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6 Physical regions of Canada


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School project grade 10 socials September 27

Published in: Education, Travel, Technology

6 Physical regions of Canada

  1. 1. The 6 Physical Regions of Canada By Reid Freeman
  2. 2. The Canadian Arctic
  3. 3. Location and Landscape- The Canadian Artic region is located in northern Canada. The Artic region is primarily located within the Artic circle. The landscape within the Artic region of Canada includes features such as jagged mountains on many of the eastern artic islands and flat, low lying, snow covered terrain located on several of the main western islands of the artic. Other features include the frequent plateaus scattered throughout the region and permafrost, which is a layer of organic materials that remains permanently frozen on the ground for over a period of 2 years. Glaciers formed much of the artic by eroding and scraping large portions of land. Glaciers eroded land and carried rocks and soil far from their original places, which resulted in some interesting glacial formations. The Canadian Arctic Jagged, snow peaked artic mountains Location and Landscape
  4. 4. Weather and Climate Weather and Climate- The Canadian Arctic climate is harsh at times, but adaptable. The Artic climate temperatures averages below freezing during winter and can increase to an average of 13 °C through the course of summer. Life in the Arctic is affected from climate by the cost that people must spend on certain foods and the availability of those foods an example is that the winter darkness make it harder to grow vegetables, hunt and ship foods, the cost to provide heating to homes increases and how water is brought as well as found for people to use. An interesting weather fact in the arctic is that during the period of summer the sun shines for 24 hours each day in the winter the northern region of the arctic is angled so away from the sun resulting in 24 hours of darkness everyday. A result of the cold arctic air creates a dry atmosphere in which there is barely any humidity as well as precipitation (rain, snow and hail)
  5. 5. Flora and Fauna Flora and Fauna- In the arctic organism must adapt to their environment. In the ecosystem of the arctic tundra (a tundra is a open, flat artic region in North America in which tress are uncommon and a top layer of soil allows only small shrubs to grow) the most commonly found plants are wildflowers, mosses that grow on rocks and shrubs that have developed to trap heat inside themselves. The animals of the arctic adapted to their environments through developing the ability to hold their breath for long periods of time under water, and by growing fat called blubber that provides them with warmth. Common arctic sea creatures would include seals, walruses and whales. Common land mammals in the arctic are musk oxen that travel in large herds caribou and the migration of millions of different species of birds. A result of shrinking artic ice has caused polar bear to lose their homes and obtain more difficulty in hunting, they are at the risk of extinction. Arctic Wild grasses
  6. 6. Natural Resources and Food Natural resources and food- In the Canadian Arctic gas, fish and oil are the main natural resources than can be found. The Arctic region consists of two main categories for resources renewable and non-renewable. The renewable resources include animal that provide local with a source of food and clothing. The animals are hunted but remain in a sizable population, so that they may repopulate. Non-renewable resources often are materials such as fossil fuels (gas, oil and coal) and metals/minerals that cannot be produced after they have been consumed. The foods from the arctic are often obtained through old hunting techniques to collect meats from seals, whales, caribou and clams. Considering that the arctic is covered by permafrost few naturally grown plants that grow are edible, those that can be eaten are crowberries and arctic blueberries. Fresh fruits in the artic are mostly obtained and grown in community greenhouses and food shipments. Iqaluit Community greenhouseArtic off-shore oil rig
  7. 7. Urban Development and Cities Urban development and cities- A common observation in pattern in cities, town and village arctic settlements is that almost all settlements are costal, along the water. People live most commonly on the small islands throughout the Canadian Arctic peninsula in small communities. It is estimated that the Canadian Arctic represents less than 1% of Canada’s total population resulting in the approximation that 15,000 people make up the total population for the Canadian arctic region. In the Arctic the population density in most communities is fewer than 100 people with 0.03 inhabitants per square kilometer. The largest settlement in the Canadian arctic is Iqaluit.
  8. 8. The Interior plains
  9. 9. Location and Landscape Location and Landscape- The Interior planes is located in the west central area of Canada, extending from the western cordillera mountains to the Eastern Canadian Shield and covers 19% of Canada’s land area. Landscape in the interior plains includes hills, low mountains, forests and even wide river valleys. Other features include lowlands, low hills in areas to the west near the Rocky Mountains and common plateau’s dispersed throughout the interior planes. The Interior plains formed millions of years ago as a region of land bellow the ancient sea. As sediments eroded from the Canadian Shield as well as the rocky mountain, these sediments were deposited into the ancient sea covering the interiors plains. Over time the ancient sea began to dry out and in the end resulted as a vast land mass formation formed from compressed sediments over the years resulting as layers of sedimentary rock. How did the Interior plains form?
  10. 10. Weather and Climate Climate and Weather- The interior plains endures short, cold winters that average below freezing and hot summers that can undergo high temperatures of 10°C- 30°C. Temperatures in the interior plains is humid and can alter all year long. The life in the interior plains is affected by weather through field crops for example: humid weather and summer rainstorm help crops grow on the other hand a drought of dry weather could destroy an entire farmers crop if he is not prepared with irrigation systems. Climate in the Interior plains is taken advantage of by winter sports of skiing or hockey. Severe, rare weather in the Interior Plains includes tornadoes, flood and droughts which are long periods of time in which there is no rain or snow.
  11. 11. Flora and Fauna Flora and Fauna- Over many years’ animals have adapted to the hot dry climate of the interior plains. Plants can survive long droughts and endure wildfires because of their deep root systems. Native vegetation of the Interior plains consists of mainly grasses (porcupine, bluestem and june), trees such as fir, pine and spruce. Ecosystems in the interior plains would consist primarily of wetlands/lowlands, rivers and streams, boreal forest and tundra’s. Over 85 percent of wetlands have been destroyed for the expansion of agriculture Wetlands have been endangered as of recently although they are not an animal wetlands are home to many animals. Some of the many different types of animals in the interior plains would include rattlesnakes, duck/birds, bear, prairie dog and buffalo; both buffalo and prairie dogs are at risk to extinction
  12. 12. Natural resources and Food Natural resources and Food- In the region of the Interior Plains the most the primary non-renewable natural resources are potash (salt) and fossil fuels that consist of coal, oil, and natural gas. The essential renewable resources are fertile soil, forest and rivers, lakes and streams; these resources can be re-assemble or reproduce. Food is the major product from farms in Interior Plain region. Common foods in this region are wheat, corn, peas and beef. Essential farming done in the region of the interior plains is cattle ranching and wheat farming/harvesting. Fossil fuels are extracted from below the ground and provide power home essentials and other machines requiring power.
  13. 13. Urban Development and Cities Urban Development and cities- In the Interior Plains residence live dispersed all through out the region occasionally on massive farms where there is access to irrigation. An approximation of the population of Canada’s interior plains region is 7.4 million that is an estimated 17.44% of Canada’s total populations. The population density increases significantly the further south you travel in this region. Major city in the Interior are Edmonton, Regina, Yellow knife, White horse and Winnipeg. Grain Elevators
  14. 14. The Appalachian Highlands
  15. 15. Location and Landscape Location and Landscape- The Appalachian highlands are located in northeast Canada. The Appalachian highlands are on the most easterly point in the Canadian country. Landscape in the highlands tends to be old mountains rounded from year of erosion, plains of rich soil, rocky coastal areas and large islands. The Appalachian highlands formed roughly 300 million year ago when two large plates collided together, the force of the collision caused the Earth crust to bend upward forming the mountains.
  16. 16. Weather and Climate Weather and Climate- Temperature in the Appalachian highlands tends to alter depending on your location. Climates is cold during winter at around -5 °C to -13°C and summers are moderate at temperatures of 15°C to 18°C.. The Labrador Current on the Atlantic coast brings cold air from the Artic as warm air from the tropics is brought up the coast, when the northern cold air merges with southern warm air, interesting weather patterns can arise (snow and often high winds can be created. The Appalachian highlands receive a yearly average of 1000mm per year or 3ft
  17. 17. Flora and Fauna Flora and Fauna- The Appalachian highlands are home to many plants and animals. Inland areas incorporate dense forest of coniferous and deciduous trees consisting of much variety, but commonly know species of tree in this area are spruce, cedar and oak. Costal areas contain mosses and shrub vegetation; because the soil and air are damp and poor in nutrients vegetation tends to have difficulty in growing. Lastly swamp are found in low lying areas often contain fern. The flying squirrel is an endangered specie due to coal mining in the Appalachian highlands. Animals inhabiting the Appalachian highland consist of many different species of mammals; dear, bear, rabbits. Marine life for instance fish off the coast in the Atlantic Ocean, crabs and birds that thrive on the abundance of food {mollusk (animals with shells)}.
  18. 18. Natural resources and Food Natural resources and food- The main resources found in the highlands are the fossil fuels within the region as well as of the coast. Scarce non- renewable materials in the Appalachian highlands are fossil fuels and minerals specifically gold, cooper, gypsum and salt. Renewable reusable substances are forest, farmland, fish that repopulate by spawning and water commonly used for hydro electricity. The foods of the Highlands were most commonly obtained through hunting fish and caribou as well as gathering nuts and wild berries. As of the last hundred years new foods have been introduced to the region of the Appalachian highlands through farming and harvesting crops of corn, bean and a new range of different fruit and vegetable varieties.
  19. 19. Urban Development and Cities Urban development- People live all through out the islands of the Appalachian highlands. The islands are dispersed throughout the region and settlements tend to be on costal areas of the island where there is access to water or small mining communities. St. Johns and Halifax are the two largest cities in this region. The Highlands are estimated to obtain 6.6% of Canada’s total population and an approximation that 2,313,102 people occupy the region of the Appalachian highlands. On average the population density for the highlands is 13.5 inhabitants per square kilometer.
  20. 20. St. Lawrence lowlands Champlain Lookout point-
  21. 21. Location and Landscape Location and Landscape- The St. Lawrence Lowlands are located in southern Ontario among the Great lakes of Huron, Ontario and Erie and further continue along the riverbanks of the St. Lawrence. Landscape in the St. Lawrence Lowlands is essentially plains, rolling hills and rivers dispersed throughout this region. Another feature would include the Niagara Falls cliff. The St. Lawrence Lowlands Great lake areas were originally created by the sheer weight of the glaciers that engraved enormous cavities into the earth. These cavities in the earth were engulfed by water as the glaciers melted and retreated to the Atlantic. As the glacier retreated it’s immense weigh forced down the earth surface resulting in he St. Lawrence River in between the Canadian Shield and Appalachians.
  22. 22. Weather and Climate Weather and Climate- The St. Lawrence Lowlands encounters hot, humid summers with moderate rain and cold, snowy winters. The climate affects life throughout the region by providing rain during summertime for crops and allowing crops extra harvests, weather is ideal for year long seasonal recreations such as winter sledding and summer swimming. Summer time weather can be extreme in the St. Lawrence Lowlands when storms hit the region tornados and hailstorms can ravage and fracture buildings.
  23. 23. Flora and Fauna Flora and Fauna- Vegetation in the St. Lawrence Lowlands region consists of mixed forest of coniferous pine and leafy deciduous trees and wetland plants; two common wetland plants are cattails as well as water lilies. Alongside the St. Lawrence River, banks of fertile soil provide agricultural crops of grain, fruit and vegetables. Animals’ species that inhabit the area of The St. Lawrence Lowlands are land and marine mammals, fish and shelled creatures distributed in the St. Lawrence River along with reptilians. Unique animal native to this region are the quilled porcupine, flying squirrel and painted turtles. As a result of previous logging and human activity animals have been forced to change habits and habitats by moving new locations; the beluga whales are an example of the few endangered animals in the region today.
  24. 24. Natural Resources and Food Natural resources and food- Naturals resources in the St. Lawrence Lowlands would include both renewable and non-renewable resources. The non-renewable resources of this region are salt, gypsum and quarry rock minerals; oil wells were drilled and emptied as far as in 1857. The renewable resources of this region include water, fish agricultural soil and trees for harvest (only in certain areas because much forest has already been cut for agriculture and buildings. The glaciers along the banks of the St. Lawrence River deposited a rich layer of soil in which apples, grape and vegetables can be farmed. The St. Lawrence region is the largest dairy farming producer of Canada. This region is most famous for it’s maple syrup production.
  25. 25. Urban Development and Cities Urban and cities- Houses and residence tend to be along the banks of the St. Lawrence lowlands and within the Great Lakes lowland area. Towns are most commonly found along rivers where agricultural crops can absorb water. The St. Lawrence Lowlands have an estimate of 40% of Canada entire population and a total population within this region of 14,000,000 people; this region has a dense population. Toronto and Montreal a the two most populated cities in the St. Lawrence Lowlands.
  26. 26. The Cordillera
  27. 27. Location and Landscape Location and Landscape- The cordillera is a vast sequence of mountains that line the western edge of Canada’s province. The Cordillera consists of the majority of British Columbia and Yukon along with small parts of Alberta and the NW territories. Partial areas of the Cordillera are within the ring of fire, a zone of volcanic and earthquake activity located along the pacific coast of North America. The landscape features that make up the Cordillera are islands located to the southwest coast and three primary chain sequences of mountains. Common land formations in this region are long stretched rivers, wide green valleys, plateaus, broad bays and infrequent plains. The Western Cordillera was created by the North American and Pacific Plates colliding, which caused folding mountains, faulting, and volcanic activity. The cordillera makes up 16 percent of the Canada’s total land area.
  28. 28. Weather and Climate Weather and climate- The cordillera has various climate patterns, this region has two main climates, one for the Pacific Coast, and one for the mountain ranges and valleys further inland. Along the Pacific Coast the weather is very wet during the fall and winter, with no extreme cold and it rarely snowing. Summers are cool, and the winters, being short. In the mountains and interior plains the climate is cold in the winter and cool summers. The climate has an effect on lives in the cordillera region by the place that people will live for example Population is greater were the weather can be enjoyed. What activity’s the weather offers for people to do recreationally and where people can work. For example farming would most likely be located to the south where weather is warm and cool.
  29. 29. Flora and Fauna Flora and Fauna- In the cordillera there are three main areas of vegetation. There is a rainforest on the coastal areas, which consist of cedar hemlock and fur. Northern areas of the Cordillera region include spruce, pine, birch and aspen. The central interior area comprises of an assortment of different plants being grasslands, berry bushes and various sized forests of fir, aspen and pine located on the slope of the interior mountains. The three areas in the cordillera in which many of the animals of this region commonly live are the costal area which includes well know animals such as bald eagle, goats roaming the mountains as well as many off-shore marine life, further to the cold north animals consist of wolves, herds of caribou and in the central interior area grizzly bears and mountain lions can be commonly found wandering in the backwoods. One endangered animal in the cordillera region is the Vancouver Island marmot.
  30. 30. Natural Resources and Food Natural resources and food- in the western Cordillera minerals and water are the main natural resources that can be found. The cordillera incorporates two categories of resources renewable and non-renewable. The renewable resources of the Cordillera are water that is used in hydro electricity and recreation activities, soil, fish and forest for tree harvesting. The non- renewable resource would generally include substances such as coal and minerals of copper, zinc and gold those are uncommonly found up north. Native aboriginals introduced common foods in the Cordillera region. These foods would include trout, salmon, and shellfish along with species of wild onion, wild berries and herbs. A result of the mountains makes farming complex but in the area of the Fraser valley cranberries, fruit and ranch farms have been develop to provide this region with local fruits and meats.
  31. 31. Urban Development and Cities Urban developments and cities- A common observation in the location of cities and towns in the cordillera is that a majority of them are alongside lake or river and based in the south of this region. It is estimated that the Cordillera region represents 13.04% of Canada’s total population concluding in the approximation that 4,433,900 people inhabit the region of the Canadian cordillera. The largest, most dense settlement in the Canadian cordillera is Vancouver city.
  32. 32. The Canadian shield
  33. 33. Location and Landscape Location and Landscape- The Canadian Shield is the largest region in Canada and is located in the some northern and central part of Canada surrounding Hudson and James Bay. The Canadian Shield represents nearly half of Canada’s entire land area. Landscape within the Canadian Shield combines open areas of rock formed into the core of North America with vast forest, wetlands around the eastern Hudson bay area, tundra’s and rolling hills. The Canadian Shield was the first know region of the North American to be permanently raised over sea level. The Canadian Shield began as a mountainous area; however over time water, wind and physical forces eroded the mountains reducing to a hard, even land. As the ice age came forth glacier created depressions in the land of Hudson’s bay and carved lakes out from the land.
  34. 34. Weather and Climate Weather and Climate- Since the Canadian Shield is very large the climate varies. In the southern areas of the Canadian Shield follows a seasonal patter; winters are cold and snowstorms can be extreme winter temperature averages bellow freezing and summers climate tends to be warm ordinarily at 25 Degrees Celsius. The Canadian Shield is affected by weather through both communities and agriculture for example if an ice storm (a storm of freezing rain) is to develop, the thick glossy ice rain could easily snap telephone and electrical wires as well as freeze crops to the point of death. Weather and climate is often affected by how far north or south an area is; the further north the colder climate the further south the warmer the temperature will rise.
  35. 35. Flora and Fauna Flora and Fauna- The Canadian Shield has a variety ecosystems of plants and animals that have each learned and developed ways of adapting to the freezing cold Canadian shield winters. The vegetation in this area is limited because most of the areas only contain a thin layer of soil. Some vegetation would include coniferous forest growing in the north and deciduous trees developing further down south in the Canadian Shield region; there are however areas of mixed forest as well. Wildlife in the Shield includes grizzly bears, wood buffalo, an assortment of reptilian species and fish.
  36. 36. Natural Resources and Food Natural Resources and Food- In the Canadian shield rich deposits of minerals, lakes and streams full of waters and vast forest are the main resources in this region. Non-renewable materials are often and essentially the large accumulated areas of minerals such as gold, nickel, silver and zinc. The renewable resources in the Shield include water provides residence with hydro electricity, apples orchards and trees. All of these resources must be harvested carefully to be given time to reproduce. Canadian shield foods are often obtained through dairy and potato farming. Considering the thin layers of rocky soil few area are habitable for certain plants and agricultural farming.
  37. 37. Urban Development and Cities Urban development and Cities- Only few people are currently living in the northern communities in the Canadian Shield because of swampy bogs, rocky land and cold wetland terrain. A majority of the people live in the south central area of this region. It is estimated that the Shield consists of 63% of Canada entire population; over half of Canadians are currently living in that region. A result of the wide spread land of the Canadian Shield creates a rough approximation that there is over 3.5 inhabitants per square Kilometer.