Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Ch15ed

1,384 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Ch15ed

  1. 1. CALIFORNIA Chapter 15
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Diverse perceptions of California. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern, outdoor-oriented, ideal American lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Region of problem-plagued social chaos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home to 12% of Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Central element in the American cultural fabric </li></ul><ul><li>Regional criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely diverse region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National image as a single place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing role in influencing American lifestyles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest urbanization rate in U.S. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. California
  4. 5. Four primary geographic characteristics of California… <ul><li>Large size and isolation </li></ul><ul><li>High rate of urbanization (95% of pop. lives in cities) </li></ul><ul><li>Role in cultural innovation </li></ul><ul><li>4) Links to Pacific Rim (now exceeds trade volume of Boston-Norfolk Megalopolis) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Physical Geography: Topography <ul><li>Coast Ranges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long, linear mountain ranges oriented northwest to southeast along the coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1000-1600 meters (3,000-5,000 feet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavily folded and faulted as a result of pressure from tectonic plate contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plate tectonics: The geologic theory of folding (bending) and faulting (breaking) of the solid surface of the earth as result of slow movement of plates (large sections of the crust) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ring of Fire: belt of intense earthquake and volcanic activity that encircles much of the Pacific Ocean </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Big Sur coast, central California
  7. 8. Earthquakes <ul><ul><li>Common throughout large sections of the region, especially </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Los Angeles southeast through the Imperial Valley </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>San Francisco Bay to Bakersfield </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devastating earthquakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1906 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1989 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1992 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquake Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local laws limiting building heights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many laws recently repealed, thanks to technological innovations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of the laws on the cultural landscape </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. California Earthquake Zones
  9. 11. Topography (continued) <ul><li>Central Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>650 kilometers (400 miles) north–south </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 150 kilometers (95 miles) wide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productive agricultural region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely flat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Favorable climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sierra Nevada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East of the Central Valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault-block mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major barrier to movement </li></ul></ul>Yosemite Valley
  10. 12. Dramatic mountains (e.g Donner Pass in the Sierra Nevada Mts)
  11. 13. Climate <ul><ul><li>Moisture from Pacific Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence of blocking high-pressure cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Off Mexico coast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moves north in summer, south in winter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediterranean climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All precipitation in winter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>California regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>San Diego north past San Francisco </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Central Valley </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western margin of southern Central Valley </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 15. Climate (continued) <ul><li>Marine west coast climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in average annual precipitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation all year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild temperatures with relatively little variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North of San Francisco </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drier than coastal margins: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rainfall on windward (western) side of mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drying of air as it descends eastern slopes ( rain shadow ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hotter summer temperatures than coast </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Central Valley
  14. 17. Climate (continued) <ul><li>Interior of Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arid steppe or desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry air from south and east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot winds blowing toward coast ( Santa Ana ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowland southern California, east of Sierra Nevada–Cascade Range : sage, creosote bush, chaparral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Valley, valleys of southern Coast Ranges : grasslands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Around Central Valley, Santa Barbara–Monterey Bay: mixed open forests of live oaks, pines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North of Monterey Bay : redwoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High elevations : mixed forests of pine and fir, hemlock-fir, sequoia </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Eastern California: Mojave Desert Creosote Bush
  16. 19. Eastern California: Sagebrush Scrub Sagebrush
  17. 20. Chaparral White Sage California Buckwheat California Sage
  18. 21. Climate (page 298)
  19. 22. California’s Advantages and Challenges <ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic location </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent harbor at San Francisco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western peripheral location, far from national core </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topographic barriers to east </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Settlement History <ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of North American Native Americans before European contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunters and gathers: Seafood, wild game, wild grains and nuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small tribes, substantial cultural variation among tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First Spanish exploration mid-1500s </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish settlement in response to other colonial powers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missions : San Diego to Sonoma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pueblos (towns) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidios (forts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranchos (large landholdings) to encourage settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continued status as backwater of Spanish empire </li></ul>
  21. 26. San Gabriel Mission, circa 1900 San Gabriel Archangel Mission, San Gabriel
  22. 27. California in the United States <ul><li>Acquisition of California </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seized 1846 (Bear Flag Republic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of Mexican Cession at end of Mexican War (1848) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gold rush </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill (1848) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 40,000 arrivals through San Francisco by 1849, roughly same number overland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statehood 1850 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>San Francisco: largest city on the west coast until World War I </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completion of Southern Pacific Railroad (1876) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern California land boom (1881-1887): population from 10,000 to 70,000 </li></ul></ul>
  23. 28. Agriculture <ul><li>Highest farm income in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Contributors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of climate regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand from local population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crops that grow in few parts of the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No local competition in demand areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperatives to reduce shipping costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of winter vegetables </li></ul></ul>
  24. 29. Agriculture Vegetables Orchards
  25. 30. Agriculture (continued) <ul><li>Many products overall, but specialization within specific areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Echoes general specialization trend in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major role of large agricultural operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity of climate and physiography: proper conditions for particular crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of moderate environmental changes on national supply </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land-use competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of urban sprawl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxation systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning </li></ul></ul>
  26. 32. Conversion of Farmland
  27. 33. Water Supply <ul><ul><li>Agriculture as a major consumer of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More irrigated land in California than any other state: 3.5 million hectares (8.5 million acres) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for more than 25% of all irrigated water usage in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 meter (40 inches) of irrigation water annually </li></ul></ul>Irrigated Farmland
  28. 34. Development Projects <ul><li>Water mismatch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of precipitation in northern California </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of use in southern California </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles Aqueduct (1913) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaustion of groundwater resources in Los Angeles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aqueduct from Owens Valley in Sierra Nevada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of water to Owens Valley farmers </li></ul></ul>
  29. 35. Owens (Dry) Lake
  30. 36. Development Projects (continued) <ul><li>Metropolitan Water District (1928) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Los Angeles and 10 other cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorado River Aqueduct (1939) from Parker Dam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formation of Salton Sea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privately constructed canal to Imperial Valley (1901) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding of Colorado River into Imperial Valley (1905) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All-America Canal from Colorado to Imperial Valley (1930s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Valley Project (1940s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bureau of Reclamation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water from northern Central Valley to San Joaquin Valley (in the south) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 37. Development Projects (continued) <ul><li>California Water Plan (1957) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California Water Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California Aqueduct from Delta-Mendota Canal to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western San Joaquin Valley </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southern coastal urban centers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Future prospects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desalinization of seawater? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tap Columbia River? </li></ul></ul>
  32. 39. California’s Water Supply <ul><li>Ability to move water, given sufficient financing </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing demand with greater supply </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to reach over increasing distances </li></ul><ul><li>Faster demand increase than population increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private swimming pools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased irrigated agriculture </li></ul></ul>
  33. 40. Mono Lake
  34. 41. California Water Projects
  35. 42. Urban California <ul><li>Southern Metropolis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several settlements from southern California land boom (1881-1887) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued municipal independence, despite spreading and merging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megalopolis from Santa Barbara–San Diego: 300 kilometers (about 185 miles) with 19.2 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 th century creation: World War I conversion from agriculture to urban </li></ul></ul>
  36. 43. Municipalities in Southern California (page 308)
  37. 44. Smog <ul><li>Partly caused by automobiles </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic contributors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountains to north and east </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot, dry deserts beyond mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool waters of Pacific to south and west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent temperature inversions : body of warm air over cool air </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palm Springs as high-status community east of mountains, beyond reach of smog </li></ul>
  38. 45. Impact of Automobiles <ul><li>50% of land devoted to automobiles </li></ul><ul><li>Low population density : 3040 per square kilometer (7876 per square mile), compared to Philadelphia with 4336 per square kilometer (11,232 per square mile) </li></ul><ul><li>Predominance of single-family houses </li></ul><ul><li>No central business district (CBD) </li></ul>
  39. 47. Economy of Los Angeles <ul><li>Petroleum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major petroleum fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offshore development (1965) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hollywood film industry: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoors settings, natural light </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion to television </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dissemination of attractiveness of region </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recreation industry </li></ul></ul>Oil derricks Anaheim 1920
  40. 49. Los Angeles Today <ul><li>Postindustrial activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth in tertiary and quaternary industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of need for local raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government spending </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnic diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges to institutions (e.g., schools) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Los Angeles one of the few global north cities still among world’s largest and growing rapidly </li></ul>
  41. 51. San Francisco Bay <ul><li>Historical development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern core of Spanish activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply port for Gold Rush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First transcontinental railroad terminus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest west coast city until 1920 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large numbers of Asian immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scenery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent harbor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Varying centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East bay : most varied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silicon Valley (north of San Jose) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 52. San Francisco <ul><li>Grid pattern of streets, despite terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Closely spaced houses, low profile </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Water barriers to surrounding centers </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) </li></ul><ul><li>Situation as major Pacific port of North America </li></ul>
  43. 55. Cities of the Valley <ul><ul><li>Sacramento (1.8 million) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State capital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest of the Central Valley cities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major agricultural processing city </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substantial aerospace industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresno (2,002,284) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bakersfield (780,711) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockton (673,170) </li></ul></ul>
  44. 56. California’s Outlook <ul><li>Fewer than ½ of Californians born there </li></ul><ul><li>Major destination for migrants since 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant political and economic force in American life </li></ul><ul><li>Location on Pacific Rim </li></ul><ul><li>Vies for position as national core </li></ul><ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragile environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water supply </li></ul></ul>
  45. 57. One state or many? (example of “state” of Jefferson) <ul><li>Northern California and southern Oregon </li></ul><ul><li>From Dunsmuir, CA to Ashland, OR </li></ul><ul><li>Regional personality traits? (independence, free-spiritedness, anti-California attitudes)?? </li></ul>

×