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06 bioaccumulation


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06 bioaccumulation

  2. 2. BIOACCUMULATIONBioaccumulation is the gradual build up of a chemical in aliving organism over time
  3. 3. BIOACCUMULATIONUptake describes the entrance of a chemical into anorganism.Uptake can occur during activities such as eating, drinking,breathing, and touching/contact.SNIFFSNIFF
  4. 4. BIOACCUMULATIONUptake occurs when a chemical passes from the environmentinto an organism’s cellsSemipermeableChemicals tend to move, or diffuse, from areas of highconcentration to areas of low concentrationUptake often depends on the relative concentration of thechemical in the environment compared to the organism’scells
  5. 5. BIOACCUMULATIONStorage means the deposit of a chemical in body tissue or inan organ.
  6. 6. BIOACCUMULATIONStorageCompounds that are highly water soluble do NOT usuallybioaccumulate in an organism’s cells.EXAMPLE:Vitamin D (fat-soluble) Vitamin C (water-soluble)Easy to overdose Hard to overdose
  7. 7. BIOACCUMULATIONStorageBut cobalt is highly water-soluble. Why is it easy toaccumulate this heavy metal?Because cobalt binds tightly and specifically to sites in theliver and accumulates
  8. 8. BIOACCUMULATIONStorageSimilar accumulation processes occur for…-Mercury-DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)-Lead
  9. 9. BIOACCUMULATIONBIOMAGNIFICATION is a process that results in theaccumulation of a chemical in an organism at higher levelsthan are found in its food.
  10. 10. BIOACCUMULATIONBIOMAGNIFICATION can be beneficial or harmful
  11. 11. BIOACCUMULATIONBIOMAGNIFICATION occurs when a chemical becomes moreand more concentrated as it moves up through a food chainTYPICAL FOOD CHAIN:Phytoplankton  Zooplankton  Small Fish  Bigger Fish  Mammals
  13. 13. BIOACCUMULATIONThe process of bioaccumulation…-Is a normal and essential process for the growth and nurturing oforganisms-All animals, including humans, bioaccumulate vital nutrients suchas proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals
  14. 14. BIOACCUMULATIONBioaccumulation is the net result of the interaction of uptake,storage, and elimination of a chemicalElimination is the removal of chemicals from the organismthrough metabolism (all the chemical reactions in anorganism)1) Chemicals that are easilyeliminated from an organism donot bioaccumulate.2) Chemicals that dissolve readilyin fat have a greater potential toaccumulate
  15. 15. BIOACCUMULATIONOther factors that affect bioaccumulation:-Duration of exposure-Concentration of chemicals in the environment-Lifetime of organism-Anatomy of organism (certain anatomies enable betteraccumulation of specific chemicals)Example:Poison dart frogs accumulatepoisons ingested from eatingants, centipedes, and mites touse as their own poison
  16. 16. BIOACCUMULATIONSUMMARYBioaccumulation is necessary for growth and the acquisitionof essential chemicals……but can be harmful at the same time.