Chapter 3

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  • Figure 9.5: Lake Baikal Figure 9.6: Siberian Lumber
  • Chapter 3

    1. 1. World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd . ed) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman Chapter 3: The Russian Federation, Central Asia, and the Transcaucasus Robert M. Arthur
    2. 2. The Russian Federation, Central Asia, and the Transcaucasus <ul><li>Vast Territory, Sparsely Populated </li></ul><ul><li>Arctic Sea to the North, Pacific to the East, Mountains to the South & Europe to the West </li></ul>
    3. 3. Environment & Society <ul><li>Northerly Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Most Ports Icebound </li></ul><ul><li>Many Rivers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lena, Kolyma, Ob’, Yenisy, Amur, Dnieper, Don, & Volga </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Largest Land Mass </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Russian Domain
    5. 5. Physiographic Regions <ul><li>Main Regions: Russian Plain, Urals, West Siberian Plain, Central Siberian Plain, Desert Plateaus of Central Asia, & the Southern Mountain Rim </li></ul>
    6. 6. Physiographic Regions <ul><li>The Russian Plain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentary Deposits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marshy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>West Siberian Plain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely Flat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly Drained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly Inhospitable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil & Gas Reserves </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Physiographic Regions <ul><li>Central Siberian Plateau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uplifting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hilly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gorges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Urals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North-South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old, Eroded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavily Mineralized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern Mountain Rim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger Mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil, Gas, & Coal </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Diverse Physical Landscapes <ul><li>European West </li></ul><ul><li>Ural Mountains and Siberia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taiga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permafrost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russian Far East </li></ul><ul><li>Caucasus and Transcaucasus </li></ul>Russian Boreal Forest
    9. 9. Images of Russia Cossack Kamchatka Peninsula
    10. 10. Climate <ul><li>Continental Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold Air From the North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing to Block It </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permafrost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arid in Central Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western Georgia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtropical </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Climate
    12. 12. Natural Landscapes <ul><li>Seven Zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East to West </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tundra: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Northerly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arctic Wilderness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permafrost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mosses, Lichens, Hardy Grasses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reindeer, Fish, Walrus, Waterfowl </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Natural Landscapes <ul><li>Taiga </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boreal Forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spruce, Fir, & Pine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed Forest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discontinuous in the East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fir, Pine, Larch,, Birch, & Oak </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fur Bearing Animals </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Natural Landscapes <ul><li>Wooded Steppe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow Band </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trees & Grassland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleared for Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steppe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chernozem Soils </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Agricultural Regions Figure 9.9 Which region is most likely to be dominated by chernozem soils?
    16. 16. Agricultural Landscapes Georgia (Caucasus Region ) Wheat in Ukraine
    17. 17. Natural Landscapes <ul><li>Semidesert & Desert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boulder Strewn Landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt Pans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadic Pastoralists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kara-Kum (Black Sands) and Kyzl-Kum (Red Sands) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subtropical Forest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Georgia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjoining the Black Sea </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Environmental Issues – Overview
    19. 19. Environmental History <ul><li>Mismanagement of Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to control pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>deforestation, overuse of pesticides, soil erosion, air & water pollution, diversion of rivers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Environmental Issues (cont’d) Impacts of Soviet Industrialization and Resource Extraction
    21. 21. Environmental Disasters <ul><li>Chernobyl – 1986 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Meltdown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3000 sq. km. dead trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% of Belarus uninhabitable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,000 villages abandoned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aral Sea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dropped 33 ft. due to irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monoculture </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Lake Baykal <ul><li>World’s deepest lake – 1615 meters </li></ul><ul><li>20% of all freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>25 – 50 million years old </li></ul><ul><li>2500 plant & animal species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>75% unique to the lake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DDT, PCB’s, dioxins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irkutsk Dam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raising water level </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. The Russian Empire <ul><li>Principality of Muscovy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5790 sq. km. In 15 th . C, 22 million sq. km. By 1914 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1552 Ivan the Terrible defeats Tartars at Battle of Kazan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning of the Romanovs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peter the Great (1682 – 1725) Catherine the Great (1762 – 1796) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Russian Expansion <ul><li>Desire for more Land & Subjects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also a warm water port </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expanded territory contiguous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, The Crimea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finland, Georgia, Armenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Asia in the mid 18 th . C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Far East in late 18 th . C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-Siberian Railway – 1904 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socialist Revolution - 1917 </li></ul>
    25. 25. The Soviet Empire <ul><li>State Socialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collectivism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarianism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bolshevicks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>central planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Economic Plan 1921: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central control of key industries, foreign trade, & banking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lenin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet Socialist Republics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recognized diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stalin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European Expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffer zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tremendous Russian losses during WW II </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. U.S.S.R. <ul><li>Socialist Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egalitarian Philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mikrorayan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drab, similar landscapes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Housing for all </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Collectivization & Industrialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>apparatchiks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collective farms </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Satellite States <ul><li>World War II Losses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25 million people killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1700 towns & cities destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>84,000 villages lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% of industrial facilities destroyed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soviet Bloc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Iron Curtain” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective Zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMECON </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Growth & Cold War <ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Territorial Production Complexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Secret Cities” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grandiose Schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse the flow of rivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative to Capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Arsenal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space Race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat to US Hegemony </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Breakup of the Empire <ul><li>Economic Stagnation in the 1970s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to deliver consumer goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Populace becoming informed of consumerism elsewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional inequities </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. The New Realities <ul><li>Shift to capitalism after 70 years of central planning is very problematic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak & Disorganized Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banking System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reorienting economy to the World System </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Population and Settlement - European Core - Siberian Hinterlands - Railroad Lines
    32. 32. Population <ul><li>Low Densities </li></ul><ul><li>232 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Highest Densities in the Southeast – Armenia & Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonably High densities in Wooded Steppe Region – Around Moscow </li></ul>
    33. 33. Population Dynamics <ul><li>Slow Growth </li></ul><ul><li>1990s – Began to Decline </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow in Belarus & Russian Federation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Asia & Transcaucasus, High Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declining healthcare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Death Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Life Expectancy </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Demographic Crisis <ul><li>Persistently declining population </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of lower fertility and higher mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Social, economic, and environmental interactions </li></ul>
    35. 35. Languages & Ethnic Groups <ul><li>92 distinct ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Slavs in the western, densely populated region </li></ul><ul><li>Languages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavic (west), Turkic (central), Altaic & Paleo-Siberian (far east & north east) </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Diaspora & Migration <ul><li>Bolshevik revolution caused migration – many to the US </li></ul><ul><li>Russians spread out with growth of the empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged to settle in new areas to read Russian influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of Siberia & Far East Russian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 million Russians suddenly foreigners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990’s saw return migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former Republics backlash against Russians </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Migration Patterns
    38. 38. Migration (cont’d) <ul><li>Eastern Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans-Siberian RR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BAM RR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political Motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gulag Archipelago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russification </li></ul></ul>Novosibirsk
    39. 39. Russians in Ukraine
    40. 40. Cultural Coherence and Diversity <ul><li>Dominance of Slavic peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Russian empire expansion </li></ul>
    41. 41. Linguistic Diversity
    42. 42. Ethnic and Religious Diversity Minority Evenki Russian Orthodox Church
    43. 43. Nationalism <ul><li>Local Nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separation & Irredentism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trouble spots in North Caucasus (Chechnya, Ossetia), Transcausus (Armenia, Azerbaijan), and Central Asia (Tajikistan) </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Nationalism <ul><li>Mikhail Gorbachev - 1985 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>perestroiyka </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glasnost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined with federal government made break-up easier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chechen succession announced immediately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian Federation has interest in oil fields & refining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warfare ensued and is continuing </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Soviet Era Geopolitics <ul><li>Bolsheviks - Autonomous Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Glasnost - Perestroika </li></ul>
    46. 46. Current Geopolitical Framework
    47. 47. Figures 9.5.1 and 9.5.2 Strategic Space: The Case of Kaliningrad Russian Exclave
    48. 48. Contemporary Challenges <ul><li>Transition from Command to Market Economy Unprecedented </li></ul><ul><li>Requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal & Stable Economic Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate State-Regulated Price Controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Convertible Currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disinvestment of State Owned Businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of Entrepreneurial Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing Foreign Trade & Investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pluralist Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethno-nationalist movements creating instability </li></ul>
    49. 49. Current Geopolitics <ul><li>Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Denuclearization </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Republics of the Russian Federation </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Tensions </li></ul>Groznyy Vladimir Putin
    50. 50. Economic & Social Transition <ul><li>Uneven distribution of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Regional differences in market reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privatization hampered by local bureaucrats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of capital & weak regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural reform slow resulting in loss of production </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Regional Inequalities <ul><li>Legacy of Soviet Inefficiency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agglomeration economies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incrementalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market Forces Have Emphasized Regional Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Winners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gateway Regions (Transportation & Communication Hubs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Resource Regions (Oil & Gas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich Agricultural Regions (Soil, Climate, Capital) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-Tech Regions (Research & Military Facilities) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Losers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas of armed conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Poor Regions, The Periphery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Smokestack” Industrial Regions (declining heavy industries) </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Core Regions <ul><li>The Central Region </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>85% Urban </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historic Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central Government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centered on Moscow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major contributor to Russian Federation Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80% Textile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% Industrial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research & Development Core associated with Soviet Military Complex </li></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Moscow <ul><li>Site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Center of Russian Plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moskva River </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kremlin, Red Square, Cathedral of St. Basil </li></ul><ul><li>Center for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decline in Industry </li></ul>
    54. 54. Urban Landscapes Metropolitan Moscow Minsk, Belarus
    55. 55. Urban Form in Russian Cities <ul><li>Mix of imperial, Soviet, and post-Soviet influences </li></ul><ul><li>City core: most desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mikrorayons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dacha </li></ul></ul>Downtown Moscow (top) Moscow Housing (left)
    56. 56. St. Petersburg <ul><li>Site: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf of Finland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside Core Region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered an Extension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Center of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shipbuilding, armaments, electronics, chemical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Famous for its Architecture, Urban Design & Art </li></ul>
    57. 57. St. Petersburg, Russia
    58. 58. Secondary Core <ul><li>The Urals </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive Natural Resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron Ore, Many Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy – Coal, Oil & Gas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Established 1920’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded in WW II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Military Region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 million people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75 % Urbanized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy Industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline of heavy Industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Gender & Inequality <ul><li>Economic Crises </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting From: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declining Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Fiscal Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women hit worst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of social programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underemployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drop in earnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of political power </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Social Development <ul><li>Imperiled by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harsh economic times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health care crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower status of women </li></ul></ul>Moscow Food Market
    61. 61. Economic Globalization … Oil Sakhalin Island
    62. 62. The Tundra <ul><li>Northern Shores of Arctic Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Vast Territory Dominated by Cold & Ice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short growing season – permafrost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadic Peoples – Samoyed, Inuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Resources – Coal, Oil & Gas, Minerals, & Fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military Installations – Cold War </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. World Regions in Global Context: Peoples, Places, and Environments (3 rd . ed) Sallie A. Marston, Paul L. Knox, & Diana M. Liverman End of Chapter 3: The Russian Federation, Central Asia, and the Transcaucasus

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