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Imperialism in Africa and South Asia

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Imperialism in Africa and South Asia

  1. 1. IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA
  2. 2. IMPERIALISM Don’t write! •IMPERIALISM - extending a nation’s power over other lands.
  3. 3. •Africa seen as new sources of things Euro wanted such as:1. Raw materials2.Direct control of markets & new markets to sell goods
  4. 4. 3.Rivalries w/ other nations-4. Social Darwinism: survival of the fittest & racist beliefs
  5. 5. 5.White Man’s Burden”- belief that European’s had a responsibility to civilize primitive people6. spread Christianity
  6. 6. •When slave trade was banned by 1890s, Euro sold textiles & manufactured goods in exchange for resources such as peanuts, timber, palm oil.
  7. 7. DON’ T WRITE• Euros pushed for a more permanent presence. Gold Coast 1st colony when the Brits annex it.• Brits set up PROTECTORATE (must depend on another govt) in Nigeria.• Others compete for the rest of Africa (all but Liberia & Ethiopia taken by 1914
  8. 8. MRS. BARNES WHEN SHE WAKES UP
  9. 9. EXPLORATION: DON’T WRITE!• Many explorers come to Africa including David Livingston who gets lost.• Is found by journalist Henry Stanley who talks Leopold II of Belgium into colonizing Congo.
  10. 10. EUROPE DIVIDES AFRICA: DON’ T WRITE •Ger, Br, Port, Belgium claim same land. •Meet at Berlin Conference in 1884 & divide up Africa. •No African reps
  11. 11. •Egypt part of Ottoman Empire until MUHAMMAD ALI took over & est separate Egyptian state.•Modernized army, reformed schools, created industries.
  12. 12. SUEZ CANAL Ferdinand de Lesseps designs SUEZ CANAL in 1864 to connect Red Sea to Mediterranean Sea for faster shipping
  13. 13. SUEZ CANAL•Brits buy out Egypt’s share of canal & then take over Egypt
  14. 14. INDIRECT RULE• Brits used INDIRECT RULE- local rulers kept positions of power & followed colonizer’s rules.• Kept local customs, but caused tension
  15. 15. DIRECT RULE • France used DIRECT RULE- local officials removed from power & replaced w/ new set of officials from mother country
  16. 16. MRS. BARNES & MR BARNES ON THEIR WEDDING DAY
  17. 17. CHANGES IN AFRICA• 1. Colonizers created new govts (direct or indirect)• 2. loss of farmlands & build up of resentment• 3. Educated people in colonizers language & religion (but many learned western ideas)
  18. 18. • 4. many different ethnic groups forced together5. Desire for nationalism grew with lost freedoms6. Became labor to produce raw materials
  19. 19. BRITISH IN INDIA
  20. 20. • DON’T WRITE!• Brits powerful & move into India.• British East India Trading Company given power by govt to help w/ military & political affairs.
  21. 21. BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY•BETC wants resources & new markets
  22. 22. SEPOY REBELLION•BETC had own soldiers & hired Indians (Sepoys) to defend company interests, but Sepoys refused orders & rebel
  23. 23. •Thought bullets were greased in cow & pig fat ( Sepoys were Hindu or Muslim & this was against beliefs)
  24. 24. SEPOY REBELLION •Revolt, fails b/c problems btw Hindu’s & Muslims
  25. 25. QUEEN VICTORIA •BETC loses power & Br govt takes over • Queen Victoria becomes Empress
  26. 26. •Brit rules through a VICEROY- governor who represents monarch
  27. 27. • Benefits of Brit rule included:• order, stability, new school system, RRs, telegraphs, & trains for transportation of goods & people.
  28. 28. • Problems caused:• Manufactured goods destroy local industry• grow cotton, not food,• Brits get best jobs• No respect for culture• Corrupt tax collectors
  29. 29. INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS• Indian nationalists want reform & meet in 1885 to form Indian National Congress. (educated in colonial schools)• INC want share in governing process & Indian independence
  30. 30. TAJ MAHAL
  31. 31. • Hindu majority & Muslim minority.• Muslims want separate Muslim League.• Afraid Hindus will overrun all others.
  32. 32. INDIA•Mahatma Gandhi, (a former lawyer) organizes protests.•Believes in non-violent protest or CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE- (refusal to obey unjust law) to get independence.
  33. 33. •Led marches, protests, boycotts & withheld paying taxes to get independence•used traditional Indian dress, language, seen as a spiritual leader
  34. 34. INDIA or• Gandhi called MAHATMA “Great Soul”• 1919 Brits kill 100s & arrest Gandhi• Led Salt March in 1930, urging people to make salt, (against Brit law) showing non-violent resistance)• Helps get independence in 1947. assassinated
  35. 35. MAHATMA GANDHI • “WE MUST BE THE CHANGE WE WISH TO SEE”
  36. 36. GREAT SALT MARCH 1930
  37. 37. INDIA & PAKISTAN•Conflict grows btw Muslim minority & Hindu majority.• Muslims led by Ali Jinnah want a separate Muslim state in Pakistan
  38. 38. •8/14/47 Indian empire gets independence & divided into 2 nations: India- Hindu nation Pakistan-Muslim nation.
  39. 39. INDIA & PAKISTAN• Millions flee. Hindus go to India & Muslims to Pakistan.• Many die, including Gandhi, (assassinated on 6/30/48)• Several areas stay indep.• Each choose which nation to join
  40. 40. KASHMIR • Kashmir, area high in Hindu Kush mtns btw India & Pakistan had problems. • Good resources there & also major rivers of region begin here.
  41. 41. KASHMIR• Kashmir has Hindu Prince & Muslim people.• Pakistan & India sends in troops to take over.• UN steps in & divides Kashmir .(2/3 to India & 1/3 to Pakistan). No one happy. Series of small wars occur.• In 1990s, both nations get nuclear weapons.
  42. 42. KASHMIR• Violence starts in 2001 election• Pak hijacks India airliner.• Ind troops kill people in camps & tests long range missiles• Oct 2001, 1 million troops line up along border.• Still ongoing struggle.
  43. 43. AFRICA•Did not get independence after WW I .•Euro can’t afford to keep troops in colonies after WWII
  44. 44. •New leaders (many educated in US) believe in MARCUS GARVEY.•He stressed PAN- AFRICANISM: unity of African people•Stress African heritage
  45. 45. KWAME NKRUMAH • 1957: The Gold Coast(Ghana), 1st colony gets independence from GB w/ help of KWAME NKRUMAH who later became leader
  46. 46. • 17 by nations by 1960.• 11 more btw 1961-1965.• Guerilla warfare helps Morocco, Mozambique, Angola & Tunisia
  47. 47. •White run govt.•1950s: AFRIKANNERS (SA whites) decide to make stronger segregation laws (separating races) called APARTHEID.
  48. 48. •1960-Students protest peacefully at Sharpsville, troops open fire, shooting kids in back.•Blacks not allowed to participate in govt, hold certain jobs, must live in separate homelands.
  49. 49. •NELSON MANDELA leader of AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (formed to get poli reform) is arrested for fighting for rights.•Nations boycott SA & ban SA from Olympics.
  50. 50. • 1993 President de Klerk agrees to hold democratic elections (due to international pressure).• Mandela elected Pres. (jail time 26 years
  51. 51. NELSON MANDELLA
  52. 52. AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
  53. 53. ISSUES IN AFRICA1. single crop economy. ¾ live off of land.2.few factories, low literacy rates, few skilled workers3. hi pop growth (3% per yr) high birth rates & death rates
  54. 54. 4.Must import technology & manufactured goods from West5. bribery & corrupt officials, child soldiers6. Huge droughts create FAMINE- lack of food7. Uneven resources.8. Poverty
  55. 55. 9.Fast urbanization- city growth leads to crime, overcrowding, pollution, not enough services.10. Aids- 300 mil by 2040. 8% of continent. ¾ of Nairobi
  56. 56. NIGHTMARE IN RWANDA
  57. 57. MASSACRE OF THE TUTSIS
  58. 58. • Civil wars begin btw groups when too many ethnic groups put together in one area.• GENONICDE: killing a specific ethnic group:• RWANDA- Hutus kill 500,000 Tutsis on a rampage in 1994. Killed w/ machetes, fire & torture.

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