• In this theory, Each Individual is unique and that all individuals have a desire to grow in a positive way.
Cornerstones of aHumanistic approach to Learning
• Spontaneity• Importance of feelings and emotions• The right of individual to make their own choices• Human Creativity
• Like the psychodynamic theory, Humanistic perspective is largely a motivational theory.• From a humanistic perspective, motivation is derived from each person’s needs, subjective feelings about self and the desire to grow.
Transfer of learning is facilitated by:• Curiosity• Positive Self Concept• Open situations where people respect individuality and promote freedom
Abraham Maslow• He first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" and his subsequent book, Motivation and Personality.
• Maslows hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid, with the largest and most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom, and the need for self actualization at the top.• The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d-needs": esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs.
Maslows theory suggests thatthe most basic level of needsmust be met before the individualwill strongly desire (or focusmotivation upon) the secondary orhigher level needs.
Physiological needs• For the most part, physiological needs are obvious — they are the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body simply cannot continue to function.
Safety needs• In the absence of physical safety -- due to war, natural disaster, or, in cases of family violence, childhood abuse, etc. -- people (re-experience ) post-traumatic disorder and trans-generational trauma transfer.
• In the absence of economic safety -- due to economic crisis and lack of work opportunities - these safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, reasonable disability accommodations, and the like.
Love and belonging• The need is especially strong in childhood and can over-ride the need for safety as witnessed in children who cling to abusive parents.
• Deficiencies with respect to this aspect of Maslows hierarchy - due to hospitalization, neglect, etc. - can impact individuals ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships in general, such as:• Friendship• Intimacy• Family
Esteem• All humans have a need to be respected and to have self-esteem and self-respect. Esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others.
Self-actualization• “What a man can be, he must be.” This forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need pertains to what a persons full potential is and realizing that potential.
Carl Rogers• He was an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the Humanistic approach to psychology.
• According to him, what people want is unconditional positive self regard(the feeling of being loved without strings attached)• The role of any educator and leader in this approach is to be a facilitator
• Listening rather than talking is the skill needed.• Learners choose what is to be learned and Educators serves as resource persons who will help guide learners to make wise decisions/choices.
Primary goal in this approach should be... Fostering:• Curiosity• Enthusiasm• Initiative• Responsibility• Enduring
Humanistic psychology..• contends that feelings and emotions are the keys to learning, communication and understanding• “Tell me how you feel” is much more important statement to humanists rather than “Tell me what you think”
• The theory has been criticized for promoting self-centered learners who cannot take criticisms or compromise their deeply felt positions• The “touchy-feely” approach of the humanists makes some learners and educators feel truly uncomfortable.
• Facts, information, memorization, drill, practice and the tedious work which humanists minimize and sometimes disdain have been found to contribute to significant learning, knowledge building, and skill development