The Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia
Location, Location, Location! <ul><li>*Don’t write!!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>* FC Today: Iraq, Syria, Jordan Lebanon, I...
 
Location! <ul><li>Don’t write! </li></ul><ul><li>Tigris  &  Euphrates  flow from  E. Turkey  </li></ul><ul><li>to Persian ...
<ul><li>Floods at least once a year, leaving thick silt (mud). Very fertile </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding unpredictable </li>...
Sumerians!
<ul><li>Don’t write: Settle 3300 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Good soil, few resources, no protection & flooding </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>By 3000 BC built  city-states  -independent cities w/ own govts & rulers,  </li></ul><ul><li>& separate </li></ul>...
<ul><li>*All CS’s had  ziggurat  (temple) in middle </li></ul><ul><li>*Govt controlled by zig priests </li></ul><ul><li>Fa...
<ul><li>Don’t write!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, the ziggura...
<ul><li>C/S’s grew wealthy from surplus food & start trading </li></ul><ul><li>Cities spread & so does </li></ul><ul><li>c...
Religion <ul><li>* Polytheistic - many gods </li></ul><ul><li>Gods all powerful </li></ul><ul><li>& immortal w/ </li></ul>...
 
<ul><li>Social class structure! </li></ul><ul><li>Kings, priests, landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy merchants </li></ul...
Cuneiform Arches, columns, ramps, pyramid shape design Dev number system base 60 (time, 360) Invented wheel, plow, sail an...
<ul><li>At war from 3000-2000 bc. </li></ul><ul><li>Never recover, but don’t die out. </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeding rulers ...
Akkadians
Akkadians & Sargon <ul><li>2350 BC:  SARGON  of  AKKAD  (city-state in N) conquers city-states of Sumer  </li></ul><ul><li...
AKKAD
<ul><li>2000 BC nomad Ammorites invade & est Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>1792-1750 BC-  Hammurabi  of Babylon creates unifor...
<ul><li>282 specific laws listed under headings: trade, business, marriage, family </li></ul><ul><li>Severe punishments ap...
Hittites <ul><li>2000 BC Hittites appear from Anatolia (high, rocky platuea w/ minerals, timber in Turkey) </li></ul><ul><...
 
<ul><li>Tactics: </li></ul><ul><li>1st to work iron into weapons (had charcoal & iron ore) </li></ul><ul><li>2 wheeled cha...
 
Phonecians <ul><li>Don’t’ write! 1100 BC- Lebanon today ! </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants, traders & seafarers who   built CS’...
 
<ul><li>Create alphabet: phonetic w/  one pic for one sound </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced to trade partners </li></ul>
LYDIANS <ul><li>Mostly in Anatolia (Tur) </li></ul><ul><li>1st to coin money of gold & silver btw 700 BC to 550 BC. Trader...
<ul><li>300 miles N Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive, cruel, constant warfare </li></ul><ul><li>to expand </li></u...
 
Military Tactics <ul><li>Iron helmets/leather skirts w/ scales, iron swords & iron tipped spears, shields </li></ul><ul><l...
 
 
<ul><li>March shoulder to shoulder, shoot arrows, climb ladders.  </li></ul><ul><li>Impale/ behead  </li></ul><ul><li>thos...
Ruling Power <ul><li>Officials govern land closest to Assyria as provinces, made dependent & chose their rulers (governors...
<ul><li>Don’t Write!  Ninevah : </li></ul><ul><li>Walled city 3 miles </li></ul><ul><li>wide, 1 mi long </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>destroyed by Chaldeans </li></ul>
<ul><li>612 BC-538 BC  Chaldeans  (aka Neo-Babylonians) invade Assyria destroy Nineveh </li></ul><ul><li>Made  Babylon  ca...
 
<ul><li>Built garden to please his wife  Amytis  of  Media , who longed for the trees and fragrant plants of her homeland....
Persians <ul><li>* Today: Iran (Caspian Sea to Persian Gulf)  </li></ul><ul><li>*fertile </li></ul><ul><li>farmland  </li>...
<ul><li>550 BC  Cyrus the Great  conquers from Indus to Anatolia </li></ul><ul><li>Kind, tolerant, honors local customs tr...
<ul><li>Don’t Write!  530 BC Son Cyrus’ Cambyses conquers Egypt & is cruel,dies. Brother Smerdis (fake, tries to take over...
Darius
<ul><li>* Persia div into 20 provinces, using homelands, keep their religion, languages & laws </li></ul><ul><li>Use  satr...
<ul><li>Royal Road  1677 miles (messenger relays) </li></ul><ul><li>METAL coins </li></ul>
Zoroastrianism <ul><li>Religion started by Zoroaster (600 BC. Prophet) </li></ul><ul><li>Earth is battleground btw spirit ...
 
Hebrews, Israel and Judaism
<ul><li>Palestine  east  </li></ul><ul><li>end of Med Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Hebrews lived  </li></ul><ul><li>in  Canaan  (...
<ul><li>Torah  tells story of Hebrews  </li></ul><ul><li>(1 st  5 books of  Heb/Christian bible   </li></ul><ul><li>* 1800...
<ul><li>*Don’t write!! </li></ul><ul><li>*believe in 1 god Yaweh, (Monotheism) </li></ul><ul><li>*had power over all peopl...
<ul><li>Don’t write! Grandson Jacob (aka Israel) had 12 sons, each was leader of 12 tribes of Israel. 1600 BC Joseph led t...
<ul><li>Don’t Write!! </li></ul><ul><li>God’s mercy </li></ul><ul><li>Live justly with one another </li></ul><ul><li>Moral...
 
 
<ul><li>Hebrews return to Canaan 1020-922 Israel unites under 3 kings </li></ul><ul><li>1025 BC:  Saul  drives out Philist...
<ul><li>King David-  unite tribes, est  Jerusalem   </li></ul><ul><li>King Solomon-  built trade empire on Med & big Templ...
 
<ul><li>Solomon's  </li></ul><ul><li>projects raised  </li></ul><ul><li>taxes, strain all </li></ul><ul><li>Jews in N  </l...
Judah & Israel Fall (DON”T WRITE) <ul><li>783 BC: tribute to Assyria </li></ul><ul><li>722 BC: Israel falls  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>539 BC:  Cyrus the Great   (Persia) conquers Babylon & allows Jews to return  </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem  </li></...
 
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The fertile crescent

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The fertile crescent

  1. 1. The Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia
  2. 2. Location, Location, Location! <ul><li>*Don’t write!!!!!!!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>* FC Today: Iraq, Syria, Jordan Lebanon, Israel,Turkey & Iran </li></ul><ul><li>*FC is horseshoe/crescent shaped area of good farmland along Tigris & Euphrates rivers that stretches from W Mediterranean to </li></ul><ul><li>Persian Gulf </li></ul>
  3. 4. Location! <ul><li>Don’t write! </li></ul><ul><li>Tigris & Euphrates flow from E. Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>to Persian Gulf. </li></ul><ul><li>Area known </li></ul><ul><li>as Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>(land btw rivers) </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Floods at least once a year, leaving thick silt (mud). Very fertile </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding unpredictable </li></ul><ul><li>Desert region </li></ul><ul><li>No barriers </li></ul><ul><li>for protection </li></ul>
  5. 6. Sumerians!
  6. 7. <ul><li>Don’t write: Settle 3300 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Good soil, few resources, no protection & flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Solution? </li></ul><ul><li>Dug irrigation ditches </li></ul><ul><li>Built city walls w/ mud bricks </li></ul><ul><li>*trade tools for raw </li></ul><ul><li>materials </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>By 3000 BC built city-states -independent cities w/ own govts & rulers, </li></ul><ul><li>& separate </li></ul><ul><li>gods </li></ul><ul><li>Share culture </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Kish, </li></ul><ul><li>Lagash, </li></ul><ul><li>Ur, Uruk </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>*All CS’s had ziggurat (temple) in middle </li></ul><ul><li>*Govt controlled by zig priests </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers need blessings of gods for crops & priests were go betweens </li></ul><ul><li>During war, led by commanders (eventually became </li></ul><ul><li>full time leader) </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a Dynasty - single family rule </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Don’t write!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Built in receding tiers upon a rectangular, oval, or square platform, the ziggurat was a pyramidal structure with a flat top. Sun-baked bricks made up the core of the ziggurat with facings of fired bricks on the outside. The facings were often glazed in different colors! </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>C/S’s grew wealthy from surplus food & start trading </li></ul><ul><li>Cities spread & so does </li></ul><ul><li>cultural </li></ul><ul><li>diffusion - (new </li></ul><ul><li>idea/product </li></ul><ul><li>spreads from </li></ul><ul><li>one culture to </li></ul><ul><li>another) </li></ul>
  11. 12. Religion <ul><li>* Polytheistic - many gods </li></ul><ul><li>Gods all powerful </li></ul><ul><li>& immortal w/ </li></ul><ul><li>humans as slaves, </li></ul><ul><li>fatalistic, </li></ul><ul><li>pessimistic </li></ul><ul><li>(build ziggarats, offer sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>of animals,wine) </li></ul><ul><li>Enlil- god of storms/air, </li></ul><ul><li>controls cosmos & man </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>Social class structure! </li></ul><ul><li>Kings, priests, landowners </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Field workers </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves (sold as kids or pows) </li></ul><ul><li>****Women had rights! Could own property, be merchants, etc!!!*** </li></ul>
  13. 15. Cuneiform Arches, columns, ramps, pyramid shape design Dev number system base 60 (time, 360) Invented wheel, plow, sail and use bronze Inventions & ideas develop from needs!!
  14. 16. <ul><li>At war from 3000-2000 bc. </li></ul><ul><li>Never recover, but don’t die out. </li></ul><ul><li>Succeeding rulers use Sumerian culture </li></ul>
  15. 17. Akkadians
  16. 18. Akkadians & Sargon <ul><li>2350 BC: SARGON of AKKAD (city-state in N) conquers city-states of Sumer </li></ul><ul><li>Controls Meso & creates first EMPIRE (brings together people, nations, independent states under 1 ruler) ( From Med coast to Iran ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fell apart due to invasions, fighting after 200 years </li></ul>
  17. 19. AKKAD
  18. 20. <ul><li>2000 BC nomad Ammorites invade & est Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>1792-1750 BC- Hammurabi of Babylon creates uniform code of laws, carved in stone, posted all over </li></ul>To bring about the rule of righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and the evil doers, so that the strong should not harm the weak
  19. 21. <ul><li>282 specific laws listed under headings: trade, business, marriage, family </li></ul><ul><li>Severe punishments apply to all (but </li></ul><ul><li>different </li></ul><ul><li>for rich & </li></ul><ul><li>poor, men & </li></ul><ul><li>women) </li></ul>
  20. 22. Hittites <ul><li>2000 BC Hittites appear from Anatolia (high, rocky platuea w/ minerals, timber in Turkey) </li></ul><ul><li>Indo-European speakers. Separate city states create empire (Hattusas capital) </li></ul><ul><li>Invade T/E around 1600 BC </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Tactics: </li></ul><ul><li>1st to work iron into weapons (had charcoal & iron ore) </li></ul><ul><li>2 wheeled chariots, wood frame, leather </li></ul><ul><li>covered, 2-4 horses </li></ul><ul><li>Stalemate w/ </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians </li></ul>
  22. 26. Phonecians <ul><li>Don’t’ write! 1100 BC- Lebanon today ! </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants, traders & seafarers who built CS’s that competed w/ each other (Byblos, Tyre, Sidon) all over Med ( sail as far as GB & around Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Trade goods (wine, weapons, metals), superb craftsmen (red/purple dye, wood, ivory) </li></ul>
  23. 28. <ul><li>Create alphabet: phonetic w/ one pic for one sound </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced to trade partners </li></ul>
  24. 29. LYDIANS <ul><li>Mostly in Anatolia (Tur) </li></ul><ul><li>1st to coin money of gold & silver btw 700 BC to 550 BC. Traders ( coins stamped w/ king’s symbol of lion head & sunburst ) </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed by </li></ul><ul><li>Persians </li></ul>
  25. 30. <ul><li>300 miles N Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive, cruel, constant warfare </li></ul><ul><li>to expand </li></ul><ul><li>* Defeat Syria, </li></ul><ul><li>Palestine, Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Babylonia, Sumer </li></ul><ul><li>btw 1000 & 650 BC </li></ul>Assyrians
  26. 32. Military Tactics <ul><li>Iron helmets/leather skirts w/ scales, iron swords & iron tipped spears, shields </li></ul><ul><li>span rivers w/ </li></ul><ul><li>pontoons, floating </li></ul><ul><li>bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Dig under walls </li></ul><ul><li>to weaken them </li></ul><ul><li>(sappers) </li></ul>
  27. 35. <ul><li>March shoulder to shoulder, shoot arrows, climb ladders. </li></ul><ul><li>Impale/ behead </li></ul><ul><li>those not killed </li></ul><ul><li>in battle, </li></ul><ul><li>*women, kids </li></ul><ul><li>murdered </li></ul><ul><li>sold into slavery </li></ul>
  28. 36. Ruling Power <ul><li>Officials govern land closest to Assyria as provinces, made dependent & chose their rulers (governors report to central authority) </li></ul><ul><li>Pay taxes & tribute, destroyed if don’t </li></ul>
  29. 37. <ul><li>Don’t Write! Ninevah : </li></ul><ul><li>Walled city 3 miles </li></ul><ul><li>wide, 1 mi long </li></ul><ul><li>Carvings of military campaigns </li></ul><ul><li>King Ashurbanipal created library w/ 20,000 tablets from FC </li></ul><ul><li>(organized by room, </li></ul><ul><li>subject matter) </li></ul>
  30. 38. <ul><li>destroyed by Chaldeans </li></ul>
  31. 39. <ul><li>612 BC-538 BC Chaldeans (aka Neo-Babylonians) invade Assyria destroy Nineveh </li></ul><ul><li>Made Babylon capital (1000 yrs after Hammurabi) & restore city </li></ul><ul><li>Nebuchadnezzar built Hanging Gardens of Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>study astronomy (chart star positions) from ziggurat </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed by Persians </li></ul>
  32. 41. <ul><li>Built garden to please his wife Amytis of Media , who longed for the trees and fragrant plants of her homeland. [1] Gardens destroyed by earthquakes. 100 feet ( long by 100 ft wide & built in tiers so that it resembled a theatre. Vaults constructed under the terraces carried weight of the planted garden; Highest part garden, (75 feet) was on the same level as the city walls. Roofs of vaults supported the garden made of stone beams 16 ft long,. Laid over these were a layer of reeds set in thick tar, then two courses of baked brick bonded by cement, & finally a covering of lead to prevent the moisture in the soil penetrating the roof.. The earth was levelled off & t planted w/ every kind of tree. Galleries were sunlit, & contained conduits for the water which was raised by pumps from the river, though no one outside could see it being done </li></ul>
  33. 42. Persians <ul><li>* Today: Iran (Caspian Sea to Persian Gulf) </li></ul><ul><li>*fertile </li></ul><ul><li>farmland </li></ul><ul><li>w/ many </li></ul><ul><li>minerals </li></ul><ul><li>(gold, silver, </li></ul><ul><li>copper, lead </li></ul><ul><li>lapis lazuli) </li></ul>
  34. 43. <ul><li>550 BC Cyrus the Great conquers from Indus to Anatolia </li></ul><ul><li>Kind, tolerant, honors local customs traditions, religions, </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed Jews to return to Israel </li></ul>
  35. 44. <ul><li>Don’t Write! 530 BC Son Cyrus’ Cambyses conquers Egypt & is cruel,dies. Brother Smerdis (fake, tries to take over) Darius knows he is a fake </li></ul><ul><li>Darius , (522 BC) noble in king’s body guard, seized throne w/ help of elite soldiers & puts down </li></ul><ul><li>revolts </li></ul><ul><li>Conquest!! Conquers </li></ul><ul><li>& controls 2500 miles (Afghanistan into India) </li></ul>
  36. 45. Darius
  37. 46. <ul><li>* Persia div into 20 provinces, using homelands, keep their religion, languages & laws </li></ul><ul><li>Use satrap - gov to rule locally, plus a mili leader & tax collector & use spies </li></ul>
  38. 47. <ul><li>Royal Road 1677 miles (messenger relays) </li></ul><ul><li>METAL coins </li></ul>
  39. 48. Zoroastrianism <ul><li>Religion started by Zoroaster (600 BC. Prophet) </li></ul><ul><li>Earth is battleground btw spirit of good (light) & evil (darkness) </li></ul><ul><li>Each person part of struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Ahura Mazda judges everyone at end of time on how well you fought </li></ul>
  40. 50. Hebrews, Israel and Judaism
  41. 51. <ul><li>Palestine east </li></ul><ul><li>end of Med Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Hebrews lived </li></ul><ul><li>in Canaan (btw </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan R & </li></ul><ul><li>Med Sea) </li></ul><ul><li>Crossroads- </li></ul><ul><li>seaports on Red </li></ul><ul><li>& Med Seas </li></ul>
  42. 52. <ul><li>Torah tells story of Hebrews </li></ul><ul><li>(1 st 5 books of Heb/Christian bible </li></ul><ul><li>* 1800 BC Abraham chosen by God to lead/be the “father” of Hebrews, wanders for </li></ul><ul><li>for years. </li></ul>
  43. 53. <ul><li>*Don’t write!! </li></ul><ul><li>*believe in 1 god Yaweh, (Monotheism) </li></ul><ul><li>*had power over all people </li></ul><ul><li>*God looked after Hebrews & get homeland ( Canaan ) if they obeyed ( covenant: mutual </li></ul><ul><li>promise) </li></ul>
  44. 54. <ul><li>Don’t write! Grandson Jacob (aka Israel) had 12 sons, each was leader of 12 tribes of Israel. 1600 BC Joseph led them to Egypt, enslaved </li></ul><ul><li>1230 BC? Moses led them out of Egypt, (the Exodus) wandered for 40 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Given 10 commandments </li></ul><ul><li>(social & </li></ul><ul><li>religious behavior, </li></ul><ul><li>new covenant) </li></ul><ul><li>Return to </li></ul><ul><li>promised land </li></ul>
  45. 55. <ul><li>Don’t Write!! </li></ul><ul><li>God’s mercy </li></ul><ul><li>Live justly with one another </li></ul><ul><li>Moral life in god’s laws </li></ul><ul><li>Worship 1 god </li></ul><ul><li>no one above law 62 old </li></ul>
  46. 58. <ul><li>Hebrews return to Canaan 1020-922 Israel unites under 3 kings </li></ul><ul><li>1025 BC: Saul drives out Philistines (1 st king of Israelites) </li></ul>
  47. 59. <ul><li>King David- unite tribes, est Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>King Solomon- built trade empire on Med & big Temple in Jerusalem for the Ark of the Covenant </li></ul><ul><li>(holds 10 </li></ul><ul><li>commandments) </li></ul>
  48. 61. <ul><li>Solomon's </li></ul><ul><li>projects raised </li></ul><ul><li>taxes, strain all </li></ul><ul><li>Jews in N </li></ul><ul><li>revolt after </li></ul><ul><li>Solomon dies & </li></ul><ul><li>divides in half: </li></ul><ul><li>Judah in S & </li></ul><ul><li>Israel in N </li></ul>
  49. 62. Judah & Israel Fall (DON”T WRITE) <ul><li>783 BC: tribute to Assyria </li></ul><ul><li>722 BC: Israel falls </li></ul><ul><li>586 BC: Neb destroys Judah & Jerusalem. </li></ul><ul><li>Jews exiled </li></ul><ul><li>to Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>( Babylonian </li></ul><ul><li>Captivity ) </li></ul>
  50. 63. <ul><li>539 BC: Cyrus the Great (Persia) conquers Babylon & allows Jews to return </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>rebuilt 445 BC, </li></ul><ul><li>but later </li></ul><ul><li>taken </li></ul><ul><li>by Greeks, </li></ul><ul><li>then Romans </li></ul>

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