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Cleaner production concepts for chemical processing of si


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Cleaner production concepts for chemical processing of si

  1. 1. CLEANER PRODUCTION CONCEPTS FOR CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF SILK Prof.R.B.Chavan Dept. of Textile Technology Indian Institute of Technology Hauz-Khas, New Delhi 110016 E-mail
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Preventive approach to environment management </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous application of Preventive measures for environment friendly production </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in process efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced risk to humans and environment as a whole </li></ul>
  3. 3. Application <ul><li>Conserving raw materials, water and energy </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the toxicity of all air emmision and water </li></ul>
  4. 4. Benefits <ul><li>Reduction in consumption of raw materials and energy </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce generation of waste </li></ul><ul><li>A way to be </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in cost of effluent treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in production efficiency and product quality </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cleaner production option
  6. 6. Advantages of cleaner production <ul><li>Improvements in products and processes </li></ul><ul><li>Increased competitiveness through the use of new and improved technologies, </li></ul><ul><li>Generation of less waste, savings in treatment costs, </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse or recycling of wastes, </li></ul><ul><li>Green products image, </li></ul><ul><li>Energy efficiency, conservation of resources, </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced liability associated with the treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes, </li></ul><ul><li>Improved health , safety and morale of employees, </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance with governmental regulations and enhanced public acceptance, </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance in attaining sustainable development. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Trade prospects
  8. 8. Pollution prevention <ul><li>conventional waste treatment often causes only a transfer of waste from one phase to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment usually results in the generation of solids, sometimes hazardous, which are buried in a landfill. </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal of waste in a landfill can result in </li></ul><ul><li>groundwater contamination, </li></ul><ul><li>gas formation and </li></ul><ul><li>problems with odors. In other words, </li></ul><ul><li>waste treatment is not necessarily a cure. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pollution prevention <ul><li>As regulations’ become more stringent, </li></ul><ul><li>companies are forced toward more technologically sophisticated treatment methods. </li></ul><ul><li>This results in an increased cost for waste management and sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>forces companies to go out of business. </li></ul><ul><li>More and more companies realize that reducing the waste at the source is necessary to reduce the cost of treatment. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pollution prevention <ul><li>Pollution prevention is defined as those measures that eliminate or reduce pollution prior to off-site recycling or treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution prevention does not only </li></ul><ul><li>reduce water pollution, but also minimizes the release of pollutants to land and air. </li></ul><ul><li>Source reduction stands at the top of the waste management hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Off-site recycling is not considered a pollution prevention measure. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment and safe disposal are listed at the bottom of the hierarchy </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pollution prevention Strategy <ul><li>Best way to reduce pollution to prevent it in the first place. </li></ul><ul><li>Managing waste through source reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Waste treatment as a last alternative. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pollution prevention Strategy <ul><li>Quality control of raw materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform tests on raw materials shortly after receipt. </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase raw materials in returnable containers. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Replace chemicals with less-polluting ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Process Modification </li></ul><ul><li>Use low-liquor ratio dyeing machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Use countercurrent washing to reduce water use. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pollution prevention Strategy
  14. 14. Pollution prevention Strategy <ul><li>Optimize process conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Combine processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Process Water Reuse and Recycle </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse dyebaths. </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse rinse baths. </li></ul><ul><li>Install autornaied dosing systems and dye machine controllers. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pollution prevention Strategy <ul><li>Good Operating Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule dyeing operations to minimize machine cleaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize housekeeping practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt worker training programs. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Reducing Water Consumption <ul><li>Repair Leaks, Faulty Valves, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off Running Taps and Hoses </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the Number of Process Steps. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimise Process Water Use. </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle condensed steam </li></ul><ul><li>Re-use Process Water </li></ul><ul><li>Using Water Efficient Processes and Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Sweeping Floors </li></ul>
  17. 17. Reducing Chemical Consumption <ul><li>Recipe Optimisation </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Review chemicals used in the factory and replace those hazardous to the environment with those that have less of an impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Use dyes that have high exhaustion rates and require less salt. </li></ul><ul><li>replace metal-containing dyes </li></ul><ul><li>use bi-reactive dyes in place of mono-reactive </li></ul><ul><li>avoid the use of APEO detergents and replace with more biodegradable alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>replace stilbene optical brighteners with alternatives, or eliminate altogether </li></ul>
  18. 18. Water conservation in silk processing <ul><li>Degumming </li></ul><ul><li>Dyeing </li></ul><ul><li>Printing </li></ul><ul><li>Finishing </li></ul>
  19. 19. Degumming Methods <ul><li>Boiling with soap </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling with alkali </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme degumming </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment with water at high temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Wash </li></ul><ul><li>Wash </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle second wash liquor for washing after degumming </li></ul>
  20. 20. Dyeing <ul><li>Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Metal complex </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Polluting agents </li></ul><ul><li>Salt </li></ul><ul><li>Colour </li></ul><ul><li>Acid </li></ul><ul><li>detergents </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Use low liquor dyeing machines for reduced salt consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Use dyes with high exhaustion properties </li></ul>