THE KEMP ID MODELMichelle GilesCECS 6020Spring 2013University of North Texas
Kemp ID Model• The Kemp model of instructional design was first developed in 1985 by Jerrold Kemp. In 1994, Kemp, Gary Morrison, and Steven Ross modified Kemp’s model.• The model is comprised of nine key elements – instructional problems, learner characteristics, task analysis, instructional objectives, content sequencing, instructional strategies, designing the message, instructional delivery, and evaluation instruments.• Model based on the design belief: • ID is a continuous cycle with revision as an ongoing activity associated with all of the other elements.
Kemp ID Model• Model is classroom-oriented.• Describes a holistic approach to instructional design that considers all factors in the environment.• Extremely flexible model designed to focus on content.• A general systems view of development: all elements are interdependent.• All the elements can be performed simultaneously.• Developer can start anywhere.• Learning needs, goals, priorities and constraints determine the instructional solutions.
9 Key Elements of Kemp Model• State the instructional goal (Element 1) • Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program. • What are the instructional problems being addressed? • What are the instructional strategies that are most appropriate for the content and the target population?• Analyze learners (Element 2) • Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning. • What is the age of the students? • What maturity and intellectual level are the students at? • What prior courses and skills have been mastered? • What learning style do the students’ best respond to?
9 Key Elements of Kemp Model• Select method, media, and materials (Element 3) • Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes. • What media and materials present the instruction most effectively? • What media and materials appeal most to the learning audience? • What methods of instruction appeal most to the learning audience? • What methods are compatible with selected media and material? • What media can be supported by equipment available?• State the objective (Element 4) • State instructional objectives for the learner. • What are the goal objectives of the instruction? • What behaviors do you wish the students to demonstrate after instruction? • What level of mastery of the subject is desired after instruction?
9 Key Elements of Kemp Model• Manage content (Element 5) • Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning. • Is the content organized for optimal learning? • Do the instructional units flow from one unit to the other? • Does the lesson build upon each other in a logical sequence?• Select strategies of learning (Element 6) • Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives. • Are students allowed and encouraged to actively participate in instruction? • Do exercises keep the students interested in subject? • Are exercises set up to receive feedback from the students?
9 Key Elements of Kemp Model• Utilize media (Element 7) • Plan the instructional message and delivery. • Do all selected media operate as desired (fit delivery method)? • Is there contingency media set aside?• Evaluations (Element 8) • Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives. • Does feedback reveal any need for corrections? • What revisions must be made to correct shortcomings? • Are all needed changes completed before further instructional evolutions?• Utilize materials (Element 9) • Select resources to support instruction and learning activities. • Are all materials organized for effective distribution and instruction? • Are there contingency materials set aside?
Kemp ID Model Graphic RepresentationThe model is a continuous circle, with no specific beginning point, meaningthat the nine elements are mutually supporting. The steps may be performedin any order either independently or simultaneously. The interaction betweenthe steps makes this model a good choice for a project where multiple teammembers are working together to complete the instruction.
ADDIE Steps Applied to Kemp Model Morrison, Ross & Kemp 2004, p. 29The ADDIE model can be applied to the Kemp Model because they bothconsider instruction from the perspective of the learner. Both include stages foranalysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
Implementing Kemp ID ModelTo implement the model an instructional designer orinstructor, in no particular order would:• Identify instructional problems: • What is it that you need to teach? The instructional designer or instructor may conduct a needs assessment, goal analysis, or performance assessment to determine the instructional goal• Examine intended audience • For this step the ID or instructor would describe the demographic characteristics of the learner and their background knowledge . (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007)
Implementing Kemp ID Model• Analyze subject content: • In this step, the instructional designer or instructor consider the real world applications of the content from the learner’s perspective. Determine the learning context and performance. What knowledge and skills, procedures, and communication is necessary?• Write instructional objectives: • The instructional designer or instructor should define the cognitive and behavioral skills the learner will perform as a result of the instruction. Include criteria and conditions specific to the instruction.• Order instructional content: • The instructional designer or instructor will determine a logical sequence for the instruction while considering variables such as prerequisites and level of difficulty. (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007)
Implementing Kemp ID Model• Decide how to present material: • The instructional designer or instructor will develop instructional strategies for recall, integration, organizational, and elaboration. Examples include memorization, generating questions, categorizing, and creating diagrams.• Develop the instruction: • Based on the previous steps, the instructional designer or instructor will “prior to instruction”, conduct a pre-test, state the objectives to the learners, and present and overview to the learner. Decide how to introduce your “message” to the audience.• Develop evaluation instruments: • The instructional designer or instructor will conduct formative and summative evaluations based on standards of achievement. Include opportunities for self- evaluation, as well as testing for skills, behaviors, and attitudes.• Select resources to support instruction and learning activities • The instructional designer or instructor will identify supplementary resources such as media and examples, equipment, and even personnel to support your instruction. (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007)
Kemp Example Lesson Plan • The following lesson was designed using the Kemp model. The instructional objective is for students to sequence the 8 phases of the moon within the lunar cycle. The designer elected to utilize all 9 steps, in the following order.Instructional Problem: The instructional problem addressed is student misconceptions about the moon, and misunderstanding of the phases of the moon within the sequence of the lunar cycle.Learner Characteristics: Grade: Third Grade Age Range: 7-8 years Learner Skills: Visualizing, Ordering, and Predicting Prior Knowledge: Students have knowledge of the : (1) Position of the moon in relation to the Earth and the Sun; (2) words rotation and revolution.Subject Content and Student will learn the words waxing and waning.Task Components: Student will understand the role of the sun on the lunar cycle. Student will observe phases of the moon. Student will review phases and cycle. Student will label phases of the moon within a lunar cycle. http://edtc6321team1cooperativeproject.pbworks.com/w/page/27820492/KEMP%20Model%20Example
Kemp Example Lesson PlanInstructional Objectives: Given pictures of the phases of the moon the student will: (1) Identify the name and label each of the phases of the moon; (2) Place the phases in their appropriate position on the lunar cycle.Sequencing Content: Student will watch 5-minute video clip from Newton’s Apple over Phases of the moon. Student will discuss/ sketch various types of moons that they have observed in their lifetime/ Student will observe lunar phase simulator to identify the phase of their previous sketch and its position within the lunar cycle. Student will participate (whole class) in SMART Exchange Activity: Moon Phases to review phases of the moon and the lunar cycle or QUIA interactive games. Student will identify and match phase of the moon Student will place moon phase in the correct order within the lunar cycle. Student will individually create a flipbook of the phases. http://edtc6321team1cooperativeproject.pbworks.com/w/page/27820492/KEMP%20Model%20Example
Kemp Example Lesson PlanInstructional Strategies: Review/Check for prior knowledge Observe Link new information to prior knowledge Large group instruction Simulations Technology Tools Use of graphic organizer Re-teachInstructional Message and The message will be delivered using a variety of visual aides, multimedia and interactiveDelivery: activities to engage the learner such as: Elementary CORE Academy Handbook: Moon Flipbook http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/downloadFile.cgi?file=10988-2-14754- flip_book.pdf&filename=flip_book.pdf Quia Java Games: Moon Matching: http://www.quia.com/mc/431146.html Quia Ordered List: Put Moon Phases: http://www.quia.com/rd/11412.html Lunar Phase Simulator: Flash: http://astro.unl.edu/naap/lps/animations/lps,swf SMART Exchange: Moon Phases Collection: http://exchange.smarttech.com/search.html?m=01&q=Phases+of+the+Moon Newton’s Apple Video: Phases of the moon: http://www.newtonsapple.tv/video.php?id=1671 http://edtc6321team1cooperativeproject.pbworks.com/w/page/27820492/KEMP%20Model%20Example
Kemp Example Lesson PlanEvaluation Instruments: Learners will participate in whole class simulated assessment using interactive technologies. Learner will individually create a flipbook modeling the phases of the moon and lunar cycle.Resources: Document Camera Data Projector Smart Board Computer Internet Access Scissors StaplerOngoing Process: Planning Revising Evaluation Management http://edtc6321team1cooperativeproject.pbworks.com/w/page/27820492/KEMP%20Model%20Example
3 Elements of Differentiation from Other ID Models• Instruction is considered from the perspective of the learner.• The model takes a general systems view towards development with instructional design being presented as a continuous cycle.• The model emphasizes management of the instructional design process.
References• Blueprints for Instruction. (2011). Retrieved February 2, 2012, from http://edtc6321team1cooperativeproject.pbworks.com/f/Blueprints_for_Instructi on_Research%5Bf%5D.pdf• Kemp, J. E. (1985). The instructional design process. New York: Harper & Row.• Kemp, J. E., Morrison, G. R., & Ross, S. V. (1994). Design effective instruction, New York: Macmillan.• Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., & Kemp, J. E. (2007). Designing effective instruction (4th ed.). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.• Siemens, G. (2002). Instructional design in e-learning. Retrieved February 1, 2012, from http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/InstructionalDesign.htm.• Sims, R., & Jones, D. (2003). Where practice informs theory: Reshaping instructional design for academic communities in online teaching and learning. Information Technology, Education and Society, 4(1), 3-20.