of the unrealistic elements, such as pigs talking, wolves blowing down houses, etc. 10.Narrative accrual: This story builds on what we believe about wolves being dangerous, morals of hard work, the relative strength of different building materials and the relationships within families. BRUNER’S10SIDESTOTHREELITTLEPIGS
  9. 9. NARRATIVE FRAMEWORK Dr. Pamela Rutledge Media Psychology Research Center JEROME BRUNER’S