Ch05ed

1,861 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,861
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
675
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ch05ed

  1. 1. THE NORTH AMERICAN MANUFACTURING CORE (Chapter 5)
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Straddles the U.S.–Canadian boarder, but the international boundary has little impact on the region's shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing concentrated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ohio Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megalopolis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern shores of the Great Lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overlaps the agricultural core, other regions </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing as definer of continental core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most important ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centers of communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary financial centers </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. North America’s Manufacturing Core (page 91)
  4. 4. Agricultural Core (page 209)
  5. 5. Overlap with Manufacturing Core <ul><ul><li>Food processing industries in Manufacturing Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacture of farm equipment </li></ul></ul>(page 210)
  6. 7. Figure 12-1
  7. 8. <ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North: Oak-Hickory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South: Chesnut-Oak-Y. Poplar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Tall Grass Prairie </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid Continental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major Microclimatic Variations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usual: Tornadoes and Flooding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual: Earthquakes </li></ul></ul></ul>Physical Geography
  8. 9. Physical Geography: Climate <ul><ul><li>Average precipitation > 75 centimeters (>30 inches), most during growing season (April-November) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited variability , little risk of drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Last killing frost from mid-April (south) to mid-May (north) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First killing frost late September </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental climate: strong seasonal range </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Average Annual Temperature Range (page 212)
  10. 11. Beyond the Corn Belt <ul><li>Dairying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North of Corn Belt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate too cold for corn maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>German, Scandinavian immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn silage (cut before maturity), other grains for dairy cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surplus milk: Cheese, butter (survive trip to market) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fruit belts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Michigan, Lake Erie shorelines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderating effect of lakes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. The Family Farm <ul><li>Family farm as part of American (and Canadian) folklore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exaggerated images of farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fit until about World War II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In swift decline today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in ownership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure for greater efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessity for larger operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rental and leasing of additional land </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Agricultural Development <ul><li>Early settlers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-value crop with reliable market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard on soils, therefore shifted west with settlement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shipping dependent on water transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flour milling at break-in-bulk points (Cincinnati, Buffalo) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat from domestic livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hogs and cattle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed farming: raising grain to feed livestock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of Cincinnati as “Porkopolis” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>1920s to 1970s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black migration to the North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversification of agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suburbia emerging into galactic cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1970s to Present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why the Rust Belt? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Diversification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restoring the Rust Belt </li></ul></ul>Contemporary Human Geography Figure 12-1
  14. 15. Advantages of Manufacturing Core <ul><li>Mineral resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metallic minerals (metamorphic rock) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appalachians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian Shield </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral fuels (sedimentary lowlands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West of Appalachians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between Gulf of Mexico and Arctic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessibility resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Lakes (with canals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ohio River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mississippi and tributaries </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Canadian Shield Appalachians Rockies Interior Plains Advantages of Manufacturing Core Fuel Resources Coal Resources Great Lakes
  16. 17. <ul><li>Coal : The Eastern Interior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil and Natural Gas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limestone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salt: Underground </li></ul></ul></ul>Mining in the Heartland http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1996/of96-279/
  17. 18. Growth of Manufacturing Core <ul><li>Product of late 19 th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before 1830, urban/manufacturing development along Atlantic Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural settlement between 1830 and Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation growth: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erie Canal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Growth of Railroads, 1850, 1860, 1880 (page 95)
  19. 20. Historical Growth: Transportation and Industrial Energy (John Borchert) <ul><li>Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790-1830) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow, primitive overland and waterway movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston, New York, and Philadelphia most important cities </li></ul></ul>(page 97)
  20. 21. Iron Horse Epoch (1830-1870) <ul><li>Arrival and spread of the steam-powered railroads and small-scale industry </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of hinterlands by rail transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of Pittsburgh, Chicago, and Detroit, other ports </li></ul>(page 97)
  21. 22. Steel Rail Epoch (1870-1920) <ul><li>Replacement of iron rails with higher-capacity steel </li></ul><ul><li>Major growth of the steel industry </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for bituminous coal </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of electricity </li></ul>(page 97)
  22. 23. Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920-1960) <ul><li>Automobiles, trucks, and airplanes </li></ul><ul><li>Minimized shipping costs </li></ul><ul><li>Migration toward amenities </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in large cities, but prospects for future decline </li></ul>(page 97)
  23. 24. Information Technology Epoch (1960– ) extension <ul><li>Production and exchange of information , rather than manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>Not necessarily served by the same developmental advantages as earlier eras </li></ul>(page 97)
  24. 25. Historical Cultural Geography <ul><li>Indigenous Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection to fur trade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1780s to 1860s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of land surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of First Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of Civil War </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1860s to 1920s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of mechanized farming, industrialization and railways </li></ul></ul>Figure 12-10
  25. 26. Township and Range Survey System <ul><li>Metes and bounds (east coast) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used visible landscape features, directions, measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsystematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land Ordinance of 1785 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North of Ohio River, west of Pennsylvania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used system of east-west base lines and north-south principal meridians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular, rectangular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveyed before settlement </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Township and Range Survey System (page 217)
  27. 28. Economic Character of Eastern Cities <ul><li>Part of Megalopolis </li></ul><ul><li>Founded on commerce and finance , before manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing hearth: New England </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization in light industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate amounts of partially processed materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High value per unit weight (consumer goods) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of services, especially finance, education, culture </li></ul><ul><li>Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore </li></ul>
  28. 29. Economic Character of Interior Core Cities <ul><li>Location near rich mineral, agricultural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all large cities along </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ohio River </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metallic minerals from Canadian Shield </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesabi Range, Minnesota </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steep Rock deposit, western Ontario </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gogebic, Marquette, Menominee Ranges, northern Michigan and Wisconsin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coal from Appalachians (Pennsylvania, West Virginia) </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration in heavy industry (metal smelting, machinery) </li></ul>
  29. 30. Major Coal and Iron Ore Movements (page 102)
  30. 31. Cities of the Interior Core <ul><li>Pittsburgh </li></ul><ul><ul><li>River junction (Monongahela and Allegheny, forming Ohio) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to raw materials and down-river market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers and users of steel </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Changes in Steelmaking Capacity, 1960-1989 (page 103)
  32. 33. Iron and Steel Mills, 1997 (page 104)
  33. 34. Focus upon Central Places <ul><li>GATEWAY CITY: Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY REGIONALS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toronto </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detroit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>St. Louis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TERTIARY REGIONALS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleveland-Buffalo Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cincinnati </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milwaukee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twin Cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kansas City </li></ul></ul>Figure 12-22
  34. 35. Lake Ports <ul><li>Transfer of iron ore shipped on Great Lakes to rail cars at Great Lakes ports: break-in-bulk </li></ul><ul><li>Return rail cars carrying coal </li></ul><ul><li>Development of steel and other industries at ports </li></ul><ul><li>Cleveland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Lake Erie port city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canal linkage to Ohio River </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buffalo (flour milling) </li></ul>
  35. 36. Lake Ports <ul><li>Canadian cities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton (iron and steel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toronto (diversified) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Detroit–Windsor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Off main New York–Chicago route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center of automobile manufacture </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Importance of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Figure 12-20
  37. 38. Chicago <ul><li>Dominant city in interior core </li></ul><ul><li>Inauspicious site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swampy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor-quality drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-navigable river </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major fire in 1871 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situational advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of goods and people from west and southwest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus of inland water transportation (Illinois and Michigan Canal, 1848) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroad center </li></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Broad Shifts in Economic Activity <ul><li>Decline in agricultural and manufacturing labor force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer workers needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rise in service industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More widespread income distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers no longer needed in manufacturing, agriculture </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Relocation of Industry <ul><li>Population shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Computers and telecommunications </li></ul><ul><li>Competition from foreign manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of educated workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of Sunbelt (southeastern and southwestern U.S., western Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial inertia still important </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in concentration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-1920: Atlantic Coast states more heavily manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-1920: Growth of interior states at coastal states’ expense </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. (page 109)
  41. 42. Figure 12-A

×