Chapter 22 End of Empires and global south to global stage 1914- Present


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AP World History - Summary of Chapter 22, Ways of the World book by R. Strayer.

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Chapter 22 End of Empires and global south to global stage 1914- Present

  2. 2. MAP OF TIME •  1915 – Ghandi returns to India from South Africa •  1928 – Muslim brotherhood established in Egypt •  1947 – Independence of Pakistan and India •  1948 – Establishment of state of Israel and Apartheid established in South Africa •  1949 – Independence of Indonesia, Communist in China wins •  1957 – 1975 – Independence of African countries •  1959 – Cuban Revolution •  1979 - Revolution in Iran •  1980s to 1990s – Growth of democratic movements in Africa and Latin America
  3. 3. END OF EMPIRE IN WORLD HISTORY •  The 20th centuries witnessed the demise of many empires: Austrian and Ottoman empires collapsed after WWI. = new states, •  WWII ended the German and Japanese empires. •  African and Asian movements for independece shared national self determination. •  Powerful influence of United States in Latin America. •  Desinegration of Soviet Union in 1991 = birth to new national states.
  4. 4. AFRICAN AND ASIAN INDEPENDENCE •  United states and Soviet Union, the new global superpowers, generally opposed to older European colonial empires. – •  The colonies had been integrated into a global economic network and local elites were largely committed to maintaining those links. •  Europe wanted profitable economic interests in Asia and Africa without the expense of trouble of a colonial government. •  Leaders made political parties in all Asia and Africa: Gandhi in India, Sukarno in Indonesia, Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam, Mandela in South Africa.
  5. 5. CASE OF INDIA •  British colonial rule also promoted a growing sense of Indian identity. •  INC – Indian National Congress established in 1885. Made by well educated Indians-English background. Lawyers, teachers and businessmen (high caste Hindu families). – did not seek to overthrow British rule, rather they hoped to gain greater inclusion wihtin the political, military of British India. •  At the beginning the INC had difficult gaining mass following.
  6. 6. GHANDI •  Ghandi (1869-1949) Born in Gujurat, Hindu family, Married at age of 13, embraced an opportinity to study law in England at 18. He returned a lawyer in 1893, accepted a job in South Africa. •  Ghandi experienced racism. He emerged a political philosophy SATYAGRAHA (truth force) through a non violent, approach. •  Returned to India 1915, and got involved in the INC. •  His support to Muslims but with Hindu religious themes, this made the INC into mass organization. •  He rejected moden industrialization, his own chied Jawaharlal Nehru embraced science, technology for Indias future.
  7. 7. PAKISTAN AND INDIA •  Another movement for independence gained ground, the MUSLIM LEAGUE, and its leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah argued that those parts of India that had Muslim majority should have a separate political status. •  They call it PAKISTAN the land of the pure. In his view, India was not a single nation. •  Colonial India became independent in 1947 as 2 countries. A muslim Pakistan and a Hindu India. •  Million people died in the communal violence, 12 million refugees moved from one country to another. •  Only a year after independence, Ghandi was assassinated by a Hindu extremist.
  8. 8. SOUTH AFRICA •  South Africas freedom was very different from India. •  South Africa in fact had been independent of Great Britain since 1910. However, granted to a government controlled by a white settler minority. (less than 20% of the population) •  Black South Africans struggle therefore was against this internal opponent rather than against a distant colonial authority. •  South African situation was the overwhelming prominence of race, expressed since 1948, in the official policy of APARTHEID. (separate blacks from whites in every conceivable way)
  9. 9. ANC •  The African National Congress, was led by male, educated, professional, middle class Africans who sought to overthrow the existing order, but to be accepted as “civilized men”. •  Women were denied full membership in the ANC until 1943. (as domestic servants). •  In 1950s a new younger generation of ANC leadership which included Nelson Mandela, broadened its base support and launched nonviolent civil disobedience. •  The goverment of South Africa responded with tremendous repression, including shooting (1960). •  Banned its leader Nelson Mandela and sent him to prison.
  10. 10. SOUTH AFRICAN PRESSURES •  In the mid 80s spreading urban violence and the radicalization of urban young people had forced the government to declare a state of emergency. •  Demands to end apartheid. •  Internationsl pressure and the refusal of many artists to perform in the Olympics. = isolated South Africa from Western world. •  Combination of these internal and external pressures persuaded many white South Africans by the late 1980s – the abandonment of apartheid policies and release of Nelson Mandela (1994)
  11. 11. THE FATE OF DEMOCRACY •  Populations were exploding •  The state assumed greater responsibility for economic development. •  Communist Party in China, Vietnam and Cuba •  Multiparty democracy in India and South Africa •  One party democracy in Mexico (PRI) •  European authorities transplant democratic institutions to colonies. •  Western style democracy, including regular elections, multiple parties, civil liberties, peaceful changes in government. •  Freedom from colonial rule certainly did not automatically generate the internal political freedom associated with democracy.
  12. 12. AUTHORITARIAN REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA •  Latin America was quite different from those in Africa. Latin American armes forces intervened in pilitical life. •  Latin American states lived in shadow of dominant United States. “poor Mexico” bemoaned Porfirio Diaz (Mexican dictator). •  Rapid growth population, sharp class conflict, rural poverty, mass migration to city slums. •  Cuban Revolution of 1959, brought Fidel Castro to power. (Communist – intent on spreding its revolutionary message.
  13. 13. FIDEL CASTRO •  Cuban Revolutions had powerful international repercussions. It reshaped relationship with the United States. •  Castros government began a program of nationalization and political consolidation. – got involved in military conflicts including Angolan civil war and Nicaraguan Revolution. •  United States imposed an economic embargo on Cuban government.
  14. 14. CHILE •  Chile provides a fascinating case study. With a long tradition of electoral politics and rival parties. •  In 1970 Chileans elected a presidency with a Marxist politician, Salvador Allende brought together the countrys socialists and communists. •  He ordered prices frozen and wages raised. •  Nationalization of major industries followed (copper, coal, steel and many banks- foreign coorp.) •  Land reform programs soon seized the large estates, redistributing them to small farmers. •  Allende welcomed Fidel Castro.
  15. 15. ALLENDE AND PINOCHET •  In 1972: Huge strike of landlord elites, wealthy business, middle class elements. •  U.S government, which had long armed and trained military forces throughout Latin America, actively opposed the Allende regime. •  CIA Document declared that “…that Allende be overthrown by a coup” in September 1973. •  General Augusto Pinochet – held a long lasting military regime. Poltical parties were banned. Thousands were killed, tortured, or disappear. •  Free economic policies attracted foreing investors.
  16. 16. PATH TO DEMOCRACY? Despite the democratic setbacks of the 1960s and 1970s beginning in the early 1980s, a remarkable political reversal brought popular movements, elections and new constitutions. Part of a broader late 20th century globalization democracy. By 2000, almost all Latin American countries had abandoned their military controlled regimes and returned to some form of democratic governance. 20th Century democracy was viewed as a universal political principle to which all can aspire rather tan an alien imposed system.
  17. 17. FUTURE FOR DEMOCRACY? •  Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and Vladimir Putin in Russia, turned authoritatian once in office. •  Even where parliaments existed, they were often quite discumscribed in their powers. •  Electoral fraud tainted democratic institutions in many places, while established elites and oligarchies found it possible to exercise considerable influence even in formal democracies. •  Chinese authorities brutally crushed a democratic movement in 1989.
  18. 18. CHANGING PRIORITIES, VARYING OUTCOMES •  Role of the state changed in many places. •  China launched a major industrialization effort and massive land reform under the leadership of the communist party. •  A communist Cuba provided basic healthcare to its entire population, raising life expectancy. •  South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore chose a different strategy. They choose to specialize in particular products to export market – textiles, electronic goods and automobiles. = rapid economic growth.
  19. 19. WOMEN? •  Women were central to many governments ´increased interest in curtailing population growth. Womenñs access to birth control, education, and employment it turned out, provided powerful incentives to limit family size. •  Economic development – was a political decision. (where to locate: factories, schools, hospitals always provoked controversies) = experimental process.
  20. 20. INDUSTRIALIZATION •  East Asian countries have had the stongest record of economic growth. South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore = became industrialized countries. •  India opened itself more fully to the world market and launched rapid economic growth with a powerful tech sector and expanding middle class. •  By 2008, Brazil ranked the 8th largest econmy in the world with rapidly growing industrial sector. •  = industralization had become a global phenomenon by the 21st century.
  21. 21. THE ROLE OF ISLAM IN TURKEY AND IRAN •  A Common issue all across the developing world involved the uneasy relationship between the older traditions and the more recent outlooks associated with modernity and the West. •  Such tensions provided raw material for a series of cultural experiments in the 20th century.
  22. 22. TURKEY •  Ataturk (often compared to Peter the Great from Russia) sought to transform his country into modern. •  His followers believed that to become modern mean “to enter to European civilization completely”. •  Ataturk changed Turkey completely: the arabic script in which the Turkish language had long been written was exchanged for a new Western style alphabet (made literacy easier) •  The most visible symbols of Atarturks revolutionary program ocurred in the real of dresscode.
  23. 23. WOMEN IN TURKEY •  The emancipation of women was cornerstone of the new Turkey. •  Polygamy was abolished, women were granted equal rights in divorce, inheritance, and child custody. •  In 1934 Turkish women gained the right to vote and hold public office. •  Public beaches were open to women as well. •  These reforms represented a “cultural revolution” unique in the Islamic world. •  After Ataturk´s death in 1938. Not all remained the same.
  24. 24. MODERN TURKEY? •  The call to prayer returned to Arab and various political groups urfed a greater role for Islam in the public arena. •  Since 2002, moderate Islamic party has governed the country, while the political role of the military diminished. •  By 2010, an earlier prohibition on women wearing headscarves in universities had largely ended.
  25. 25. IRAN •  By the end of the 20th century: Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (1941-1979) Iran had undertaken a successful and largely secular modernization effort. •  The country had great wealth in oil, and a powerful military and a high elite educated class with a solid alliance with United States. •  White Revolution, promote the country´s modernization: redistricuted and to many impoverished peasantry, granted women the right to vote, invested in rural health care and education.
  26. 26. IRAN •  Beneath the apparent success, discontent and resentment were brewing. •  Religious leaders, the ulama, were offended with secular education programs that bypassed Islamic schools and by state control of religious institutions. •  Educated professionals found Iran´s reliance on the West disturbing. •  Religious Shi íte leaders invoked memories of earlier Islamic martyrdom as they mobilized that opposition and called for the Shahs removal. •  The emerging leader was the Shia Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini (1902-1989)
  27. 27. AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI •  Ayatollah also made a cultural revolution – but in the opposite direction from Ataturk in Turkey- •  Ayatollah moved to the Islamization of public life. The new government defined itseld as an Islamic Republic. •  All institutuons designed to ensure compatibility with a particular vision of Islam. •  Opposition to the new Ayatollah regime was harshly crushed, with some 1,800 executions in 1981. •  Ayatollah Khomeini believed that the purpose of government was to apply the law of Allah as expressed in the Sharia.
  28. 28. IRAN •  Islamization profoundly affected the domain of education and culture. •  The new government closed 200 universities and colleges. Elementary and secondary schools largely secular under the Shah, gave priority to religious teaching of Arabic. •  All women by 1983 were required to wear modest head to toe coverning known as HIJAB. (regulation enforced). •  Legal age of marriage for girls, was 18 but was reduced by the Shah to 9 with parental consent and 13. •  Married women could no longer file for divorce or attend school.
  29. 29. IRAN •  Iran became a model which many Islamic radicals looked. •  An 8 year war with Suddam Husseins highly secularized Iraq (1980-1988) was one of the outcomes and generated enormous casualties. That conflict reflected the differences between Sunnis and Shiites version of Islam. •  After Knomeinis death in 1989, some elements of this revolution eased a bit. •  By 2005, more conservative elements were back in control and a new crackdown for women clothing surfaced. •  The country´s oil revenue continued to fund its development and by the 21st century Iran was actively pursuing nuclear power in defiance of Western opposition