Responses To Imperialism

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european imperialism 19th century egypt japan china

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Responses To Imperialism

  1. 1. Egypt, China, Japan
  2. 2. <ul><li>Traditionalist: Stick with our traditional ways </li></ul><ul><li>Westernizing: Adapt to industrialization, liberalism, constitutionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt: tries to Westernize, fails </li></ul><ul><li>China: sticks to tradition, fails </li></ul><ul><li>Japan: tries to Westernize, succeeds </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Ottoman governor of Egypt (1805-49) </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Modernize Egypt, minimize foreign influence </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms: </li></ul><ul><li>Improved tax collection </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganized landholding </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced cotton as cash crop </li></ul><ul><li>Improved irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Western-style army </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Increased participation in world trade </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered Arabia, Syria, Sudan </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Ruled 1863-1879 </li></ul><ul><li>Less competent than his grandfather, Muhammad Ali. </li></ul><ul><li>Continued many of his grandfather’s reforms, trying to make Egypt a modern state. </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuilt Cairo on the model of Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>Built railroads to provide transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>Patronized opera and theater. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged newspaper and modern communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to conquer Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans invest money in Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>But lavish lifestyle lands him in debt. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>French engineers Ferdinand de Lesseps organized Suez Canal company. Canal begun in 1859 and opened in 1869. 100 miles long. </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt and France each owned shares. Ismail hoped money from the canal would get him out of debt. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead he sank deeper into debt; Britain bought his shares in 1875. </li></ul><ul><li>By </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Growing nationalist feeling against foreigners </li></ul><ul><li>France and Britain controlled economy </li></ul><ul><li>In 1879, Britain forces Ismail’s removal </li></ul><ul><li>1882: Nationalist revolt attacks Europeans in Cairo </li></ul><ul><li>Britain responds by sending an army </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt made a protectorate of Great Britain </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>BRITISH DEMAND FOR TEA/YEAR </li></ul><ul><li>BRITISH PAYMENTS IN SILVER/YEAR </li></ul><ul><li>1684: 5 chests </li></ul><ul><li>1720: 400,000 chests </li></ul><ul><li>1800: 23 million pounds (1/7 of tea grown in China) </li></ul><ul><li>1760s: 3 million oz. </li></ul><ul><li>1780s: 16 million oz. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Goal: Negotiate favorable balance of trade with China </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese exports: Porcelain, silk, tea </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese imports: silver </li></ul><ul><li>All trade had to be conducted through city of Canton </li></ul><ul><li>Britain wants China to allow importation of British manufactured goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Qianlong Emperor refuses – “We already possess all things.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Grown by British East India Co. in India; smuggled illegally into China. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly addictive drug made from poppy sap; related to morphine. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Imports </li></ul><ul><li>1730: 15 tons </li></ul><ul><li>1773: 75 tons </li></ul><ul><li>1820: 900 tons </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese paid for opium in silver, which British then used to buy tea. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing addiction </li></ul><ul><li>More silver flowing out of China than in </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Appointed by emperor to stop the opium trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Queen Victoria asking for her help – no response. </li></ul><ul><li>1838: Orders merchants in Canton to turn over all opium, which Lin then destroys. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>England’s advanced technology allowed the British fleet to make relatively quick work of the Chinese warhips. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>First in series of unequal treaties between China and Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Ended Opium War with British victory </li></ul><ul><li>China pays Britain lots of silver (indemnity) </li></ul><ul><li>Five ports opened to European trade </li></ul><ul><li>Britain gets island of Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>Extraterritoriality: blow to Chinese sovereignty </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>China’s modern civil war </li></ul><ul><li>Opium Wars had exposed weakness of Qing Dynasty, increased presence of foreigners in China </li></ul><ul><li>Leader of Taiping thought he was Jesus’ younger brother </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to establish a “heavenly kingdom of peace” </li></ul><ul><li>20-30 million dead </li></ul><ul><li>Qing loses some land to Russia, Europeans grab more concessions </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Confucian scholars saw Western ideas as threat to China’s social stability, authority </li></ul><ul><li>Official government policy swings back and forth between reforming and sticking with tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Increased foreign presence provokes nationalist uprising: Boxer Rebellion </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Anti-foreign uprising </li></ul><ul><li>Failed: Britain, Germany, Russia, Japan, US, Italy, Austria unite to crush uprising, protect their spheres of influence; invade Beijing in 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Qing forced to send Chinese abroad to study, learn from the West </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Sun Yixian </li></ul><ul><li>educated in United States (Hawaii) </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in London for a while </li></ul><ul><li>creates Chinese Revolutionary Alliance based on: </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism: throw out foreigners, unite Chinese ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy: representative government </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihood: economic security </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by Lincoln's Gettysburg Address: “government of the people, by the people, for the people” </li></ul><ul><li>1911 : Nationalists overthrow Qing Dynasty, establish Chinese Republic with Sun Yixian as president. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Power in hands of shogun (military ruler) </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Closed country policy </li></ul><ul><li>Era of peace and stability </li></ul><ul><li>Strains on Tokugawa rule showing by 1853 </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Matthew Perry’s fleet arrives 1853 </li></ul><ul><li>US threatens violence if Japan does not open to trade </li></ul><ul><li>Japan had seen what had happened to China </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>First of series of unequal treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Japan opened to trade, Western influence </li></ul><ul><li>Extraterrotioriality </li></ul><ul><li>Tokugawa government lost “face” – discontent grows </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Japan’s civil war </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution overthrows Tokugawa family </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor Meiji (“enlightened rule”) takes direct power </li></ul><ul><li>Moves capital to Tokyo </li></ul><ul><li>Series of reforms </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Sent Japanese to Europe and America for education </li></ul><ul><li>Brought European and American experts to Japan to teach there </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Create strong modern state </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial economy </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat liberal government </li></ul><ul><li>Diet: legislature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One house elected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One house appointed by emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on German model – emperor retained most power </li></ul><ul><li>Modern army and navy </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Needed natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to prove itself strong </li></ul><ul><li>1876: Forces Korea to open to Japanese trade </li></ul><ul><li>1894: Defeats China in Sino-Japanese War </li></ul><ul><li>1904: Russo-Japanese War </li></ul><ul><li>1910: Annexes Korea </li></ul>

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