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MEGALOPOLIS (Chapter 4)
Ellis Island
 
Physical  Geography <ul><li>Physiography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlantic-Gulf Coastal Plain for the most part but goes to t...
Physical Geography <ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally Mixed Broadleaf Deciduous and Needleleaf Evergreen ...
Historical Cultural Geography <ul><li>Indigenous Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic role of the various Algonquian ...
Megalopolis <ul><li>Term initially coined by French geographer,  Jean Gottmann  (1961) for the large population agglomerat...
A region called  Megalopolis   (Text, Ch. 7) <ul><li>Origin of the term (Jean Gottmann) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Boston...
 
Spread and Merging of Cities in Megalopolis
Megalopolis Region <ul><li>Consists of 5 major cities, their suburbs, nearby smaller cities, and surrounding rural areas: ...
Megalopolis (page 65) A small region  Comparatively, 50,000 Sq. mi. Greatest concentration Of wealth and power In the hist...
Megalopolis Today <ul><li>Urbanness  the dominant theme, but rural areas persist </li></ul><ul><li>10 major metropolitan a...
Megalopolis <ul><li>Area of concentrated population between rest of U.S. and western Europe  </li></ul><ul><li>High popula...
Potential new megalopolis – on the East Coast and elsewhere…
Urban Environment <ul><li>Characteristics of urbanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crow...
Albany-Schnectady-Troy Conurbation (“Mohawk Corridor”) Figure 8-9
Levittown: Suburbs
Site Characteristics <ul><li>The features of the immediate environment or setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal  location ...
Fall Line Cities <ul><li>Cities along the border between the  Piedmont  and the  Atlantic coastal plain  physiographic reg...
Sub-regions of Megalopolis…  <ul><li>Merrimack Valley (NH and MA) </li></ul><ul><li>Boston </li></ul><ul><li>Narragansett ...
Galactic Cities:  Southeastern New England <ul><li>Merrimack Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Boston </li></ul><ul><l...
Situation <ul><li>Aspects of the region’s location  relative to other places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A good location relativ...
Megalopolis at the Continental Hinge <ul><li>Accessibility resources : Naturally occurring features that facilitate moveme...
Urban Environment <ul><li>Characteristics of urbanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crow...
Components of Urban Landscape <ul><li>Spatial interaction:  movement between places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul...
Components of Urban Landscape <ul><li>Public services   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water, sewage, garbage pickup </li></ul></ul...
Intensity of Change <ul><ul><li>Dynamic nature  of the urban landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More visible because of ...
<ul><li>Fisheries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly the Chesapeake and off New Jersey plus parts of southern New England </li><...
Agriculture in Megalopolis <ul><li>Dairying </li></ul><ul><li>Truck Gardening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables and Fruits ...
Changing Patterns in Megalopolis (page 76)
Agricultural Change <ul><li>Changes related to land  use : shift to table or specialty crops:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy...
Waves of Immigration into Megalopolis <ul><li>1830’s-1840’s English and German </li></ul><ul><li>1840’s-1860’s Irish </li>...
Changes in Population Composition <ul><li>Immigration from Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1840s-1850s: Northern and western ...
Changes in Population Redistribution <ul><li>Mid-1950s: Movement from central city to suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>1970s, 198...
Problems of Density <ul><li>Overcrowded housing, especially in central cities </li></ul><ul><li>Waste management and pollu...
Rehoboth Beach, Delaware
Problems of Accessibility and Density <ul><li>Densely packed activity sites </li></ul><ul><li>High interaction levels </li...
Problems of Sprawl <ul><li>Problems of  aging suburbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional sprawl  with movement farther and f...
Jurisdictional Units in New York Metropolitan Area (page 84)
L’Enfant’s plan for the US national capital was approved by Presidents  Washington and Jefferson in 1791.
New York City – core of Megalopolis <ul><li>Best harbor on east coast (also had Erie Canal, Hudson River advantages) </li>...
Images of New York City? <ul><li>Before and after 9/11? </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into five distinct boroughs: </li></ul><...
Harlem, NY
Philadelphia <ul><li>Quaker and German place (founded 1682); now diverse cultures and peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty Be...
William Penn’s 1682 map of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania-gridiron pattern of streets A central square, parks, and residential...
Top Ten List: Boston <ul><li>NW of Cape Cod </li></ul><ul><li>Port city with small hinterland </li></ul><ul><li>So tertiar...
Focus on Metropolitan New York Figure 8-10
Metropolitan New York City Figure 8-13
Metropolitan Philadelphia Figure 8-18
The Pennsylvania Dutch Country   Figure 8-A Figure 8-B
Metropolitan Baltimore and Metropolitan Washington, DC Figure 8-20
View from  Southern Extension of Megalopolis: Norfolk and Richmond Modified Figure 8-1
 
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Ch04ed

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Ch04ed

  1. 1. MEGALOPOLIS (Chapter 4)
  2. 2. Ellis Island
  3. 4. Physical Geography <ul><li>Physiography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atlantic-Gulf Coastal Plain for the most part but goes to the “Fall Line” of the eastern Appalachian Upland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humid continental with warm summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of maritime influences and natural hazards, e.g., hurricanes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Physical Geography <ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally Mixed Broadleaf Deciduous and Needleleaf Evergreen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced Species and Reforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North: Spodosols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central: Inceptisols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South: Ultisols </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Historical Cultural Geography <ul><li>Indigenous Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic role of the various Algonquian tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial to 1825: Emergence of Regional Foci </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New England: Boston </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle Atlantic: Key Competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New York City </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philadelphia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chesapeake: Baltimore </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Megalopolis <ul><li>Term initially coined by French geographer, Jean Gottmann (1961) for the large population agglomeration from Boston to Washington, D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Now, any agglomeration of large, coalescing super cities </li></ul>
  7. 8. A region called Megalopolis (Text, Ch. 7) <ul><li>Origin of the term (Jean Gottmann) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Boston to Washington (“Boswash”) </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago to Pittsburgh (“Chippits”) </li></ul><ul><li>San Francisco to Santa Barbara (“SanSan”) </li></ul><ul><li>Seattle to Portland to Eugene (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Other examples? </li></ul>
  8. 10. Spread and Merging of Cities in Megalopolis
  9. 11. Megalopolis Region <ul><li>Consists of 5 major cities, their suburbs, nearby smaller cities, and surrounding rural areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boston, MA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New York, NY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philadelphia, PA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baltimore, MD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington, DC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded so much to become a single metropolitan area. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Megalopolis (page 65) A small region Comparatively, 50,000 Sq. mi. Greatest concentration Of wealth and power In the history of the World.
  11. 13. Megalopolis Today <ul><li>Urbanness the dominant theme, but rural areas persist </li></ul><ul><li>10 major metropolitan areas of over 1 million people, plus numerous smaller cities </li></ul><ul><li>17% of the total U.S. population </li></ul><ul><li>1.5% of the total land area </li></ul><ul><li>17% of all U.S. export trade through its six major ports </li></ul><ul><li>Higher than average proportion of white-collar employment </li></ul><ul><li>A region of international significance </li></ul>
  12. 14. Megalopolis <ul><li>Area of concentrated population between rest of U.S. and western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>High population density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting fact re: population density of Megalopolis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Jersey = 1000 people per sq. mile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oregon = about 30 people per sq. mile. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Potential new megalopolis – on the East Coast and elsewhere…
  14. 16. Urban Environment <ul><li>Characteristics of urbanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Busy streets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan coalescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merging of urbanized areas of separate metropolitan centers, occurring early in history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A process of canalized growth (along transportation corridors) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Albany-Schnectady-Troy Conurbation (“Mohawk Corridor”) Figure 8-9
  16. 18. Levittown: Suburbs
  17. 19. Site Characteristics <ul><li>The features of the immediate environment or setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous estuaries (drowned river mouths), forming good harbors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate but not exceptionally mild climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively flat or gently rolling terrain </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Fall Line Cities <ul><li>Cities along the border between the Piedmont and the Atlantic coastal plain physiographic regions </li></ul><ul><li>Rapids and falls as rivers flow from hard rocks of the higher Piedmont onto the softer rocks of the coastal plain </li></ul>
  19. 21. Sub-regions of Megalopolis… <ul><li>Merrimack Valley (NH and MA) </li></ul><ul><li>Boston </li></ul><ul><li>Narragansett Basin (Providence, RI) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Connecticut Valley (western MA) </li></ul><ul><li>Albany/Schenectady-Troy (upstate NY) </li></ul><ul><li>NY City </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><li>Baltimore </li></ul><ul><li>Washington </li></ul>
  20. 22. Galactic Cities: Southeastern New England <ul><li>Merrimack Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan Boston </li></ul><ul><li>Narragansett Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Connecticut Valley </li></ul>Figure 8-5
  21. 23. Situation <ul><li>Aspects of the region’s location relative to other places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A good location relative to Europe for trade and immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortuitous location along the Europe–Caribbean and South American trade route </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good harbors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routes to the interior (natural and man-made) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A great stop-off/service point for others conducting trade </li></ul></ul></ul>(page 69)
  22. 24. Megalopolis at the Continental Hinge <ul><li>Accessibility resources : Naturally occurring features that facilitate movement in and out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harbors for trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich hinterland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agglomeration (clustering) </li></ul></ul>(page 70)
  23. 25. Urban Environment <ul><li>Characteristics of urbanism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Busy streets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metropolitan coalescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merging of urbanized areas of separate metropolitan centers, occurring early in history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A process of canalized growth (along transportation corridors) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Components of Urban Landscape <ul><li>Spatial interaction: movement between places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spatial complementarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Places import what they lack from places that have a surplus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closer places have the advantage for filling needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional complexity : land use variations and conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreational </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Components of Urban Landscape <ul><li>Public services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water, sewage, garbage pickup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Welfare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demanded by high level of interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaped by spatial arrangement of land uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early cities less concerned with accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post–World War II construction of bypasses, beltways, parkways, and limited access expressways </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Intensity of Change <ul><ul><li>Dynamic nature of the urban landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More visible because of density, intensity, and complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Nothing seems permanent” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic ventures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shifts in transportation networks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developments and declines in residential areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Fisheries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly the Chesapeake and off New Jersey plus parts of southern New England </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forestry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction-oriented </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Truck Gardening </li></ul></ul>Overview of the Primary Economic Sector Figure 8-23
  28. 30. Agriculture in Megalopolis <ul><li>Dairying </li></ul><ul><li>Truck Gardening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables and Fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horticulture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poultry (Delmarva) </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco (Tidewater MD) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed General Farms of the Amish </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization Pressures </li></ul>Figure 8-C
  29. 31. Changing Patterns in Megalopolis (page 76)
  30. 32. Agricultural Change <ul><li>Changes related to land use : shift to table or specialty crops: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy products, tomatoes, lettuce, berries, and vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High value, perishable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require considerably less land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in land value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value for more intense uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise in property taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest impact along lines of interurban access </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Waves of Immigration into Megalopolis <ul><li>1830’s-1840’s English and German </li></ul><ul><li>1840’s-1860’s Irish </li></ul><ul><li>1900’s Eastern European </li></ul><ul><li>1920’s African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>1960’s Latin America and Asia </li></ul>
  32. 34. Changes in Population Composition <ul><li>Immigration from Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1840s-1850s: Northern and western Europe, especially Ireland and Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late 19 th century: Southern and eastern Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutoff of European immigrants with World War I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From 1910: Increased African American migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread from original neighborhoods </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. Changes in Population Redistribution <ul><li>Mid-1950s: Movement from central city to suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>1970s, 1980s, and beyond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration out of metropolitan areas entirely to small, distant towns, especially between cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-rise office clusters in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central business districts (CBD), downtown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suburbs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderation of movement out of central cities ( gentrification ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attraction of jobs and amenities to higher-income workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement of low-income residents </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Problems of Density <ul><li>Overcrowded housing, especially in central cities </li></ul><ul><li>Waste management and pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry (lower contributor in Megalopolis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal sources: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heating and air conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wastewater </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 37. Rehoboth Beach, Delaware
  36. 38. Problems of Accessibility and Density <ul><li>Densely packed activity sites </li></ul><ul><li>High interaction levels </li></ul><ul><li>Aggravating circumstances in Megalopolis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large number of densely populated urban areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location on coast, creating problems of land movement (need for bridges, tunnels) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase capacity (e.g., wider roads) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient use (e.g., car pooling, public transit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of private and public transit (e.g., high-occupancy vehicle lanes) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. Problems of Sprawl <ul><li>Problems of aging suburbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional sprawl with movement farther and farther out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration of middle- and upper-income residents to rehabilitated central-city residences ( gentrification ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political fragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connections between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>central cities and suburbs </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Jurisdictional Units in New York Metropolitan Area (page 84)
  39. 41. L’Enfant’s plan for the US national capital was approved by Presidents Washington and Jefferson in 1791.
  40. 42. New York City – core of Megalopolis <ul><li>Best harbor on east coast (also had Erie Canal, Hudson River advantages) </li></ul><ul><li>Deep water – doesn’t freeze, minimal tidal range </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly level land – Manhattan Island rock good for building. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Business of NYC is business:” </li></ul><ul><li>Stock market, retail, wholesale, port activities, garment-making etc. </li></ul>
  41. 43. Images of New York City? <ul><li>Before and after 9/11? </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into five distinct boroughs: </li></ul><ul><li>Manhattan </li></ul><ul><li>Bronx </li></ul><ul><li>Queens – n. end of Long Island </li></ul><ul><li>Brooklyn – 3.3 million </li></ul><ul><li>Staten Island – still rural in places </li></ul>
  42. 44. Harlem, NY
  43. 45. Philadelphia <ul><li>Quaker and German place (founded 1682); now diverse cultures and peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Liberty Bell, Independence Hall, other historic places </li></ul><ul><li>Diversified manufacturing (e.g. publishing, clothing) </li></ul><ul><li>Inner city issues (homesteading plan) </li></ul>
  44. 46. William Penn’s 1682 map of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania-gridiron pattern of streets A central square, parks, and residential lots.
  45. 47. Top Ten List: Boston <ul><li>NW of Cape Cod </li></ul><ul><li>Port city with small hinterland </li></ul><ul><li>So tertiary … </li></ul><ul><li>and quaternary industries dominate </li></ul><ul><li>High tech mecca </li></ul><ul><li>6) I rish, Italian, African-American, Puerto Rican pop. </li></ul><ul><li>7) Cultural center </li></ul><ul><li>8) Historic preservation </li></ul><ul><li>9) CBD open space (Boston Commons) </li></ul><ul><li>10) Fenway Park & the Red Sox </li></ul>
  46. 48. Focus on Metropolitan New York Figure 8-10
  47. 49. Metropolitan New York City Figure 8-13
  48. 50. Metropolitan Philadelphia Figure 8-18
  49. 51. The Pennsylvania Dutch Country Figure 8-A Figure 8-B
  50. 52. Metropolitan Baltimore and Metropolitan Washington, DC Figure 8-20
  51. 53. View from Southern Extension of Megalopolis: Norfolk and Richmond Modified Figure 8-1

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