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Chapter 5


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Chapter 5

  1. 1. Physical Geography of the United States and Canada: A Land of Contrasts North America’s vast and varied landscape and abundant resources have attracted immigrants and shaped the development of the United States and Canada. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 Landforms and Resources SECTION 2 Climate and Vegetation Physical Geography Looking at the Earth NEXT SECTION 3 Human-Environment Interaction
  3. 3. NEXT Section 1 Landforms and Resources • The United States and Canada have vast lands and abundant resources. • These two countries share many of the same landforms.
  4. 4. Landscape Influenced Development Anglo America • U.S., Canada: former British colonies, most people speak English • Strong economic and political ties with one another Landforms and Resources SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . . Vast Lands • Canada second largest country in the world by area; U.S. third • Together they cover one-eighth of the earth’s land surface
  5. 5. SECTION 1 NEXT Abundant Resources • Landmass and natural resources attract immigrants to both countries • U.S. and Canada have developed into global economic powers continued Landscape Influenced Development
  6. 6. Many and Varied Landforms Major Landforms • All major landforms are found in U.S. and Canada • The two countries share mountain chains and interior plains SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . . The Eastern Lowlands • Atlantic Coastal Plain extends from Delaware down to Florida • Gulf Coastal Plain goes from Florida, along Gulf of Mexico, to Texas • Piedmont—low plateau between coastal plains, Appalachian Highlands
  7. 7. SECTION 1 NEXT The Appalachian Highlands • Appalachian Mountains run 1,600 miles from Newfoundland to Alabama - include Green and Catskill mountains in the north - Blue Ridge and Great Smoky mountains in the south • More than 400 million years old • Erosion has created gentle slopes, peaks from 1,200–2,400 feet • The Appalachian Trail is a scenic hiking path along the chain continued Many and Varied Landforms Continued . . .
  8. 8. SECTION 1 NEXT The Interior Lowlands • Glaciers leveled the land, left fertile soil • Interior Plains extend from Appalachians to Missouri River • Great Plains extend from Missouri River to Rocky Mountains • Canadian Shield—vast, flat area around Hudson Bay continued Many and Varied Landforms Continued . . .
  9. 9. SECTION 1 NEXT The Western Mountains, Plateaus, and Basins • Rocky Mountains run 3,000 miles from Alaska to New Mexico • Relatively young: 80 million years old • Less erosion means rugged, 12,000-foot, snow- covered peaks • Continental Divide—the line of highest points along the Rockies - separates rivers that flow eastward from those that flow westward continued Many and Varied Landforms Continued . . .
  10. 10. The Western Mountains, Plateaus, and Basins • Other Pacific mountain ranges: Sierra Nevada, Cascade • Continent’s highest peak: Mt. McKinley in Alaska • Major earthquake activity in Pacific ranges • Between ranges and Rockies: cliffs, canyons, basins (low desert) SECTION 1 NEXT continued Many and Varied Landforms The Islands • Canada’s large, northern islands: Ellesmere, Victoria, Baffin • U.S.: Aleutians (Alaska), Hawaiian (politically, not geographically)
  11. 11. Resources Shape Ways of Life Oceans and Waterways • U.S. and Canada are bounded by: - Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic oceans - Gulf of Mexico • Countries have many large, inland rivers and lakes that provide: - transportation, hydroelectric power, irrigation, fresh water, fisheries SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . .
  12. 12. SECTION 1 NEXT Oceans and Waterways • Great Lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior • Mississippi-Missouri-Ohio river system: continent’s longest, busiest • Mackenzie River: longest in Canada, crosses Northwest Territories continued Resources Shape Ways of Life Continued . . .
  13. 13. SECTION 1 NEXT Land and Forests • Fertile soil helps make North America world’s leading food exporter • Large forests yield lumber and other products Minerals and Fossil Fuels • Mineral quantity and variety make rapid industrialization possible - Canadian Shield: iron ore, nickel, copper, gold, uranium - Appalachians, Great Plains: coal - Gulf of Mexico: oil, natural gas • U.S.: biggest energy consumer; gets most of Canada’s energy exports continued Resources Shape Ways of Life
  14. 14. NEXT Section 2 Climate and Vegetation • Almost every type of climate is found in the 50 United States because they extend over such a large area north to south. • Canada’s cold climate is related to its location in the far northern latitudes.
  15. 15. Shared Climates and Vegetation U.S. and Canada Climates • U.S. has more climate zones than Canada • U.S.: moderate mid-latitudes, Canada: colder high latitudes Climate and Vegetation SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . . Colder Climates • Arctic coast is tundra: huge, treeless plain with long, cold winters - some permafrost—permanently frozen ground • Rockies and Pacific ranges are highland: colder, sparse vegetation - affect weather in lower areas: block Arctic air, trap Pacific moisture
  16. 16. SECTION 2 NEXT Moderate Climates • North central, northeast U.S, southern Canada are humid continental - cold winters; warm summers; heavy agriculture • Pacific coast has marine west coast climate - warm summers; long, mild, rainy winters; mixed vegetation - climate affected by ocean currents, coastal mountains, westerlies - prevailing westerlies—middle-latitude winds blowing west to east continued Shared Climates and Vegetation
  17. 17. Differences in Climate and Vegetation Milder Climates • Much of U.S. located south of 40 degrees N latitude - milder, dry, and tropical climates • Southern states are humid subtropical - hot summers; mild winters; long growing season for variety of crops • Central, southern California coasts have Mediterranean climate - dry, warm summers; mild, rainy winters; fruits, vegetables grow well SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  18. 18. SECTION 2 NEXT Dry Climates • Great Plains, northern Great Basin semiarid: dry with short grasses • Southwest is hot, dry desert, including Mojave and Sonoran deserts continued Differences in Climate and Vegetation Tropical Climates • Hawaii is tropical wet: rain forests, temps around 70 degrees F - Mount Waialeale on Kauai Island is one of the wettest spots on earth • South Florida is tropical wet and dry: warm with tall grasses - Everglades—swampland covering 4,000 square miles
  19. 19. Effects of Extreme Weather Natural Hazards • Warm Gulf air clashes with cold Canadian air over the Great Plains - creates thunderstorms, tornadoes, blizzards • Hurricanes sweep the Gulf and Atlantic coasts in summer and fall • Heavy rains cause floods along big rivers like the Mississippi • Heat, lack of rain bring droughts, dust storms, forest fires SECTION 2 NEXT
  20. 20. NEXT Section 3 Human-Environment Interaction • Humans have dramatically changed the face of North America. • European settlements in the United States and Canada expanded from east to west.
  21. 21. Settlement and Agriculture Alter the Land Settlement • Before humans, land changed due to natural forces: weather, erosion • Human settlers adapted to, and changed, the environment • First North Americans were nomads, moving from place to place - migrated from Asia over Beringia, a land bridge from Siberia to Alaska - hunted, fished, and gathered plants; settled near rivers and streams Human-Environment Interaction SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . .
  22. 22. SECTION 3 NEXT Agriculture • Agriculture replaced hunting and gathering 3,000 years ago • Settlements became permanent - cut down trees for houses, plow fields, dig irrigation ditches - plant corn, beans, squash • Today U.S. and Canada are leading agriculture exporters continued Settlement and Agriculture Alter the Land
  23. 23. Building Cities Where Cities Grow • Water access a major factor in how towns begin, develop • Other factors: landscape, climate, weather, natural resources SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . . Montreal—Adapting to the Weather • Canada’s second-largest city; major port located on island in Quebec - meeting of St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers make it important trade site • French build permanent settlement in 1642 at base of Mount Royal • Cold winters force people to stay inside and build underground areas
  24. 24. SECTION 3 NEXT Los Angeles—Creating Urban Sprawl • Mild climate and the ocean bring thousands to area in early 1900s - once-small Spanish settlement expanded into valleys and foothills • Becomes U.S.’s second-largest city in 1980s - problems: air pollution, low water supply, earthquake area • Los Angeles has spread out over a large area - city proper: 469 square miles; metropolitan area: 4,060 square miles continued Building Cities
  25. 25. Overcoming Distances Trails and Inland Waterways • First natives go east, south down Pacific coast; some remain north • Europeans colonize the east coast then go inland, creating trails - national and Wilderness roads, Oregon and Santa Fe trails - use Mississippi and Ohio rivers; build canals - Erie Canal—first navigable water link between Atlantic, Great Lakes SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . .
  26. 26. SECTION 3 NEXT Trails and Inland Waterways • St. Lawrence Seaway—deepwater ship route built by U.S. and Canada • Connects Great Lakes to Atlantic by way of St. Lawrence River • Gated-off sections called locks raise and lower the water and ships • Large ocean vessels can get to industrial and agricultural heartland continued Overcoming Distances Continued . . .
  27. 27. SECTION 3 NEXT Transcontinental Railroads • Transcontinental—from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean • Builders of early-1800s railroads face many natural barriers - workers cut down forests, bridge streams, tunnel through mountains • First U.S. transcontinental railroad: 1860; first Canadian: 1885 • Move goods, people; promote economic development, national unity • Today U.S. has world’s largest rail system; Canada, third largest continued Overcoming Distances Continued . . .
  28. 28. SECTION 3 NEXT National Highway Systems • Arrival of automobile spurs roadbuilding in early 20th century • Today U.S. has 4 million miles of roads, Canada has 560,000 miles • Large Canadian highways connect major southern cities from east to west - Trans-Canada Highway: 4,860 miles, Newfoundland to British Columbia • U.S. interstate highway system: 46,000-mile network begun in 1950s continued Overcoming Distances
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