THE NORTH PACIFIC COAST (Chapter 16) Elizabeth J. Leppman
Introduction <ul><li>Strong appeal of “ Ecotopia ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lofty, snow-ca...
North Pacific Coast (page 323)
Physical Geography: Climate <ul><ul><li>Precipitation   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average > 190 cm (>75 inches) per y...
Pacific Northwest Topography and Precipitation (page 324)
Precipitation Patterns <ul><ul><li>Northern Pacific Ocean  spawning ground for moisture-laden air masses </li></ul></ul><u...
Temperatures <ul><li>Moderating effect of ocean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool summers...
Topography <ul><ul><li>Dominance of  mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mt. McKinley  (6200 meters/20,300 feet) high...
Topography (continued) <ul><li>Klamath Mountains  (northern California, southern Oregon): rugged, empty area </li></ul><ul...
Topography: Alaska <ul><li>Division in mountain ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chugach  and  Kenai Mountains  along coast </...
American Indians <ul><li>Pre-European  population of the area relatively large </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate climate </li...
European Exploration <ul><li>Last area (besides poles) to be explored by Europeans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance from Eur...
British and American Settlers <ul><li>Hudson’s Bay Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fur-trading operation in Columbia River B...
British Columbia and Railroads <ul><li>Vancouver Island:  British focus on  Victoria  (established 1843) </li></ul><ul><li...
Population Distribution <ul><li>Faster growth than national averages in U.S. and Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Most in lowland ...
Vancouver <ul><ul><li>Canada's third largest city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 1.2 million people, may double in 1...
Seattle <ul><ul><li>Largest city of the North Pacific Coast since late 1800s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded as a loggi...
Portland <ul><ul><li>Ranks high among livable cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More diversified economy than Seattle’s wi...
Regional Economy <ul><li>Dominant characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of  staple products </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Agriculture <ul><li>Similar crops to areas farther east </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition with suppliers closer to market ...
Agricultural Regions (continued) <ul><ul><li>Puget Sound lowland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dairying </li></ul></ul></...
Forestry <ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Columbia: 54% of Canada's timber. </li></ul></ul></...
Power and Dams <ul><li>Hydroelectric potential  unmatched in North America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rugged topography (40%  o...
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Ch16a

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Ch16a

  1. 1. THE NORTH PACIFIC COAST (Chapter 16) Elizabeth J. Leppman
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Strong appeal of “ Ecotopia ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lofty, snow-capped mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attractive cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration destination—locals’ concern with overpopulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Beauty and bounty of landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Relative location (situation) : Isolation from North America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arid or mountainous terrain </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. North Pacific Coast (page 323)
  4. 4. Physical Geography: Climate <ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average > 190 cm (>75 inches) per year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western slopes of Olympic Mountains, Washington, coastal mountains of British Columbia: 380 cm (150 inches) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Vancouver Island: 600 cm (230 inches) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olympic Peninsula rain forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moss, ferns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trees: western hemlock, red cedar, Sitka spruce, Douglas fir (to 60 meters/200 feet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly more weight of living matter than anywhere else on earth! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Pacific Northwest Topography and Precipitation (page 324)
  6. 6. Precipitation Patterns <ul><ul><li>Northern Pacific Ocean spawning ground for moisture-laden air masses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move south and east </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blocked by high-pressure cell off the coast of Mexico </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most moisture over Pacific Northwest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal pattern : most precipitation in winter, especially farther south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air forced up western (windward) mountain slopes: heavy precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warming of air descending eastern slopes: less moisture-carrying capacity, less rainfall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowlands semi-arid, greatest aridity east of Cascade Mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less rainfall north and west of Alaska’s panhandle </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Temperatures <ul><li>Moderating effect of ocean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool summers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Snow uncommon south of Vancouver </li></ul><ul><li>High winds , especially Oregon, northern California, southwestern Washington </li></ul>
  8. 8. Topography <ul><ul><li>Dominance of mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mt. McKinley (6200 meters/20,300 feet) highest in North America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>St. Elias Mountains world’s highest coastal mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mt. Logan (6000 meters/19,700 feet) highest mountain in Canada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coast Ranges : Oregon and Washington </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reach elevations of 1200 meters (4000 feet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for the rain shadow effect </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Topography (continued) <ul><li>Klamath Mountains (northern California, southern Oregon): rugged, empty area </li></ul><ul><li>Lowlands of western British Columbia, Oregon: structural trough </li></ul><ul><li>Cascades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uplifted plateau topped with volcanic peaks (e.g., Mt. St. Helens) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coast Mountains in Canada, impeding coastal land travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains and islands of Alaska panhandle </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Topography: Alaska <ul><li>Division in mountain ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chugach and Kenai Mountains along coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alaska Range in interior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anchorage on Cook Inlet, south of gap in Alaska Range, largest city </li></ul><ul><li>Alaska capital ( Juneau ) on narrow coastal lowland in panhandle </li></ul><ul><li>Moving capital to new location 80 kilometers (50 miles) north of Anchorage? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More central, accessible location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of construction and move </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. American Indians <ul><li>Pre-European population of the area relatively large </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant food year-round </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting and gathering , based on deer and salmon, berries, roots, shellfish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many distinct ethnic groups clustered in small valleys along the coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, impressive houses and dugout canoes built of red cedar planks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potlatch : Ritual giving of gifts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Totem poles : Record of person’s life carved into vertical log </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. European Exploration <ul><li>Last area (besides poles) to be explored by Europeans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance from Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitus Bering (1740) for Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captain James Cook (1778) for Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First settlements late 1700s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fur-trading posts from southeastern Alaska to northern California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never self-sufficient in food, expensive to maintain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. purchase of Alaska (1867) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. British and American Settlers <ul><li>Hudson’s Bay Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fur-trading operation in Columbia River Basin (early 19 th century) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant influence between northern Oregon and British Columbia until 1830s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American settlers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon Trail from Missouri to Willamette Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifest Destiny : Boundary dispute with British </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement to boundary at 49° latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Politically acceptable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disrupted north-south movement in Puget Sound, Columbia River transportation corridors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. British Columbia and Railroads <ul><li>Vancouver Island: British focus on Victoria (established 1843) </li></ul><ul><li>Vancouver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainland location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminus of first Canadian trans-continental railroad (1886) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Railroad to Seattle (1883) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended dependence on ocean shipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated large numbers of immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon: from other parts of North America, especially New England </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington: Europeans, especially Scandinavians </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Population Distribution <ul><li>Faster growth than national averages in U.S. and Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Most in lowland from Fraser River to Willamette Valley </li></ul>(page 330)
  16. 16. Vancouver <ul><ul><li>Canada's third largest city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 1.2 million people, may double in 10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western headquarters for Canadian businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as western outlet for Interior Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada's busiest port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wood products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat destined for Asia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Seattle <ul><ul><li>Largest city of the North Pacific Coast since late 1800s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded as a logging center, became dominant with coming of railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since World War I, the home of Boeing Aircraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes called “world's largest company town” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major employer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversification: Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>software, especially </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Portland <ul><ul><li>Ranks high among livable cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More diversified economy than Seattle’s with better access to interior via Columbia River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shipment of grain from eastern Washington </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better port than Seattle’s </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Regional Economy <ul><li>Dominant characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of staple products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance from major markets of U.S. and Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3% of U.S. population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of Canadian population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freight-rate structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits to transferability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raises costs compared to closer sources </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Agriculture <ul><li>Similar crops to areas farther east </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition with suppliers closer to market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much production for local consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive marketing for some specialties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agricultural areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Willamette Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forage crops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy products (local markets) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strawberries, hops, grass for turf seed, cherries, spearmint, grapes for wine </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Agricultural Regions (continued) <ul><ul><li>Puget Sound lowland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dairying </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Columbia : dairying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East of Cascades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-arid, grasses, desert shrubs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rolling hills with steep-sided coulees (canyons) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Inland Empire” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palouse: Wheat (dry farming) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yakima and Wenatchee valleys : apples </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grand Coulee : Sugar beets, potatoes, alfalfa, dry beans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Forestry <ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Columbia: 54% of Canada's timber. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington, Oregon, and California: > 50% of the U.S. total </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Douglas fir major lumber tree (houses, plywood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of trees highly regional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large-scale logging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size of trees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distance to markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All parts of both countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan, especially for British Columbia, Alaska lumber </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Power and Dams <ul><li>Hydroelectric potential unmatched in North America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rugged topography (40% of U.S. potential in Oregon and Washington) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grand Coulee Dam (1933), The Dalles </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive electricity </li></ul>

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