IMPERIALISM Don’t write! •IMPERIALISM - extending a nation’s power over other lands.
•Africa seen as new sources of things Euro wanted such as:1. Raw materials2.Direct control of markets & new markets to sell goods
3.Rivalries w/ other nations-4. Social Darwinism: survival of the fittest & racist beliefs
5.White Man’s Burden”- belief that European’s had a responsibility to civilize primitive people6. spread Christianity
•When slave trade was banned by 1890s, Euro sold textiles & manufactured goods in exchange for resources such as peanuts, timber, palm oil.
DON’ T WRITE• Euros pushed for a more permanent presence. Gold Coast 1st colony when the Brits annex it.• Brits set up PROTECTORATE (must depend on another govt) in Nigeria.• Others compete for the rest of Africa (all but Liberia & Ethiopia taken by 1914
CHANGES IN AFRICA• 1. Colonizers created new govts (direct or indirect)• 2. loss of farmlands & build up of resentment• 3. Educated people in colonizers language & religion (but many learned western ideas)
• 4. many different ethnic groups forced together5. Desire for nationalism grew with lost freedoms6. Became labor to produce raw materials
• Hindu majority & Muslim minority.• Muslims want separate Muslim League.• Afraid Hindus will overrun all others.
INDIA•Mahatma Gandhi, (a former lawyer) organizes protests.•Believes in non-violent protest or CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE- (refusal to obey unjust law) to get independence.
•Led marches, protests, boycotts & withheld paying taxes to get independence•used traditional Indian dress, language, seen as a spiritual leader
INDIA or• Gandhi called MAHATMA “Great Soul”• 1919 Brits kill 100s & arrest Gandhi• Led Salt March in 1930, urging people to make salt, (against Brit law) showing non-violent resistance)• Helps get independence in 1947. assassinated
MAHATMA GANDHI • “WE MUST BE THE CHANGE WE WISH TO SEE”
INDIA & PAKISTAN•Conflict grows btw Muslim minority & Hindu majority.• Muslims led by Ali Jinnah want a separate Muslim state in Pakistan
•8/14/47 Indian empire gets independence & divided into 2 nations: India- Hindu nation Pakistan-Muslim nation.
INDIA & PAKISTAN• Millions flee. Hindus go to India & Muslims to Pakistan.• Many die, including Gandhi, (assassinated on 6/30/48)• Several areas stay indep.• Each choose which nation to join
KASHMIR • Kashmir, area high in Hindu Kush mtns btw India & Pakistan had problems. • Good resources there & also major rivers of region begin here.
KASHMIR• Kashmir has Hindu Prince & Muslim people.• Pakistan & India sends in troops to take over.• UN steps in & divides Kashmir .(2/3 to India & 1/3 to Pakistan). No one happy. Series of small wars occur.• In 1990s, both nations get nuclear weapons.
KASHMIR• Violence starts in 2001 election• Pak hijacks India airliner.• Ind troops kill people in camps & tests long range missiles• Oct 2001, 1 million troops line up along border.• Still ongoing struggle.
AFRICA•Did not get independence after WW I .•Euro can’t afford to keep troops in colonies after WWII
•New leaders (many educated in US) believe in MARCUS GARVEY.•He stressed PAN- AFRICANISM: unity of African people•Stress African heritage
KWAME NKRUMAH • 1957: The Gold Coast(Ghana), 1st colony gets independence from GB w/ help of KWAME NKRUMAH who later became leader
• 17 by nations by 1960.• 11 more btw 1961-1965.• Guerilla warfare helps Morocco, Mozambique, Angola & Tunisia
•White run govt.•1950s: AFRIKANNERS (SA whites) decide to make stronger segregation laws (separating races) called APARTHEID.
•1960-Students protest peacefully at Sharpsville, troops open fire, shooting kids in back.•Blacks not allowed to participate in govt, hold certain jobs, must live in separate homelands.
•NELSON MANDELA leader of AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (formed to get poli reform) is arrested for fighting for rights.•Nations boycott SA & ban SA from Olympics.
• 1993 President de Klerk agrees to hold democratic elections (due to international pressure).• Mandela elected Pres. (jail time 26 years
• Civil wars begin btw groups when too many ethnic groups put together in one area.• GENONICDE: killing a specific ethnic group:• RWANDA- Hutus kill 500,000 Tutsis on a rampage in 1994. Killed w/ machetes, fire & torture.