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  1. 1. ImperialismThe what, the how, the why and the where
  2. 2. What is it?• Imperialism: The conquest of foreign lands and the control of the resources of those lands
  3. 3. Why does it happen?• Colonies are needed to support industrialization (economic)• Demonstration of strength (military)• Defuse internal tensions brought by socialism/increase patriotism (political)• convert & “civilize” (religious/cultural)
  4. 4. Why Europe?Technology, man, Technology
  5. 5. Advantage: Europe• Transportation Technology: • Steamships • Railroads• Infrastructure • Suez Canal built • Panama Canal built
  6. 6. Advantage: Europe• Weaponry • Breech Loaders vs. Muzzle Loaders • Maxim Gun 11 rounds per second fired• Battle of Omdurman: Brits vs. Sudanese 1898. Brits have 20 maxim guns • 5 hours of fighting: Brits: 368 dead • Sudanese 11,000 dead
  7. 7. Advantage: Europe• Correspondence: • 1830’s: Britain-India takes 2 years • after Suez Canal built, two weeks• Telegraph invented and cables laid in 1870s • Britain-India takes 5 hours max.
  8. 8. Where does it happen?• India and Central Asia First• SE Asia/Oceania• Africa
  9. 9. Central Asia• British, French and Russians compete• France drops out after Napoleon• Russia active after 1860s in Tashkent, Bokhara, Samarkand, and approached India• The “Great Game”: Russian vs. British intrigue in Afghanistan • Preparation for imperialist war • Russian Revolution of 1917 forestalled war
  10. 10. India• Grows out of the British East India Company presence• Mughals grant EIC permission to build forts on coastline• Mughals weaken after Aurangzeb dies in 1707.• EIC pushes British govt to take over
  11. 11. India falls• EIC’s expand control around forts using small numbers of British troops and Indian soldiers called Sepoys.• May 1857 Sepoy Mutiny occurs
  12. 12. Britain in control• Britain establishes Direct Rule of India • Institutes Civil Service staffed by English • Indians at low levels of government• Organizes agricultural production • Tea, opium, cotton• Impresses British culture on society
  13. 13. The Imperialists of SE AsiaBritain is the big dog, France, Spain, Holland are all playaz too
  14. 14. Imperialism in Asia
  15. 15. Who is where?• France in IndoChina--Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos • Encourages conversions to Christianity• Spain: Philippines• Dutch: Indonesia (Dutch East Indies)• Britain: Burma, Singapore founded to control Melakan Strait, Malaysia
  16. 16. Africa• The “Scramble”• Europeans all want a piece of the “Dark Continent”• Belgium, France, Portugal, Britain, Germany all compete to establish colonies
  17. 17. contrast is interesting!
  18. 18. South African/Boer War Dutch East India establishes Cape Town (1652) Farmers (Boers) follow to settle territory, later called Afrikaners Competition and conflict with indigenous Khoikhoi and Xhosa peoples British takeover in 1806, slavery a major issue of conflict Afrikaners migrate eastward: the Great Trek, overpower Ndebele and Zulu resistance with superior firepower Establish independent Republics British tolerate this until gold is discovered White-white conflict, black soldiers and laborers Afrikaners concede in 1902, 1910 integrated into Union of South Africa
  19. 19. Berlin West AfricaConference (1884-85 Fourteen European states & United States No African states present Rules of colonization: any European state can take “unoccupied” territory after informing other European powers European firepower dominates Africa Exceptions: Ethiopia fights off Italy (1896); Liberia a dependency of the US
  20. 20. 3 Types of Rule• #1: Concessionary Companies • Private companies granted rights to rule • Exploitative, tax locals, extract resources • Leads to horrible abuses • Profit margins are minimal
  21. 21. 3 Types of Rule• #2 Direct rule• Europeans try to directly govern.• Chronic shortage of personnel • Language and cultural and religious barriers • “Civilizing missions”
  22. 22. 3 Types of Rule• #3 Indirect Rule• Place sympathetic natives in charge • use indigenous institutions • but impose arbitrary boundaries • disregard tribal distinctions and other pre-existing barriers
  23. 23. Imperialism in Oceania
  24. 24. Oceania• Largely commercial • Whaling ports, merchants seeking items to sell in China • Missionaries seeking souls • British, French, German and Americans carve up islands
  25. 25. NKOTB: US• US late to the party, but plays the game well• Monroe Doctrine issued 1823• 1867 purchases Alaska from Russia so they can see Russia from the porch• 1875 establish Hawai’ian protectorate, take it over in 1898 per “local” request • Queen Lili’uokalani overthrown
  26. 26. NKOTB: US• US declares war on Spain after USS Maine sunk in Havana, Cuba 1898-99 • Takes Puerto Rico, Guam, Cuba, Philippines as a • Philippines revolt vs. Spain and then US • 4200 US soldiers, 215,000 locals die• Then US intervenes in Caribbean and Central American areas, per Roosevelt Corollary • Takes Dominican, Nicaragua, Honduras, Haiti
  27. 27. NKOTB: Japan• 1870’s expand to local islands like Okinawa• 1876 purchase gunships from Britain, Use them to take over Korea • Sino-Japanese War over Korea (1894-5) win for Japan • Russo-Japanese war (1904) win for Japan• Japan eyes China...
  28. 28. NKOTB: Japan• Japan pursues the same Unequal Treaties imposed by Europe on it• China gives up Taiwan, the Liaodong Penn. and Pescadores to Japan.• Korea is a dependency of Japan• Manchuria becomes Japanese as well• All about access to resources
  29. 29. Consequences• Colonial holdings are encouraged to develop & exploit natural resources • NOT develop manufacturing or industry• Developed a dependence on imperial power for those products • i.e.: Indian Cotton• Crops are transplanted/new to a region
  30. 30. More Consequences• Migration• Europeans move to temperate climates • Free cultivators, industrial laborers • 32 million alone to the US 1800-1914
  31. 31. More Consequences• Africans, Asians, Pacific Islanders move to tropical/sub-tropical destinations • indentured laborers, manual laborers • 2.5 million between 1820-1914
  32. 32. Still More Consequences• Conflict • Thousands of insurrections vs. colonial rule • Tanganyika Maji-maji vs. Germans in 1905 • sprinkle with magic water to deflect bullets/protect vs. modern weapons • 75,000 killed
  33. 33. Even More Consequences• “Scientific” Racism • Race codified as a reason for colonial dominance• Builds off of Darwin’s work• Morton and de Gobineau lead the way
  34. 34. Darwin’s Idea
  35. 35. Morton’s Idea
  36. 36. Morton’s Proof
  37. 37. Go to WikipediaLook up: An Essay on the Inequality of Human Races for de Gobineau’s contributions
  38. 38. A response to Kipling Pile on the Black Man’s Burden. Tis nearest at your door; Why heed long bleeding Cuba, or dark Hawaii’s shore? Hail ye your fearless armies, Which menace feeble folks Who fight with clubs and arrows and brook your rifle’s smoke. Pile on the Black Man’s Burden His wail with laughter drown You’ve sealed the Red Man’s problem, And will take up the Brown, In vain ye seek to end it, With bullets, blood or death Better by far defend it With honor’s holy breath. Source: H.T. Johnson, “The Black Man’s Burden,” Voice of Missions, VII (Atlanta: April 1899), 1. Reprinted in Willard B. Gatewood, Jr.,Black Americans and the White Man’s Burden, 1898–1903 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press), 1975, 183–184.