Overview939 Development of a National Identity1870 French Control Japanese Control 1890-1940 1940-19451945 Attempts to gain independence Proclamation of Independence Ho Chi Minh War with France Geneva Agreements1954 Division of Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem and the Vietcong Involvement of the American forces1968 Communist drive to reunify Vietnam Communist Success1975 Reuniﬁcation of Vietnam
Term ‘Indochina’ refers to the mixture of Indian andChinese cultures in the regionOrigin of Vietnam is China, Cambodia (Khmer) is Indiaand Lao is from China’s Yunnan province.The three countries have never formed a single nation.
The Chinese introduced Confucianism toVietnam and the code of respect for authority,duty to family, and a desire for learning. Buddhism also came from China and also India with an emphasis on withdrawing from the material world
Cooperative Society The Vietnamese economy is based on the wet rice farming of China which requires cooperative labour.
Cooperative farms led to village formation.Villages were the basis of Vietnamese society.Villageswould later link to resist foreign invasion. This also ledto a sense of identity.China dominated Vietnam for nearly a thousand years.Vietnam’s ancient name, Annam, is Chinese for ‘paciﬁedsouth’.
Vietnambecamedominated byChinesecivilisation.Rebellions werecrushed but itdid lead to asense ofnationalismIndependencewas ﬁnallyachieved fromChina in 938.
Europeans travelled to Vietnam in the 16th Century.The Vietnamese resisted attempts to establish any permanentcontrol.Roman Catholic missionaries had some success and manyVietnamese adopted Christianity.Many Catholic priests became village leaders.Christianity undermined the Vietnamese beliefs in ancestorworship and the sacredness of land
Missionaries disrupted the lifestyle of traditionalVietnam.During the 16th Century Vietnam fell apart.Competing families engaged in power struggles thatcarved up the country and led to north-southrivalry.After many years of conﬂict, the Nguyen dynastyreuniﬁed Vietnam after the defeat of other groups.
Revolts against the Nguyen dynasty were frequent and brutal actions such as execution were used to establish control. Under Napoleon III the French intervened and began their century of occupation.Napoleon III (Napoleon’s nephew)
In 1859, in order to protect persecuted Catholic missionaries, the French invaded AnnamBy 1867 they had conquered thesouth, which became the French colonyof Cochin China. By 1885, they hadestablished protectorates over centralVietnam (Annam) and the north(Tonkin) as well.