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  1. 1. THE NORTHLANDS (Chapter 17)
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Easily the largest North American region </li></ul><ul><li>Extends from northern Alaska and Canada as for south as the northern Great Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Regional criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhospitable nature of the physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparse population </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Northlands (page 343)
  4. 4. Climate <ul><li>Dominant feature: COLD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average January temperatures -7° C (27  F) along the southern Great Lakes to -40°C (-39  F) in parts of Arctic Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures as low as -60°C (-76°F) possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long winters, short frost-free period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>135 days at southern margins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 days along parts of Arctic Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 90 days over most of region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too short for agriculture </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Climate (continued) <ul><li>Continental climate over most of the region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maritime moderation only along margins, mainly in east and west </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief but warm summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great shifts in length of day, angle of sun’s rays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>North of Arctic Circle (66° 30’ north latitude) darkness for at least one 24-hour period in midwinter, one day in mid-summer with 24 hours of daylight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low angle of sun’s rays </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Precipitation <ul><li>Highest amounts in far southeast (Labrador): 100 cm (40 inches), mostly from storms </li></ul><ul><li>< 25 cm (10 inches) over most of Northwest Territories </li></ul><ul><li>< 15 cm (6 inches) in Arctic Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold northern latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frozen Arctic Ocean </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Permafrost <ul><li>Subsurface layer of permanently frozen ground </li></ul><ul><li>May be a few inches to more than 300 meters (1000 feet) thick </li></ul><ul><li>Discontinuous in warmer areas </li></ul><ul><li>In summer, deeper permafrost layer holds meltwater on surface </li></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction of buildings with piles deep into permafrost for stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant road repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of ground from heat of buildings </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Extent of Permafrost (page 344)
  9. 9. Vegetation <ul><li>Taiga (boreal forest) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coniferous forest across the entire southern part of the region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closely ranked spruces, firs, and pines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow-growing and short </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in size and number south to north </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tree line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition zone, with gradually smaller and sparser trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundary between taiga and tundra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tundra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions too harsh for trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lichens, grasses, mosses, and shrubs </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Vegetation (page 30)
  11. 11. Arctic Ice <ul><li>Size and characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers 4.8 million square kilometers (1.8 million square miles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-6 meters (10-20 feet) thick, but rugged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt-free , floats on Arctic Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expands in winter to enshroud entire Arctic coast of Canada and northern Alaska </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds as much water as all freshwater lakes in the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes moderating effect of Arctic Ocean on climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits ocean transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slowly melting, apparently in response to global warming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2007: smallest area on record, coastal areas of islands ice-free </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Native Peoples <ul><li>Entire region sparsely populated with Native peoples (First Nations) dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Inuit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominate in most of the Arctic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture extends from Siberia to Greenland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most recently arrived of Native Americans (4500 years ago) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally lived by fishing and hunting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today have moved in substantial numbers to towns </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Canada’s Inuit Population (page 347)
  14. 14. Indians <ul><li>Concentrated mostly in the taiga </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional economy based on hunting and fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Métis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermarriage of Indian women and European men during fur-trading period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today outnumber American Indians in taiga </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fur trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indians of taiga and Europeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced European trade goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brought liquor, diseases, Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of upsetting Indian culture </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Canada’s Indian Population (page 348)
  16. 16. Native Peoples and Europeans <ul><li>Northlands last region to come under Canadian and U.S. government control </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment less destructive and paternalistic than elsewhere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada: Less removal of Indians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alaska: Contact late enough that attitudes had softened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian Native Claims procedure (1974) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1975: Quebec accord with local Indians on control of land around James Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1999: Division of Northwest Territory to create Nunavut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>31,113 population (2007) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.9 million square kilometers (733,000 square miles) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>28 settlements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Early European Settlement <ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voyageurs, fur trappers, fur traders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political control north to headwaters of rivers draining to Hudson Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading posts and forts at strategic sites, location of today’s cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hudson’s Bay Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British fur-trading company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishments on margins of Hudson Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granted trade monopoly by British government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended from Hudson Bay west to Rocky Mountains </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Canadian Population Distribution (page 350)
  19. 19. <ul><li>Largest area of uncut forest in North America </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Great Lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logged during the late 1800s and early 1900s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So devastated it was called the &quot; Cutover Region ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not reforested, slow growth in cold climate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s leading exporter of forest products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lumber, pulp and paper operations from Quebec to Manitoba. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spruce forests south of Hudson Bay prime source for most paper mills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mills on plentiful water power sites on southern edge of Canadian Shield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most capital from outside Canada, especially U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. major market </li></ul></ul>Logging
  20. 20. Mining: Canada <ul><li>Wide range of metals, other minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Leading producer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nickel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asbestos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major producer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron ore </li></ul></ul>Elizabeth J. Leppman
  21. 21. <ul><li>Mesabi Range (Minnesota) and northern Wisconsin, Michigan </li></ul><ul><li>Situational advantage with accessibility network of the Great Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Most important source in late 19 th century for iron and steel industry of Great Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Locks at Sault-Ste Marie world’s busiest as a result of ore traffic </li></ul><ul><li>Taconite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing high-quality ores now exhausted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. 30% iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficiation : Ground into powder, much rock removed, before shipment </li></ul></ul>Mining: United States
  22. 22. Environmental Problems of Mining <ul><li>Location of smelting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of shipping ore with low metal content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main manufacturing activity in Northlands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental disruption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining by open-pit methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old mines restored only recently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slag (waste material) created by processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmful gaseous and liquid waste </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Expansion of Mining <ul><li>Early 1900s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northward from Great Lakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nickel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sudbury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First mining town </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest urban center in Northlands (157,857 population, 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. New Mining Districts <ul><li>Clay Belt (Timmins to Val d’Or): Copper </li></ul><ul><li>Chibougamau (farther northeast): Lead, copper, zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Labrador Trough (Labrador-Quebec border) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-grade iron ore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development as quality of Lake Superior ores declined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schefferville </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railroad in 1954 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Today, mines closed, town abandoned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wabush and Carol Lake , Newfoundland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gagnon-Fermont , Quebec </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Smaller Mining Concentrations <ul><li>Western Ontario , north of Lake Superior (iron) </li></ul><ul><li>Flin Flon , Manitoba-Saskatchewan border (copper and zinc) </li></ul><ul><li>Thompson , Manitoba (nickel) </li></ul><ul><li>Yellowknife on Great Slave Lake (gold) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Petroleum <ul><li>Alberta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major proven resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Athabasca tar sands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best prospects for additional discoveries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mackenzie River delta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alaska’s North Slope across northern Arctic Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alaska’s North Slope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of inadequate supplies in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development a dramatic technological feat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem of transportation: pipelines </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Alaska Pipeline (page 339)
  28. 28. Hydroelectricity <ul><li>Potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern edge of Canadian Shield (hard rock) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streams falling into lowlands of Ontario, Quebec </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Churchill Falls project, Labrador </li></ul><ul><li>Margin of James Bay , Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap, abundant electricity basis of aluminum smelting industry </li></ul><ul><li>Surplus energy sold to New York, Ontario, northern New England (to replace polluting coal-fired plants) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Transportation <ul><li>Pervasive isolation , sparse population </li></ul><ul><li>Mackenzie River only river transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labrador north from Sept Isles (iron ore) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prairie Provinces to Churchill (wheat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Slave Lake (mining development) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>James Bay, Quebec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern margins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mackenzie Highway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alaska Highway </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Light airplanes with bush pilots </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Rising incomes in North America—demand for more recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Southern margins (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan; Laurentians; Ontario) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily accessible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy tourist use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central and northern portions—much less used </li></ul><ul><li>Fragile environment </li></ul>Tourism
  31. 31. Settlement Pattern <ul><li>Agriculture (supporter of rural population) impossible in most places, except </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lake St. John–Saguenay Lowland , Quebec </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clay Belt , Quebec-Ontario border </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peace River District , British Columbia–Alberta border </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most places dominated by single major economic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation, shipping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Far north </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few permanent settlements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Europeans employees of government or resource exploitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominantly male populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inuit villages </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Settlement Zones of Northern Canada (page 357)