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  1. 1. CALIFORNIA Chapter 15
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Diverse perceptions of California. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern, outdoor-oriented, ideal American lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Region of problem-plagued social chaos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home to 12% of Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Central element in the American cultural fabric </li></ul><ul><li>Regional criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely diverse region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National image as a single place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing role in influencing American lifestyles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest urbanization rate in U.S. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. California
  4. 5. Four primary geographic characteristics of California… <ul><li>Large size and isolation </li></ul><ul><li>High rate of urbanization (95% of pop. lives in cities) </li></ul><ul><li>Role in cultural innovation </li></ul><ul><li>4) Links to Pacific Rim (now exceeds trade volume of Boston-Norfolk Megalopolis) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Physical Geography: Topography <ul><li>Coast Ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long, linear mountain ranges oriented northwest to southeast along the coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1000-1600 meters (3,000-5,000 feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavily folded and faulted as a result of pressure from tectonic plate contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plate tectonics: The geologic theory of folding (bending) and faulting (breaking) of the solid surface of the earth as result of slow movement of plates (large sections of the crust) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ring of Fire: belt of intense earthquake and volcanic activity that encircles much of the Pacific Ocean </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Big Sur coast, central California
  7. 8. Earthquakes <ul><ul><li>Common throughout large sections of the region, especially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Los Angeles southeast through the Imperial Valley </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>San Francisco Bay to Bakersfield </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devastating earthquakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1906 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1989 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1992 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquake Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local laws limiting building heights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many laws recently repealed, thanks to technological innovations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of the laws on the cultural landscape </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. California Earthquake Zones
  9. 11. Topography (continued) <ul><li>Central Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>650 kilometers (400 miles) north–south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 150 kilometers (95 miles) wide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive agricultural region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely flat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Favorable climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sierra Nevada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East of the Central Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault-block mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major barrier to movement </li></ul></ul>Yosemite Valley
  10. 12. Dramatic mountains (e.g Donner Pass in the Sierra Nevada Mts)
  11. 13. Climate <ul><ul><li>Moisture from Pacific Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of blocking high-pressure cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Off Mexico coast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moves north in summer, south in winter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All precipitation in winter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>California regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>San Diego north past San Francisco </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Central Valley </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western margin of southern Central Valley </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 15. Climate (continued) <ul><li>Marine west coast climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in average annual precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation all year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild temperatures with relatively little variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North of San Francisco </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drier than coastal margins: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rainfall on windward (western) side of mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drying of air as it descends eastern slopes ( rain shadow ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotter summer temperatures than coast </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Central Valley
  14. 17. Climate (continued) <ul><li>Interior of Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arid steppe or desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry air from south and east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot winds blowing toward coast ( Santa Ana ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowland southern California, east of Sierra Nevada–Cascade Range : sage, creosote bush, chaparral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Valley, valleys of southern Coast Ranges : grasslands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Around Central Valley, Santa Barbara–Monterey Bay: mixed open forests of live oaks, pines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North of Monterey Bay : redwoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High elevations : mixed forests of pine and fir, hemlock-fir, sequoia </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Eastern California: Mojave Desert Creosote Bush
  16. 19. Eastern California: Sagebrush Scrub Sagebrush
  17. 20. Chaparral White Sage California Buckwheat California Sage
  18. 21. Climate (page 298)
  19. 22. California’s Advantages and Challenges <ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent harbor at San Francisco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western peripheral location, far from national core </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topographic barriers to east </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Settlement History <ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of North American Native Americans before European contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunters and gathers: Seafood, wild game, wild grains and nuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small tribes, substantial cultural variation among tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First Spanish exploration mid-1500s </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish settlement in response to other colonial powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missions : San Diego to Sonoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pueblos (towns) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidios (forts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranchos (large landholdings) to encourage settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continued status as backwater of Spanish empire </li></ul>
  21. 26. San Gabriel Mission, circa 1900 San Gabriel Archangel Mission, San Gabriel
  22. 27. California in the United States <ul><li>Acquisition of California </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized 1846 (Bear Flag Republic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of Mexican Cession at end of Mexican War (1848) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gold rush </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill (1848) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 40,000 arrivals through San Francisco by 1849, roughly same number overland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statehood 1850 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>San Francisco: largest city on the west coast until World War I </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completion of Southern Pacific Railroad (1876) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern California land boom (1881-1887): population from 10,000 to 70,000 </li></ul></ul>
  23. 28. Agriculture <ul><li>Highest farm income in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Contributors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of climate regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand from local population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crops that grow in few parts of the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No local competition in demand areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperatives to reduce shipping costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of winter vegetables </li></ul></ul>
  24. 29. Agriculture Vegetables Orchards
  25. 30. Agriculture (continued) <ul><li>Many products overall, but specialization within specific areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Echoes general specialization trend in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major role of large agricultural operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of climate and physiography: proper conditions for particular crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of moderate environmental changes on national supply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land-use competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of urban sprawl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning </li></ul></ul>
  26. 32. Conversion of Farmland
  27. 33. Water Supply <ul><ul><li>Agriculture as a major consumer of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More irrigated land in California than any other state: 3.5 million hectares (8.5 million acres) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for more than 25% of all irrigated water usage in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 meter (40 inches) of irrigation water annually </li></ul></ul>Irrigated Farmland
  28. 34. Development Projects <ul><li>Water mismatch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of precipitation in northern California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of use in southern California </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles Aqueduct (1913) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustion of groundwater resources in Los Angeles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aqueduct from Owens Valley in Sierra Nevada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of water to Owens Valley farmers </li></ul></ul>
  29. 35. Owens (Dry) Lake
  30. 36. Development Projects (continued) <ul><li>Metropolitan Water District (1928) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Los Angeles and 10 other cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorado River Aqueduct (1939) from Parker Dam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formation of Salton Sea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privately constructed canal to Imperial Valley (1901) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding of Colorado River into Imperial Valley (1905) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All-America Canal from Colorado to Imperial Valley (1930s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Valley Project (1940s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureau of Reclamation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water from northern Central Valley to San Joaquin Valley (in the south) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 37. Development Projects (continued) <ul><li>California Water Plan (1957) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California Water Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California Aqueduct from Delta-Mendota Canal to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western San Joaquin Valley </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southern coastal urban centers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Future prospects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desalinization of seawater? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tap Columbia River? </li></ul></ul>
  32. 39. California’s Water Supply <ul><li>Ability to move water, given sufficient financing </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing demand with greater supply </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to reach over increasing distances </li></ul><ul><li>Faster demand increase than population increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private swimming pools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased irrigated agriculture </li></ul></ul>
  33. 40. Mono Lake
  34. 41. California Water Projects
  35. 42. Urban California <ul><li>Southern Metropolis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several settlements from southern California land boom (1881-1887) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued municipal independence, despite spreading and merging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megalopolis from Santa Barbara–San Diego: 300 kilometers (about 185 miles) with 19.2 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 th century creation: World War I conversion from agriculture to urban </li></ul></ul>
  36. 43. Municipalities in Southern California (page 308)
  37. 44. Smog <ul><li>Partly caused by automobiles </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic contributors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains to north and east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot, dry deserts beyond mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool waters of Pacific to south and west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent temperature inversions : body of warm air over cool air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palm Springs as high-status community east of mountains, beyond reach of smog </li></ul>
  38. 45. Impact of Automobiles <ul><li>50% of land devoted to automobiles </li></ul><ul><li>Low population density : 3040 per square kilometer (7876 per square mile), compared to Philadelphia with 4336 per square kilometer (11,232 per square mile) </li></ul><ul><li>Predominance of single-family houses </li></ul><ul><li>No central business district (CBD) </li></ul>
  39. 47. Economy of Los Angeles <ul><li>Petroleum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major petroleum fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offshore development (1965) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollywood film industry: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoors settings, natural light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion to television </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dissemination of attractiveness of region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation industry </li></ul></ul>Oil derricks Anaheim 1920
  40. 49. Los Angeles Today <ul><li>Postindustrial activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth in tertiary and quaternary industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of need for local raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government spending </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnic diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges to institutions (e.g., schools) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles one of the few global north cities still among world’s largest and growing rapidly </li></ul>
  41. 51. San Francisco Bay <ul><li>Historical development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern core of Spanish activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply port for Gold Rush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First transcontinental railroad terminus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest west coast city until 1920 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large numbers of Asian immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scenery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent harbor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Varying centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East bay : most varied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon Valley (north of San Jose) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 52. San Francisco <ul><li>Grid pattern of streets, despite terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Closely spaced houses, low profile </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Water barriers to surrounding centers </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) </li></ul><ul><li>Situation as major Pacific port of North America </li></ul>
  43. 55. Cities of the Valley <ul><ul><li>Sacramento (1.8 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State capital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest of the Central Valley cities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major agricultural processing city </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substantial aerospace industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresno (2,002,284) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bakersfield (780,711) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockton (673,170) </li></ul></ul>
  44. 56. California’s Outlook <ul><li>Fewer than ½ of Californians born there </li></ul><ul><li>Major destination for migrants since 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant political and economic force in American life </li></ul><ul><li>Location on Pacific Rim </li></ul><ul><li>Vies for position as national core </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragile environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water supply </li></ul></ul>
  45. 57. One state or many? (example of “state” of Jefferson) <ul><li>Northern California and southern Oregon </li></ul><ul><li>From Dunsmuir, CA to Ashland, OR </li></ul><ul><li>Regional personality traits? (independence, free-spiritedness, anti-California attitudes)?? </li></ul>