A3

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A3

  1. 1. hm-l C³jp-d³kv hml--§sf s]mXpsh Ggmbn Xcw-Xn-cn-¡mw. 1. Sqho-eÀ, 2. kzIm-cy-Im-dp-IÄ, 3. SmIvkn-hm-l-- §Ä, 4. Hmt«m-dn-£, 5. bm{Xm-hm-l--§Ä, 6. Nc-¡p-IÄ sIm­p-t]m-Ip¶ hml--§Ä, 7. aäp hml--§Ä _m¡n FÃm-hn[ hml--§fpw CXn DÄs¸-Spw). C´y³ C³jp-d³kv hn]-Wn- bpsS `qcn-`mKw I¿m-fp-¶Xpw tamt«mÀ C³jp-d³kv taJ-e-bm-Wv. AXp-sIm-­p-X-s¶, D]-t`m- àm-¡Ä hml--C³jp-d³kv t]mfn-kn-IÄ hfsc {i²-tbmsS sXc-sª-Sp-t¡-­-Xp-­v. hnhn-[- §-fmb dnkvIp-IÄ, t]mfn-kn-IÄ F¶nh Xmc-X-ay-s¸-Sp¯nbpw, anI¨ tkh-hpw Dd-¸p-h-cp- ¯nbpw thWw t]mfn-kn-IÄ hm§m³ dnkvIv Ih-tdPv-þhml--¯n-p-­m-hp¶ tISp-]m-Sp-IÄ¡v: Xo]n-Sp-¯w, s]m«n-s¯-dn, an¶Â, `qan- Ip-ep-¡w, shÅ-s¸m-¡w, sImSpw-Im-äv, DcpÄs]m-«Â F¶o {]IrXnZpc-´-§Ä aqetam ap-jyÀ ImcWw D­m-hp¶ Zpc-´-§Ä aqetam hml--¯ntm AXnsâ Ap-_-Ô-`m-K-§Ät¡m D­m- hp¶ ã-¯npw tISp-]m-Sp-IÄ¡pw Ih-tdPv D­v. ap-jyÀ aqe-ap-­m-Ip¶ Zpc-´-§-fpsS ]«n- I-bn sImÅ, tamj-Ww, Iem-]w, kacw, `oI-c-{]-hÀ¯w, ]pd¯pn¶pÅ Imc-W-§-fm-epÅ A]-ISw F¶nh DÄs¸-Sp-¶p. tdmUv, sdbnÂ, Pew, hmbp F¶o amÀ¤-§Ä hgntbm en^väv, Fen-th-äÀ F¶nh sIm­p-h-cp-¶-Xn-n-S-bn kw`-hn-¡p¶ tISp-]m-Sp-IÄ¡pw Ih-tdPv D­v. C´y³ tamt«mÀ Xmcn^v {]Im-c-apÅ tXbvamw AYhm Un{]o-kn-tb-jv hnt[-b-am-bn-«m-bn- cn¡pw hml--¯npw LS-I-`m-K-§Ä¡pw nc¡v nÝ-bn-¡p-I. hmlw ss{Uhv sN¿p¶ BÄ¡pw, bm{X-¡mÀ¡pw D­m-tb-¡m-hp¶ hyàn-KXA]-IS C³jp-d³kv ta¸-dª t]mfn- kn-bn-eqsS kwc-£n-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p-­v. Bh-iy-sa-¦n IqSp-X XpI¡v bm{X-¡mÀ¡v hyàn-KX Ih-tdPv ÂIp-hm-pÅ Ah-k-chpw I¼nIÄ ÂIp-¶p-­v. tXÀUv]mÀ«n Ih-tdPv: A]-I-Sw-aqew D­m-hp¶ nb-a-]-c-amb _m[y-X-bnÂn¶pw n§Ä¡v e`n-¡p¶ kwc-£Ww BWn-Xv. A]-I-Sw-aqew aq¶mw-I-£n-IÄ acn-¡p-Itbm, AwK-ssh-Ieyw kw`-hn-¡p-Itbm aq¶mw-I-£n-I-fpsS hkvXp-h-l-IÄ¡v miw kw`-hn-¡pItbm sNbvXm D­m-hp¶ nb-a-]-c-amb _m[y-X-IÄ¡mWv kwc-£-Ww. C´y-bn s]mXp-n-c-¯n HmSp¶ FÃm hml--§Ä¡pw {]kvXpX Ih-dPv nÀ_-Ô-amWv. tm s¢bnw t_mW-kv: s¢bnw CsÃ-¦n n§Ä¡v t]mfnkn ]pXp-¡p-t¼mÄ {]oan-b-¯n tms¢bnw t_mW-knv AÀl-X-bp-­m-hpw. AXm-bXv Hcp hÀjw bmsXmcphn[ ã-]-cn-lm- chpw n§Ä¡v e`n-¨n-«n-sÃ-¦n ASp-¯-hÀjw t]mfnkn ]pXp-¡p-t¼mÄ {]oan-b-¯n Cfhv Ap-h-Zn-¡pw. Hcp-hm-lw C³jpÀ sNbvXv BZy-hÀjw s¢bnw H¶pw D­m-bn-sÃ-¦n hml-- hnesb ASn-Øms¸Sp¯n nÝ-bn¨ {]oan-b-¯n 20% Ingnhv t]mfnkn ]pXp-¡p-t¼mÄ e`n- ¡p-¶-Xm-Wv. CXv c­mw-hÀj-¯n 25%hpw, aq¶mwhÀj¯n 35%hpw, memw-hÀj-¯n 45%hpw, A©mw-hÀj-¯n 50%hpw Bbn-cn-¡pw. Hcp I¼-n-bnÂn¶pw FSp¯ t]mfnkn ]pXp- ¡p-hm³ asämcp I¼-n-bn kao-]n-¨m ne-hn tms¢bnw t_mWkv Ds­-¦n AXnsâ Bp-Iqeyhpw e`y-am-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. C§s XpSÀ¨-bmbn ]e-hÀj-§Ä s¢bn-an-Ãm-Xn-cp-¶m AX- p-k-cn¨v {]oan-b-¯nse Cfhv hÀ²n-¡m³ CS-hcpw. ]s£ Cfhv ]c-am-h[n 50-% hsc-bm-Wv. ne- hn-epÅ t]mfn-kn-bpsS Imem-h[n Xocp¶ Xob-Xn-¡p-tijw 90 Znh-k-¯n-p-Ån ]pXp-¡n-bmse t_mW-kn-v AÀl-X-bp­mbn-cn-¡p-I-bpÅp. n§Ä¡n-ãs¸« GXp C³jp-d³kv I¼-n-I-fn n¶pw t]mfnkn hm§n-bmepw Cu Bp-Iqeyw ]qÀ®-ambpw D]-tbm-K-s¸-Sp-¯mw. ne-hn-epÅ hml--¯nsâ tms¢bnw t_mWkv ]pXp-Xmbn hm§m³ Dt±-in-¡p¶ hml--¯n-te¡v {Sm³kv^À sN¿p-I-bm-sW-¦n {]oan-b-¯n h¼n¨ Cfhv e`y-am-Wv. A[nI UnkvIu-­p-IÄ: C´y-bnse AwKo-IrX Hmt«m-sam-_o Atkm-kn-tb-j-nse AwK- amWv n§-sf-¦n A[nI UnkvIu­v tSmw. AXp-t]mse tamjWw XS-bp-¶-Xn-pÅ AwKo- Im-c-apÅ D]-I-c-W-§Ä hml--¯n LSn-¸n-¨n-«p-s­-¦n {]oan-b-¯n 2.5% (]-c-am-h[n 500 cq] hsc) Cf-hnv AÀl-X-bp­v. F{X-cq-]bv¡v C³jpÀ sN¿-Ww: C³jpÀUv Un¢-bÀUv hmeyp (sF.-Un.-hn.) F¶v hnfn-¡p¶ nÝnX XpI-bv¡mWv hmlw C³jzÀ sN¿p-¶-Xv. hml nÀ½m-Xm-hnsâ ]«n-I-bn DÄs¸- Sp¶ hn¸--hn-e-tbmSv BIvk-k-dn-I-fpsS hne Iq«n-b-tijw AXnÂn¶pw C´y³ tamt«mÀ Xm-cn^v{]Imcw Hmtcm hÀj-apÅ tXbvam--s¨-ehv Ingn¨ tij-amWv Cu XpI nÝ-bn-¡p-I. GsX-¦nepw Ce-Iv{Sn-¡Â/Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIv D]-I-c-W-§Ä hml--¯n LSn-¸n-¨n-«p-s­-¦n AXnsâ bYmÀ° hnebpw IqSn tcs¯ ]dª sF.-Un.-hn-bn Iq«n-t¨À¡mw. C³jpÀ
  2. 2. sN¿p-¶ hml--§Ä¡v hne nÝ-bn-¡p-¶-Xnv Nne am-Z-WvU-§-fp-­v. AXm-bXv ]pXnb hmlw C³jpÀ sN¿p-t¼mÄ bYmÀ°-hn-e-bpsS 95% am{X-am-Wn-Xv. 6amkw apX 1hÀjw hsc ]g-¡-apÅ hml--¯nv 15% hne Ipd¨v C³jpÀ sN¿p-¶p. 1hÀjw apX 2hÀjw hsc 20%hpw 2apX 3hÀjw hsc 30%hpw, 3apX 4hÀjw hsc 40%hpw 4hÀjw apX 5hÀjw hsc 50%hpw Ipd-ª-hn-e-¡mWv C³jpÀ sN¿p-I. {]oanbw IW-¡m¡p¶Xv: km[mcWbmbn ]pXnb hml§Ä C³jpÀ sN¿pt¼mÄ hnebpsS 95% am{Xsa sFUnhn Bbn IW¡m¡mdpÅq. Fs´¶m hmlw sUenhÀ sNbvXtijw A]ISw kw`hn¨m C³jpÀ sNbvX XpIbpsS 95% hsc am{Xsa (]camh[n) s¢bnw e`n¡pIbpÅq. AXpsIm­mWv C{]Imcw C³jpÀ sN¿p¶Xv. Hcp hÀjw Ignªm 15%hpw ]n¶oSpÅ hÀj¯n 10% hoXhpamWv hnebn Ipdhv hcp¶Xv. C§ns Ipdbv¡p¶ XpI, amÀ¡äv hnebpambn H¯ptmt¡­XmWv. AXpsIm­pXs¶bmWv Cu hnesb C³jpÀ sN¿s¸Sp¶ hyàn nÝbn¡p¶ hnebmsW¶v ]dbp¶Xpw. hne Ipdhv ImWn¨m s¢bnw kw_Ôamb Imcy§fn apgph³ XpIbpw e`n¡msX t]mIpIbpw IqSpX ImWn¨m Amhiyambn {]oanbw AS¡pI hgn km¼¯nIjvSw D­mhpIbpw sN¿p¶p. hmlw ]eXcw Bhiy§Ä¡mbn D]tbmKn¡p¶p. AXmbXv ImdpIÄ Xs¶ ]cntim[n¡mw. kzImcy Bhiy§Ä¡pw SqdnÌv SmIvknIfmbn HmSp¶Xnpw km[mcW D]tbmKn¡p¶p. kzImcy Bhiy§Ä¡pÅ hml§Ä¡v hmWnPy Bhiy¯nv D]tbmKn¡p¶ hml§sf¡mÄ dnkvIv IpdhmbXnm {]oanbw nc¡nepw Ipdhv D­mbncn¡pw. hml§Ä Nc¡v Ibäphmpw bm{X¡msc Ibän sIm­pt]mIp¶Xnpw, aäp ]e hn[ Bhiy§Ä¡pw C¶v D]tbmKn¡p¶p­v. AhbpsS dnkvIns Bkv]Zam¡nbmWv {]oanbw nÝbn¡p¶Xv. hml§Ä Ime]g¡w sNÃpwtXmdpw A]ISkm[yXIÄ IqSn hcp¶p. AXpsIm­v Xs¶ 5 hÀjw apX 10 hÀjw hsc ASp¯ Ém_pw, 10 hÀj¯n IqSpXemsW¦n aq¶mas¯ Ém_pw nÝbn¨n«p­v. AXmbXv Hmtcm A©v hÀjhpw Ignªm {]oanb¯n hÀ²hv D­mbncn¡psa¶À°w. hml§fpsS I¸mknän¡v Apkcn¨pw {]oanb¯n hÀ² D­mbncn¡pw. tamt«mÀ ssk¡nÄ, ImdpIÄ F¶nhbpsS F©n³ I¸mknänbmWv amZÞsa¦nÂ, temdnIÄ¡v sam¯w `mc¯nsâ ASnØm¯nepw _ÊpIÄ¡v koänsâ F®apkcn¨pw hyXymks¸Spw. Hcp hml¯nsâ {]oanbw IW¡m¡p¶Xn hml¯nsâ hne, hml¯nsâ D]tbmKw, hml¯nsâ Ime¸g¡w hml¯nsâ F©n³/I¸mknän F¶nhbmWv. tXbvamw:hml-m-]-ISw kw`-hn-¨m XoÀ¸m-¡p¶ ka-b¯v km[m-c-W-bmbn dºÀ, sstem¬, ¹mÌnIv, SbÀ, _mä-dn, FbÀ_mKv XpS-§n-b-h¡v 50% tXbvamw IW-¡m¡n am{Xsa s¢bnw ÂIq. ss^_À km[--§Ä¡v 30% tXbvamw IW-¡m-¡p-t¼mÄ ¥mknv tXbvamw Xosc IW-¡m-¡m-dn-Ã. teml-km-a-{Kn-IÄ¡v Hcp-hÀjw icm-icn 5% tXbvamw IW- ¡m-¡p-¶p-­v. hmlw ssIamäw sN¿p-t¼mÄ: hmlw hnev] S¯n ssIamäw sN¿p-t¼mÄ C³jp-d³kv t]mfn-knbpw ]pXnb DS-a-Øsâ t]cn {Sm³kv^À sNbvXn-cn-¡-Ww. cPn-kvt{S-j³ kÀ«n-^n-¡- än ]pXnb t]cpw hnem-khpw amän 14 Znh-k-¯n-Iw C³jp-d³kv t]mfn-knbpw amä-W-sa- ¶mWv nb-aw. AÃm-¯-]£w s¢bnw kw`-hn-¨m C³jp-d³kv ã-]-cn-lmcw e`n-¡p-I-bn-Ã. _m¦p-IÄ apX-emb [-ImcyØm]-§-fnÂn¶pw hmbv]-sb-Sp-¡p-t¼mÄ hmbv]-X¶ Øm]-- ¯nsâ t]cnepw IqSn-bm-bn-cn-¡Ww t]mfnkn FSp-t¡-­-Xv. C³jp-d³kv tcJ-IÄ: hml--§Ä C³jpÀ sN¿p-t¼mÄ Xm¡m-en-I-ambn ÂIp¶ tcJ- bmWv IhÀtm-«v. t]mfnkn Hcp-hÀj-t¯¡v BsW-¦nepw IhÀtm-«nsâ Imem-hp[n ]c-am-h[n 60 Znh-k-am-Wv. {]kvXpX Imem-h[n Xocp-¶-Xnv ap¼mbn hml--¯nsâ bYmÀ° t]mfn-kn, hml--¯nsâ cPn-ÌÀ ¼À klnXw C³jp-d³kv I¼-n-bn n¶pw hmt§-­-Xm-Wv. t]mfnkn d±m-¡Â: Hcp-hm-lw c­p-I-¼-n-I-fnÂn¶pw C³jpÀ sNbvXp F¶n-cn-¡-s«, km[m- c-W-bmbn BZyw FSp¯ t]mfnkn ne-nÀ¯n c­m-as¯ t]mfnkn d±m¡n ]Ww XncnsI hm§mw. Htc-I-¼-n-bn-emWv c­p-hm-l-hpw C³jpÀ sNbvsX-¦n apgp-h³ XpIbpw XncnsI e`n-¡pw. AX-Ã, hnhn[ I¼-n-I-fn-em-sW-¦n F{X-Zn-h-k-amsWm t]mfnkn FSp-¯n-«p-Å-sX- ¦n A{Xbpw Znh-ks¯ {]oanbw Ingn¨vv _m¡n ÂIp-I-bmWv ]Xn-hv. Uyp¹n-t¡äv t]mfnkn: Hdn-Pn-Ât]mfnkn ã-s¸-«m AXnsâ Uyq¹n-t¡-än-mbn At]£ ÂI-Ww. At]-£-tbm-sSm¸w 50cq] ^ok-S-¨m t]mfnkn ÂIp¶-XmWv.
  3. 3. ‘FIvkkv t¢mkv’: ‘FIvkkv’t¢mkv c­pXcap­v. H¶v ‘I¼Âkdn FIvkkv’ AXmbXv t]mfnkn FSp¡p¶ Ahkc¯n I¼nbpsS t]mfnknbn nehnepÅ nb-a-§Ä. CXn- tamt«mÀ hml¯nv A]ISw ]änbm Hcp nÝnX XpI hsc s¢bnw sN¿m³ AÀlXbnÃ. (DZm. kzImcy ImdpSaIÄ¡v 500 cq] hscbpÅ sNdnb s¢bnapIÄ). c­maXmbn ‘ hfâdn FIvkkv’ t¢mkv. {]kvXpX nb-a-¯n ]dªn«pÅXv C³jpÀ sN¿p¶ hyàn ho­pw Hcp nÝnX XpI hsc s¢bnw sN¿m³ Dt±iansæn Cu hnhcw s{]mt¸mk t^man FgpXn H¸n«v sImSp¯m C³jpd³kv I¼n Hcp nÝnX iXamw {]oanb¯n Ingnhv ÂIp¶p­v. AXpsIm­mWv ]et¸mgpw {]oanbw C¯n ]e I¼nIfnepw hyXymkw ImWp¶Xv. AXpsIm­v n§Ä C³jpÀ sN¿pt¼mgpw ]pXp¡pt¼mgpw hfâdn FIvkkv F¶ t¢mkv {]tXyIw {i²nt¡­XmWv. ]e D]t`màm¡fpw s¢bnw hcp¶ kab¯mWv s¢bnw sN¿m³ ]ämXncn¡p¶Xpw FIvkkv t¢mkv Ds­¶ hnhcw Adnbp¶Xpw. AXpsIm­v {]oanbw km[mcWbnepw IpdhmWv Bhiys¸Sps¶¦n hfâdn FIvkkv Dt­m F¶v Dd¸p hcp¯nb tijw am{Xta {]oanbw XpI ÂImhq. FIvkv{Sm-^n-änwKv Ih-td-Pv: Ce-Ivt{Sm-WnIv Ce-Iv{Sn-¡Â D]-I-c-W-§Ä (-hm-l--I-¼n ÂIm- ¯-h) Imdn LSn-¸n-¡p¶hÀ hne-bpsS 4% {]oanbw ÂIn-bmse kwc-£Ww e`n-¡q. AXp- t]mse FÂ]n-Pn/kn-F³Pn F¶nh D]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶-hcpw C³jpÀ sN¿m³ hne-bpsS 4% AS- bvt¡-­-Xp-­v. hml--¯nv tXbvamw IW-¡m-¡msX ã-]-cn-lmcw ÂIp¶ t]mfn-kn-Ifpw C¶v ]e I¼-n-Ifpw ]pd-¯n-d-¡n-bn-«p-­v. F¶mÂ, C³jpÀ sN¿p-t¼mÄ, C³jp-d³kv I¼- nbnepÅ hnizm-ky-X-¡pw, tkh--¯n-p-amWv {]m[myw ÂtI-­-Xv. C³jpÀ sN¿mw.kpc-£n-X-am-¡mw: UoXm-cn-^nwKv ne-hn h¶-tXmsS Gähpw Ipdª sNe- hn Gähpw IqSp-X Bp-Iq-ey-§Ä D]-t`m-àm-hnv e`y-ambn XpS-§n. P-d C³jp-d³kv I¼-n-IÄ ã-km-[y-X-I-fpsS hym]vXn-b-p-k-cn-¨mWv {]oanbw nÝ-bn-¡p-¶Xv. AXn-m em`-I- c-amb taJ-e-I-fn {]oanbw Ipd-bp-Ibpw ã-¯n-epÅ taJ-e-I-fn {]oanbw hÀ²n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿pw. Npcp-¡n-¸-d-ªm aÕ-c-tbm-Ky-amb {]oanbw nc-¡p-I-fm-Wv Ct¸mÄ amÀ¡-än ne-hn- ep-Å-Xv. C³jpÀ sN¿p-t¼mÄ nc-h[n Imcy-§Ä {i²n-t¡-­-Xm-bp-­v. hnZKvZ D]-tZiw Cu Imcy-§-fn e`n-¨n-sÃ-¦n km¼-¯n-I-ãw kw`-hn-¡p-sa¶v am{X-a-Ã, anI¨ tkhw In«msX t]mIp-Ibpw sN¿pw. I¼n sXc-sª-Sp-t¡-­-hn-[w: Gähpw anI¨ I¼n sXc-sª-Sp-¡m³ Xmsg-]-d-bp¶ Imcy- §Ä ]cn-K-Wn-¡p-I. hnizm-k-tbm-Ky-X, tkh KpW-ta-·, D]-t`m-àm-¡-tfm-SpÅ kao-]-w, {]mtZ-in-I-amb tkh--irw-J-e, s¢bnw XoÀ¸m-¡p¶ ka-b-]-cn-[n, t]mfnkn Cjyq sN¿p¶ ka- b-]-cn-[n, D]-t`m-àm-hnsâ Bh-iy-§Ä a-kn-em-¡mpw AX-p-k-cn¨v {]hÀ¯n-¡m-p-apÅ Adnhpw Ignhpw F¶n-h-sbÃmw Xmc-Xayw sNbvX-tijw Gähpw anI¨ I¼n thWw sXc- sª-Sp-¡m³. C´y-bnse s]mXp-ta-J-e-bn-sebpw kzIm-cy-ta-J-e-bn-sebpw 23Hmfw I¼-n-IÄ C¶v kPo-h-ambn tIc-f-¯n-ep-­v. Ch-cpsS {]oanbw nc-¡n hyXym-k-§fpw D­v. AXn-m Xmc-Xayw sNbvX-tijw n§ÄXs¶ Xocp-am-n-¡p-I. c­m-a-Xmbn s¢bnw D­m-bm Iymjvsekv e`n-¡m³ C¶v _p²n-ap«v H«pw-X-s¶-bn-Ã. ]e-t¸mgpw ]e-hn-[-¯nepw Iymjvsekv kuIcyw NneÀ¡v am{Xsa DÅp-sh¶ sXämb [mc-W-bn IpSp-§m-Xn-cn-¡p-I. t]mfnkn sXc-sª-Sp-t¡-­-hn[w: t]mfn-kn-bnse n_-Ô--IÄ, s¢bnw ÂIm¯ Ih-td-Pv, s¢bnw XoÀ¸m-¡p¶ coXn, S-]-Sn-{Iaw, ka-b-]-cn[n, tXbvam-w IW-¡m-¡p¶ coXn, Ém_v, s{]mt¸m-kÂt^m-anse tNmZy-§-sf-¡p-dn-¨pÅ icn-bmb Adn-hv, s¢bnwt^mw ]qcn-¸n-¡m³ klm-bn-¡p-¶-Xn-pÅ Ign-hv, s¢bnw CÃm¯ hÀj-¯n e`n-t¡­ t_mW-kv, ]mt¡Pv t]mfn- kn-I-fn-eqsS e`n-¡p¶ Bp-Iq-ey-§Ä, C³jp-d³kv {Sm³kv^À, Iym³k sNt¿­ S-]-Sn-{I- a-§Ä, Iymjvsekv skänÂsaâv S-]-Sn-{I-a-§Ä, tms¢bnw t_mW-kv, ]pXp-Xmbn hm§p¶ hml--¯n-te¡v amäp¶ coXn-IÄ Ch-sbÃmw {][m--s¸-«-h-bm-Wv. hml-m-]-ISw kw`-hn-¨mÂ: hml-m-]-I-S-¯nsâ Kpcp-X-cm-hØ Ap-k-cn-¨mWv S-]-Sn-{I-a- §Ä Xocp-am-n-t¡­Xv. -hm-l--§Ä Iq«n-bn-Sn¨v Poh-lmn kw`-hn-¡p-I-bm-sW-¦n nÀ_-Ô- ambpw Gähpw ASp¯ t]meokv tÌj-n hnhcw ÂI-Ww. tamt«mÀ shln-¡nÄ C³kvs]- IvSÀ hmlw ]cn-tim-[n¨v dnt¸mÀ«v ÂI-Ww. tamt«mÀhml A]-I-S-tI-kp-IÄ (M.A.C.T.) D­m-hm-n-S-bpÅ FÃm A]-I-S-§Ä¡pw t]meokv tÌj-n n¶pw F^v.-sF.-BÀ. hm§n-bn- cn-¡-Ww. Kpcp-X-c-a-Ãm¯ A]-I-S-§-fn Pn.-Un.-BÀ. (P--d Ubdn dnt¸mÀ«v) am{Xw aXn. tdmUnÂsh¨v A]-ISw D­m-bm hmlw IqSp-X mi--ã-§Ä D­m-Im-Xn-cn-¡m³ ap³I-cp-
  4. 4. X ap³I-cp-X FSp¡Ww. hmlw C³jpÀ sNbvX I¼-nsb/{]Xn-n-[nsb hnhcw tcJm- aqew hni-Z-hn-h-c-§Ä klnXw Adn-bn-t¡-­-Xp-am-Wv. A]-I-S-Ø-es¯ ]cn-tim-[- IÄ¡p- tijw hmlw kÀsÆ sN¿m³th­n hmlw AwKo-IrX hÀ¡vtjm-¸n-te¡v amtä-­-Xm-Wv. hmlw HmSn-¨p-sIm-­p-t]m-hm³ ]äm¯ Ah-Ø-bn aäp hml--§-fn Ib-än-tbm, sI«n-h- en¨v thsd Hcp hml--¯nsâ klm-b-t¯m-Sp-Iq-Sntbm Kmtc-Pn-te¡v F¯n-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. Kmtc-PnÂn¶pw hni-Z-amb FÌn-taäv X¿m-dm¡n shbvt¡-­-Xm-Wv. s¢bnwt^mw {i²-tbmsS ]qcn-¸n-¡p-I-bpw, hml--¯nsâ cPn-kvt{S-j³, s]Àan-äv, ^nävkv kÀ«n-^n-¡-äv, SmIvkv dko-äv, hmlw HmSn¨ Bfnsâ ss{UhnwKv ssek³kv F¶n-h-bpsS t^mt«m-tIm-¸nbpw t]meokv F^v.-sF.-BÀ. dn¸-bÀ sN¿m-pÅ FÌn-taäv F¶n-hbpw IqSn Kmtc-Pn G¸n-¡p-Itbm kÀth-bÀ¡v ssIam-dp-Itbm sN¿Ww kÀth Ign-ªm Kmtc-Pnse hÀIvkv amt-P-cpsS Ap-a-Xn-tbm-Sp-IqSn hmlw dn¸-bÀ sN¿p-Ibpw amänb km[--§-fpsS _nÃpw te_À NmÀPp- Ifpw ÂIn hml--D-S-a¡v hmlw ssIam-dp-I-bpamWv ]Xn-hv. ]s£ Ct¸mÄ an¡-hmdpw I¼- n-IÄ AXn-p-]-Icw s{IUnäv _nÃpw te_À NmÀÖpw FÃm-hn[ Ingn-hp-Ifpw Ignªv tcn«v hÀ¡vtjm-¸n-te¡v ÂIp-¶p-­v. CXns Iymjvsekv skänÂsaâv F¶p-]-d-bp-¶p. C¶v H«p- an¡ C³jp-d³kv I¼-n-I-fpw, Kmtc-Pp-Ifpw Iymjvsekv kuIcyw D]-t`m-àm-¡Ä¡v ÂIp- ¶p-­v. ãw Ipdbv¡mw: tamt«mÀ hml C³jpd³kv cwKw tcnSp¶ jvSw Ipdbv¡p¶Xn hml DSaIÄ¡pw nÀWmbI ]¦v hln¡m³ Ignbpw. AXphgn {]oanb¯nse hÀ[ Hgnhm¡mpamIpw. Nne amÀKnÀtZi§Ä.  s{]mt¸mk t^mw IrXyambn ]qcn¸n¡pI. AXnse hnhc§Ä ASnØmam¡nbmbncn¡pw n§Ä ÂtI­ {]oanbw nÝbn¡pI.  A]ISap­mbm AXntmSp_Ôn¨v hmlw kpc£nXam¡Ww. ho­pw km[§Ä tISphcmtm Ifhpt]mImtm CSbmhmXncn¡m³ {i²n¡pI.  s¢bnw D­mb hml¯nsâ FÌntaäv s]cp¸n¨v ImWn¡p¶ {]hWX D­mIcpXv.  hml¯nsâ D]tbmKw, HmSp¶ Zqcw, HmSn¡p¶ Bfnsâ ap³Ime ]cnNbw, ap³Ime A]IS Ncn{Xw, BtcmKyØnXn F¶nh {]oanbw hÀ[sb _m[n¡psa¶v aknem¡Ww.  jvSw nI¯pI F¶ C³jqd³kv XXz¯nv AXoXambn s¢bnan n¶pw em`ap­m¡Wsa¶ Nn´ Hcn¡epw ]mSnÃ.  Amhiyambn s¢bnw sN¿p¶ Hmtcm cq]bpw `mhnbnse {]oanbw hÀ[n¸n¡psa¶ bmYmÀ°yw aknem¡n thWw {]hÀ¯n¡m³.  C³jpd³kv CÃm¯ hmlw dn¸bÀ sN¿p¶Xpt]mse Xs¶ thWw C³jqÀ sNbvX hmlhpw dn¸bÀ sN¿m³.  Gähpw à coXnbn {]hÀ¯n¡pIbpw [mÀanIX Im¯pkq£n ¡pIbpw sN¿p¶ hÀIvtjm¸nte¡v am{Xta hmlw dn¸bdnmbn sIm­pt]mImhq.  A]ISw kw`hn¨m Ignbp¶{X thKw C³jpd³kv I¼nbpambn _Ôs¸«v Bhiyamb amÀKnÀtZiw tXSWw. hml§Ä Iq«nap«n kw`hn¡p¶ A]IS§fn sXäpw icnbpw nÝbn¨v tdmUn sh¨v ]WanS]mSv S¯n XoÀ¸m¡p¶ coXn Hcn¡epw kzoIcn¡cpXv.  ]cmXnbps­¦n tcJmaqew AXXv DtZymKØÀ¡v kaÀ¸n¡Ww. tIm¸n FSp¯psh¡pIbpw thWw. Hcn¡epw hm¡m ÂIp¶ ]cmXn¡v Hcp {]tbmPhpanÃ. hmlw Ifhpt]mbmÂ: hmlw Ifhpt]mbm BZyw sNt¿­Xv AXmXp Øes¯ t]meokv tÌjn tcJmaqew hnhcw Adnbn¡pI. AtXmsSm¸w Xs¶ hmlw C³jqÀ sNbvX I¼nbn tcJmaqew (AXmbXv hml¯nsâ t]mfnkn ¼À,dPnkvt{Sj³ ¼À, t]cv, A{Ukv) F¶nh ÂIpIbpw, I¼nbn n¶v s¢bnw t^mw hm§nt¡­XpamWv. s¢bnw t^man sImSp¯ncn¡p¶ tNmZy§Ä icnbmbn ]qcn¸n¡pIbpw, t]meokn n¶pw In«nb F^v.sF.BÀ tIm¸n klnXw C³jpd³kv I¼nbn Xncn¨v G¸nt¡­XpamWv. t]meokv tÌjpambn _Ôs¸«v AtzjW¯nsâ ]ptcmKXn hnebncpt¯­XmWv. Ifhpt]mb hmlw I­pIn«nbm ss^ C³hÌntKj³ dnt¸mÀ«v t]meokn n¶pw hmt§­XmWv. hmlw Ifhpt]mb XobXn apX 6 amkw hsc Atzjn¨n«pw hmlw I­pIn«nbnsæn t]meokv tÌjn n¶pw tm¬ ss{Sh_nÄ kÀ«n^n¡äv hm§nt¡­Xpw AXv C³jpd³kv I¼nsb G¸n¡pIbpw thWw. hml DSa dPnkvt{Sj³ kÀ«n^n¡äv, t]mfnkn, hml¯nsâ Io, hmlw tem¬ FSp¯XmsW¦nÂ
  5. 5. AXv t¢mkv sNbvX tcJ F¶nh ÂtI­Xp­v. C³Uwnän t_m­v, k{_mtKj³ seäÀ apXemb tcJIÄ X¿mdm¡n hml DSabn n¶pw H¸p tiJcn¨ tijw am{Xsa s¢bnw XoÀ¸m¡mdpÅq. {]oan-b-¯nsâ am-Z-WvU-§Ä: km[mcWbmbn ]pXnb hml§Ä C³jpÀ sN¿pt¼mÄ hnebpsS 95% am{Xsa C³jpÀ sN¿p¶ XpI Bbn IW¡m¡mdpÅq. Fs´¶m hmlw sUenhdn sNbvXtijw A]ISw kw`hn¨m C³jpÀ sNbvX XpIbpsS 95% hsc am{Xsa (]camh[n) s¢bnw e`n¡pIbpÅq. AXpsIm­mWv C{]Imcw C³jpÀ sN¿p¶Xv. Hcp hÀjw Ignªm 15 iXamhpw ]n¶oSpÅ hÀj¯n 10 iXamw hoXhpamWv hnebn Ipdhv hcp¶Xv. C§ns Ipdbv¡p¶ XpI, amÀ¡äv hnebpambn H¯ptmt¡­XmWv. AXpsIm­p Xs¶bmWv Cu hnesb C³jqÀ sN¿s¸Sp¶ hyàn nÝbn¡p¶ hnebmsW¶v ]dbp¶Xpw. hne Ipdhv ImWn¨m s¢bnw kw_Ôamb Imcy§fn apgph³ XpIbpw e`n¡msX t]mIpIbpw IqSpX ImWn¨m Amhiyambn {]oanbw AS¡pI hgn km¼¯nI jvSw D­mhpIbpw sN¿p¶p. hml¯nsâ C³jpd³kv {]oanbs¯ c­mbn Xcw Xncn¡mw. H¶v hml¯nv IjvS jvS§Ä kw`hn¡pt¼mÄ IhÀ sN¿p¶Xpw (own Damage) c­maXmbn hmlw aqew s]mXpP§Äs¡m, hkvXphIIÄs¡m jvSw kw`hn¨m ÂtI­Xmb jvS]cnlmcw IhÀ sN¿p¶Xpw (Third Party) CXn BZyw ]dªncn¡p¶ hn`mK¯nv C³jpd³kv I¼nIÄ AhcpsS ap³Ime s¢bnapIsf hnebncp¯nb tijw {]oanb¯n 20% hsc IngnhpIÄ ÂIp¶p­v. ]s£ tXÀUv ]mÀ«n C³jpd³kn bmsXmcphn[ CfhpIfpw ÂIp¶XÃ. {]oanbw Xs¶ Hcp {]tXyI ^­nte¡v {Sm³kv^À sN¿p¶Xpw, B ^­n n¶v s¢bnapIÄ XoÀ¸m¡p¶XpamWv. asämcp {][m Imcyw tm s¢bnw t_mWÊmWv (NCB), hml§Ä {i²tbmsS HmSn¨v A]IS§sfm jvS§sfm hcp¯m¯hÀ¡v I¼n AphZn¡p¶ {]oanbw Cfhn hÀ²hpw D­v. hÀjw 20% 2 hÀjw 25%, 3 hÀjw 35%, 4 hÀjw 45%, 5 hÀjw 50% F¶n§sbmWnXv. n§fpsS nehnepÅ hml¯nv 50% tm s¢bnw DÅ kmlNcy¯n n§Ä Hcp ]pXnb hmlw hm§m³ Dt±in¡ps¶¦n nehnepÅ t_mWÊv ]pXnb hml¯nte¡v amänbm {]oanb¯n h³ Cfhp tSmhp¶XmWv. hmlw ]eXcw Bhiy§Ä¡mbn D]tbmKn¡p¶p. AXmbXv ImdpIÄ Xs¶ ]cntim[n¡mw. kzImcy Bhiy§Ä¡pw SqdnÌv SmIvknIfmbn HmSp¶Xnpw km[mcW D]tbmKn¡p¶p. kzImcy Bhiy§Ä¡pÅ hml§Ä¡v hmWnPy Bhiy¯nv D]tbmKn¡p¶ hml§sf¡mÄ dnkvIv IpdhmbXnm {]oanbw nc¡nepw Ipdhv D­mbncn¡pw. hml§Ä Nc¡v Ibäphmpw bm{X¡msc Ibän sIm­pt]mIp¶Xnpw, aäp ]e hn[ Bhiy§Ä¡pw C¶v D]tbmKn¡p¶p­v. AhbpsS dnkvIns Bkv]Zam¡nbmWv {]oanbw nÝbn¡p¶Xv. hml§Ä Ime]g¡w sNÃpwtXmdpw A]ISkm[yXIÄ IqSn hcp¶p. AXpsIm­v Xs¶ 5 hÀjw apX 10 hÀjw hsc ASp¯ Ém_pw, 10 hÀj¯n IqSpXemsW¦n aq¶mas¯ Ém_pw nÝbn¨n«p­v. AXmbXv Hmtcm A©v hÀjhpw Ignªm {]oanb¯n hÀ²hv D­mbncn¡psa¶À°w. hml§fpsS I¸mknän¡v Apkcn¨pw {]oanb¯n hÀ² D­mbncn¡pw. tamt«mÀ ssk¡nÄ, ImdpIÄ F¶nhbpsS F©n³ I¸mknänbmWv amZÞsa¦nÂ, temdnIÄ¡v sam¯w `mc¯nsâ ASnØm¯nepw _ÊpIÄ¡v koänsâ F®apkcn¨pw hyXymks¸Spw. Hcp hml¯nsâ {]oanbw IW¡m¡p¶Xn {][m LSI§Ä hml¯nsâ hne, hml¯nsâ D]tbmKw, hml¯nsâ Ime¸g¡w, hml¯nsâ F©n³ / I¸mknän ChbmWv.

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