Chapter 22 End of Empires and global south to global stage 1914- Present
THE END OF EMPIRE
GLOBAL SOUTH TO GLOBAL
AP WORLD HISTORY
THE MOST RECENT CENTURY 1914-2012
MAP OF TIME
• 1915 – Ghandi returns to India from South Africa
• 1928 – Muslim brotherhood established in Egypt
• 1947 – Independence of Pakistan and India
• 1948 – Establishment of state of Israel and Apartheid
established in South Africa
• 1949 – Independence of Indonesia, Communist in China
• 1957 – 1975 – Independence of African countries
• 1959 – Cuban Revolution
• 1979 - Revolution in Iran
• 1980s to 1990s – Growth of democratic movements in
Africa and Latin America
END OF EMPIRE IN
• The 20th centuries witnessed the demise of many
empires: Austrian and Ottoman empires collapsed
after WWI. = new states,
• WWII ended the German and Japanese empires.
• African and Asian movements for independece
shared national self determination.
• Powerful influence of United States in Latin America.
• Desinegration of Soviet Union in 1991 = birth to new
AFRICAN AND ASIAN
• United states and Soviet Union, the new global
superpowers, generally opposed to older European
colonial empires. –
• The colonies had been integrated into a global
economic network and local elites were largely
committed to maintaining those links.
• Europe wanted profitable economic interests in Asia
and Africa without the expense of trouble of a
• Leaders made political parties in all Asia and Africa:
Gandhi in India, Sukarno in Indonesia, Ho Chi Minh
in Vietnam, Mandela in South Africa.
CASE OF INDIA
• British colonial rule also promoted a growing sense
of Indian identity.
• INC – Indian National Congress established in 1885.
Made by well educated Indians-English
background. Lawyers, teachers and businessmen
(high caste Hindu families). – did not seek to
overthrow British rule, rather they hoped to gain
greater inclusion wihtin the political, military of British
• At the beginning the INC had difficult gaining mass
• Ghandi (1869-1949) Born in Gujurat, Hindu family,
Married at age of 13, embraced an opportinity to
study law in England at 18. He returned a lawyer in
1893, accepted a job in South Africa.
• Ghandi experienced racism. He emerged a
political philosophy SATYAGRAHA (truth force)
through a non violent, approach.
• Returned to India 1915, and got involved in the
• His support to Muslims but with Hindu religious
themes, this made the INC into mass organization.
• He rejected moden industrialization, his own chied
Jawaharlal Nehru embraced science, technology
for Indias future.
PAKISTAN AND INDIA
• Another movement for independence
gained ground, the MUSLIM LEAGUE, and its
leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah argued that
those parts of India that had Muslim majority
should have a separate political status.
• They call it PAKISTAN the land of the pure. In
his view, India was not a single nation.
• Colonial India became independent in 1947
as 2 countries. A muslim Pakistan and a Hindu
• Million people died in the communal
violence, 12 million refugees moved from one
country to another.
• Only a year after independence, Ghandi was
assassinated by a Hindu extremist.
• South Africas freedom was very different from India.
• South Africa in fact had been independent of
Great Britain since 1910. However, granted to a
government controlled by a white settler minority.
(less than 20% of the population)
• Black South Africans struggle therefore was against
this internal opponent rather than against a distant
• South African situation was the overwhelming
prominence of race, expressed since 1948, in the
official policy of APARTHEID. (separate blacks from
whites in every conceivable way)
• The African National Congress, was led by
male, educated, professional, middle class
Africans who sought to overthrow the
existing order, but to be accepted as
• Women were denied full membership in the
ANC until 1943. (as domestic servants).
• In 1950s a new younger generation of ANC
leadership which included Nelson Mandela,
broadened its base support and launched
nonviolent civil disobedience.
• The goverment of South Africa responded
with tremendous repression, including
• Banned its leader Nelson Mandela and sent
him to prison.
• In the mid 80s spreading urban violence and the
radicalization of urban young people had forced
the government to declare a state of emergency.
• Demands to end apartheid.
• Internationsl pressure and the refusal of many artists
to perform in the Olympics. = isolated South Africa
from Western world.
• Combination of these internal and external
pressures persuaded many white South Africans by
the late 1980s – the abandonment of apartheid
policies and release of Nelson Mandela (1994)
THE FATE OF
• Populations were exploding
• The state assumed greater responsibility for economic
• Communist Party in China, Vietnam and Cuba
• Multiparty democracy in India and South Africa
• One party democracy in Mexico (PRI)
• European authorities transplant democratic institutions to
• Western style democracy, including regular elections,
multiple parties, civil liberties, peaceful changes in
• Freedom from colonial rule certainly did not
automatically generate the internal political freedom
associated with democracy.
IN LATIN AMERICA
• Latin America was quite different from those in
Africa. Latin American armes forces intervened in
• Latin American states lived in shadow of dominant
United States. “poor Mexico” bemoaned Porfirio
Diaz (Mexican dictator).
• Rapid growth population, sharp class conflict, rural
poverty, mass migration to city slums.
• Cuban Revolution of 1959, brought Fidel Castro to
power. (Communist – intent on spreding its
• Cuban Revolutions had powerful
international repercussions. It
reshaped relationship with the
• Castros government began a
program of nationalization and
political consolidation. – got
involved in military conflicts
including Angolan civil war and
• United States imposed an
economic embargo on Cuban
• Chile provides a fascinating case study. With a long
tradition of electoral politics and rival parties.
• In 1970 Chileans elected a presidency with a Marxist
politician, Salvador Allende brought together the
countrys socialists and communists.
• He ordered prices frozen and wages raised.
• Nationalization of major industries followed (copper,
coal, steel and many banks- foreign coorp.)
• Land reform programs soon seized the large
estates, redistributing them to small farmers.
• Allende welcomed Fidel Castro.
• In 1972: Huge strike of landlord elites,
wealthy business, middle class elements.
• U.S government, which had long armed
and trained military forces throughout Latin
America, actively opposed the Allende
• CIA Document declared that “…that
Allende be overthrown by a coup” in
• General Augusto Pinochet – held a long
lasting military regime. Poltical parties were
banned. Thousands were killed, tortured, or
• Free economic policies attracted foreing
PATH TO DEMOCRACY?
Despite the democratic setbacks of the 1960s and
1970s beginning in the early 1980s, a remarkable
political reversal brought popular movements,
elections and new constitutions.
Part of a broader late 20th century globalization
By 2000, almost all Latin American countries had
abandoned their military controlled regimes and
returned to some form of democratic governance.
20th Century democracy was viewed as a universal
political principle to which all can aspire rather tan an
alien imposed system.
• Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and Vladimir Putin in
Russia, turned authoritatian once in office.
• Even where parliaments existed, they were often
quite discumscribed in their powers.
• Electoral fraud tainted democratic institutions in
many places, while established elites and
oligarchies found it possible to exercise
considerable influence even in formal
• Chinese authorities brutally crushed a democratic
movement in 1989.
• Role of the state changed in many places.
• China launched a major industrialization effort and
massive land reform under the leadership of the
• A communist Cuba provided basic healthcare to its
entire population, raising life expectancy.
• South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore
chose a different strategy. They choose to
specialize in particular products to export market –
textiles, electronic goods and automobiles. = rapid
• Women were central to many governments
´increased interest in curtailing population growth.
Womenñs access to birth control, education, and
employment it turned out, provided powerful
incentives to limit family size.
• Economic development – was a political decision.
(where to locate: factories, schools, hospitals always
provoked controversies) = experimental process.
• East Asian countries have had the stongest record
of economic growth. South Korea, Taiwan,
Singapore = became industrialized countries.
• India opened itself more fully to the world market
and launched rapid economic growth with a
powerful tech sector and expanding middle class.
• By 2008, Brazil ranked the 8th largest econmy in the
world with rapidly growing industrial sector.
• = industralization had become a global
phenomenon by the 21st century.
THE ROLE OF ISLAM IN
TURKEY AND IRAN
• A Common issue all across the developing world
involved the uneasy relationship between the older
traditions and the more recent outlooks associated
with modernity and the West.
• Such tensions provided raw material for a series of
cultural experiments in the 20th century.
• Ataturk (often compared to Peter the
Great from Russia) sought to transform his
country into modern.
• His followers believed that to become
modern mean “to enter to European
• Ataturk changed Turkey completely: the
arabic script in which the Turkish language
had long been written was exchanged for
a new Western style alphabet (made
• The most visible symbols of Atarturks
revolutionary program ocurred in the real
WOMEN IN TURKEY
• The emancipation of women was
cornerstone of the new Turkey.
• Polygamy was abolished, women
were granted equal rights in divorce,
inheritance, and child custody.
• In 1934 Turkish women gained the
right to vote and hold public office.
• Public beaches were open to
women as well.
• These reforms represented a
“cultural revolution” unique in the
• After Ataturk´s death in 1938. Not all
remained the same.
• The call to prayer returned to Arab and various
political groups urfed a greater role for Islam in the
• Since 2002, moderate Islamic party has governed
the country, while the political role of the military
• By 2010, an earlier prohibition on women wearing
headscarves in universities had largely ended.
• By the end of the 20th century: Shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
(1941-1979) Iran had undertaken a
successful and largely secular
• The country had great wealth in oil,
and a powerful military and a high
elite educated class with a solid
alliance with United States.
• White Revolution, promote the
redistricuted and to many
impoverished peasantry, granted
women the right to vote, invested in
rural health care and education.
• Beneath the apparent success, discontent
and resentment were brewing.
• Religious leaders, the ulama, were
offended with secular education programs
that bypassed Islamic schools and by state
control of religious institutions.
• Educated professionals found Iran´s
reliance on the West disturbing.
• Religious Shi íte leaders invoked memories
of earlier Islamic martyrdom as they
mobilized that opposition and called for
the Shahs removal.
• The emerging leader was the Shia
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini (1902-1989)
• Ayatollah also made a cultural revolution
– but in the opposite direction from
Ataturk in Turkey-
• Ayatollah moved to the Islamization of
public life. The new government defined
itseld as an Islamic Republic.
• All institutuons designed to ensure
compatibility with a particular vision of
• Opposition to the new Ayatollah regime
was harshly crushed, with some 1,800
executions in 1981.
• Ayatollah Khomeini believed that the
purpose of government was to apply the
law of Allah as expressed in the Sharia.
• Islamization profoundly affected the
domain of education and culture.
• The new government closed 200
universities and colleges. Elementary
and secondary schools largely secular
under the Shah, gave priority to religious
teaching of Arabic.
• All women by 1983 were required to
wear modest head to toe coverning
known as HIJAB. (regulation enforced).
• Legal age of marriage for girls, was 18
but was reduced by the Shah to 9 with
parental consent and 13.
• Married women could no longer file for
divorce or attend school.
• Iran became a model which many Islamic
• An 8 year war with Suddam Husseins highly
secularized Iraq (1980-1988) was one of the
outcomes and generated enormous
casualties. That conflict reflected the
differences between Sunnis and Shiites version
• After Knomeinis death in 1989, some elements
of this revolution eased a bit.
• By 2005, more conservative elements were
back in control and a new crackdown for
women clothing surfaced.
• The country´s oil revenue continued to fund its
development and by the 21st century Iran was
actively pursuing nuclear power in defiance of