Chapter 7


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Chapter 7

  1. 1. Human Geography of Canada Developing a Vast Wilderness Three major groups in Canada—the native peoples, the French, and the English—have melded into a diverse and economically strong nation. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 History and Government of Canada SECTION 2 Economy and Culture of Canada Human Geography of Canada Developing a Vast Wilderness SECTION 3 Subregions of Canada NEXT
  3. 3. Section 1 History and Government of Canada • French and British settlement greatly influenced Canada’s political development. • Canada’s size and climate affected economic growth and population distribution. NEXT
  4. 4. The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry Early Peoples • After Ice Age, migrants cross Arctic land bridge from Asia - ancestors of Arctic Inuit (Eskimos); North American Indians to south • Vikings found Vinland (Newfoundland) about A.D. 1000; later abandon SECTION 1 History and Government of Canada Continued . . . NEXT
  5. 5. SECTION 1 continued The First Settlers and Colonial Rivalry Colonization by France and Britain • French explorers claim much of Canada in 1500– 1600s as “New France” • British settlers colonize the Atlantic Coast • Coastal fisheries and inland fur trade important to both countries • Britain wins French and Indian War (1754–1763); French settlers stay NEXT
  6. 6. Steps Toward Unity Establishing the Dominion of Canada • In 1791 Britain creates two political units called provinces - Upper Canada (later, Ontario): English-speaking, Protestant - Lower Canada (Quebec): French-speaking, Roman Catholic • Rupert’s Land a northern area owned by fur-trading company • Immigrants arrive, cities develop: Quebec City, Montreal, Toronto - railways, canals are built as explorers seek better fur-trading areas SECTION 1 Continued . . . NEXT
  7. 7. SECTION 1 Establishing the Dominion of Canada • Political, ethnic disputes lead to Britain’s 1867 North America Act - creates Dominion of Canada as a loose confederation (political union) - Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick - self-governed part of British Empire • Expansion includes: - Rupert’s Land, Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island - later: Yukon Territory, Alberta, Saskatchewan - Newfoundland in 1949 continued Steps Toward Unity NEXT
  8. 8. Continental Expansion and Development From the Atlantic to the Pacific • In 1885 a transcontinental railroad goes from Montreal to Vancouver • European immigrants arrive and Yukon gold brings fortune hunters - copper, zinc, silver also found; grow towns, railroads SECTION 1 Urban and Industrial Growth • Farming gives way to urban industrialization, manufacturing - within 100 miles of U.S. border due to climate, land, transportation • Canada becomes major economic power in 20th century NEXT
  9. 9. Governing Canada The Parliamentary System • In 1931 Canada becomes independent, British monarch is symbolic head • Parliamentary government: - parliament—legislature combining legislative and executive functions - consists of an appointed Senate, elected House of Commons - prime minister, head of government, is majority party leader • All ten provinces have own legislature and premier (prime minister) - federal government administers the territories SECTION 1 NEXT
  10. 10. Section 2 Economy and Culture of Canada • Canada is highly industrialized and urbanized, with one of the world’s most developed economies. • Canadians are a diverse people. NEXT
  11. 11. An Increasingly Diverse Economy The Early Fur Trade • Beginning in 1500s Native Americans, now known as the First Nations: - begin trade with European fishermen along Atlantic coast • French and English trappers and traders expand westward • Voyageurs—French-Canadian boatmen transport pelts to trading posts SECTION 2 Continued . . . Economy and Culture of Canada NEXT
  12. 12. SECTION 2 continued An Increasingly Diverse Economy Canada’s Primary Industries • Farming, logging, mining, fishing: 10% of gross domestic product - Canada is the world’s leading exporter of forest products • Mining: uranium, zinc, gold, and silver are exported • Fishing: domestic consumption is low, so most of catch is exported Continued . . . NEXT
  13. 13. SECTION 2 continued An Increasingly Diverse Economy The Manufacturing Sector • 15% of Canadians work in manufacturing, create 1/5 of GDP - make cars, steel, appliances, equipment (high-tech, mining) - centered in heartland, from Quebec City, Quebec, to Windsor, Ontario Continued . . . NEXT
  14. 14. SECTION 2 Service Industries Drive the Economy • Most Canadians work in service industries, which create 60% of GDP - finance, utilities, trade, transportation, communication, insurance - land’s natural beauty makes tourism the fastest growing service • Heavy trade with U.S.: same language, open border (world’s longest) - 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) with U.S., Mexico - 85% of Canadian exports go to U.S. - 75% of Canada’s imports come from U.S. continued An Increasingly Diverse Economy NEXT
  15. 15. A Land of Many Cultures Languages and Religions • Mixing of French and native peoples created métis culture • Bilingual: English is most common, except in French-speaking Quebec • English Protestants and French Catholics dominate, but often clash - increasing numbers of Muslims, Jews, other groups SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  16. 16. SECTION 2 Canada’s Population • Densest in port cities (Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver) and farmlands • Environment keeps 80% of people on 10% of land (near U.S. border) • Urbanization: in 1900 33% of people lived in cities, today it’s 80% • Various ethnic groups cluster in certain areas - 75% of French Canadians live in Quebec - many native peoples live on reserves—public land set aside for them - most Inuits live in the remote Arctic north - many Canadians of Asian ancestry live on West Coast continued A Land of Many Cultures NEXT
  17. 17. Life in Canada Today Employment and Education • Relatively high standard of living, well-educated population • Labor force is 55% men, 45% women - 75% in service industries, 15% in manufacturing • Oldest university, Laval, established in Quebec by French • English universities founded in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick in 1780s • Today, Canada has a 97% literacy rate SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  18. 18. SECTION 2 Sports and Recreation • Popular sports: skating, ice hockey, fishing, skiing, golf, hunting - Canada has own football league; other pro teams play in U.S. leagues - native peoples developed lacrosse, European settlers developed hockey • Annual festivals include Quebec Winter Carnival, Calgary Stampede continued Life in Canada Today Continued . . . NEXT
  19. 19. SECTION 2 The Arts • Earliest literature from oral traditions of First Nations peoples • Later writings from settlers, missionaries, explorers • Early visual arts seen in Inuit carving, West Coast totem poles • Early 1900s painting: unique style of Toronto’s Group of Seven • Shakespeare honored at Ontario’s world-famous Stratford Festival continued Life in Canada Today NEXT
  20. 20. Section 3 Subregions of Canada • Canada is divided into four subregions: the Atlantic, Core, and Prairie Provinces, and the Pacific Province and the Territories. • Each subregion possesses unique natural resources, landforms, economic activities, and cultural life. NEXT
  21. 21. The Atlantic Provinces Harsh Lands and Small Populations • Eastern Canada’s Atlantic Provinces: - Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland • Only 8% of Canada’s population, due to rugged terrain, harsh weather • Most people live in coastal cities such as: - Halifax, Nova Scotia - St. John, New Brunswick • 85% of Nova Scotia is rocky hills, poor soil • 90% of New Brunswick is forested • Newfoundland has severe storms SECTION 3 Subregions of Canada Continued . . . NEXT
  22. 22. SECTION 3 Economic Activities • New Brunswick’s largest industry: logging (lumber, wood pulp, paper) • Gulf of St. Lawrence, coastal waters supply seafood for export • Nova Scotia: logging, fishing, shipbuilding, trade through Halifax • Newfoundland: fishing, mining, logging, hydro- electric power - supplies power to Quebec, parts of northeastern U.S. continued The Atlantic Provinces NEXT
  23. 23. The Core Provinces—Quebec and Ontario The Heartland of Canada • Quebec City: French explorer Samuel de Champlain built fort in 1608 • 60% Canada’s population live in Core Provinces Ontario and Quebec - Ontario has largest population; Quebec has largest land area SECTION 3 Continued . . . NEXT
  24. 24. SECTION 3 continued The Core Provinces—Quebec and Ontario Canada’s Political and Economic Center • Ottawa, Ontario is the national capital • Quebec has great political importance in French- Canadian life • Core: 35% of Canada’s crops, 45% of minerals, 70% of manufacturing • Toronto the largest city, finance hub; Montreal second largest city NEXT
  25. 25. The Prairie Provinces Canada’s Breadbasket • Great Plains Prairie Provinces: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta • 50% of Canada’s agricultural production, 60% of mineral output - Alberta has coal, oil deposits; produces 90% of Canada’s natural gas SECTION 3 Continued . . . NEXT
  26. 26. SECTION 3 continued The Prairie Provinces A Cultural Mix • Manitoba: Scots-Irish, Germans, Scandinavians, Ukrainians, Poles • Saskatchewan’s population includes Asian immigrants, métis • Alberta’s diversity includes Indian, Japanese, Lebanese, Vietnamese NEXT
  27. 27. The Pacific Province and the Territories British Columbia • British Columbia—westernmost province, mostly in Rocky Mountains - 1/2 is forests; 1/3 is frozen tundra, snowfields, glaciers • Most people live in southwest; major cities are Victoria, Vancouver • Economy built on logging, mining, hydroelectric power - Vancouver is Canada’s largest port, has prosperous shipping trade SECTION 3 Continued . . . NEXT
  28. 28. SECTION 3 continued The Pacific Province and the Territories The Territories • The three northern territories account for 41% of Canada’s land • Sparsely populated due to rugged land and severe climate - Yukon has population of 30,000; mostly wilderness - Northwest Territories has population of 41,000; extends into Arctic - Nunavut was created from Northwest Territories in 1999; home to Inuit • Territories’ economies include mining, fishing, some logging NEXT
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