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ck-X{´hÀjw 2011tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-j¯v
amUw tacn Iyqdn  Ah-X-cWw X¿m-dm-¡n-bXv  ]T--tI-{µw, sIm«m-c-¡-c.
• 1903  s_Iz-dÂ, ]nbdn  Iyqdn, amUw Iyqdn F¶n-  hÀ¡v ^nkn-Ivkn-pÅ  tm_Âk-½mw.• 1911  amUw Iyqdn¡v ck-  X-{´-¯n-epÅ tm_ ...
• tdUntbmBIvSn-h-X-bpsS  XpSÀ]-T--¯npw Kth-j-  W-¯n-p-apÅ kw`m-h--  IÄ¡mbncp¶p ^nkn-Ivkn-  pÅ tm_Âk-½mw.• s]mtfm-Wn-bhpw t...
1867 hw_À 7 v      t]mf−nse  hmÀkbn Pn¨p.tacn kvt¢mtUmhvkvInF¶mWv bYmÀ° t]c.v Iq«pImcpw ho«pImcpwAhsf enänÂanb F¶p       ...
]nXmhv `uXnIimkv{X þKWnXimkv{XA[ym]Imbncp¶p.  amXmhv A[ym]nI, ]m«pImcn,Nn{XImcn F¶oneIfnÂ{]ikvXbmbncp¶p. ]{´−mas¯ hbkn A½...
]¯p hb-Êm-b-t¸mÄA½ S-¯n-bn-cp¶t_mÀUn§v kvIqfnÂtNÀ¶v ]Tn-¡m³ XpS-§n.]n¶oSv s]¬Ip«n-IÄ¡pÅ kvIqfn tNcp-Ibpw 1884  AhnsS n¶v...
• t]mf-−nse tZiob ka-c-§-fn tacn-bpsS  AÑ-tâbpw A½-bp-tSbpw IpSpw-_mw-K-§Ä  kPoh ]¦mfn-I-fm-bn-cp-¶p.• AXp-aqew Ah-cpsS k...
• tacn-¡pw aq¯ ktlm-Zcn  “t{_mWn-Ém-h”¡pw ]Tn-  ¡Wsa¶v B{K-l-ap-−m-bn-  cp-¶p.• F¶m AXn-pÅ ]Ww  D−m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã.• BZyw tac...
• ktlm-Z-cn-amÀ Ah-cpsS hm¡p ]men-¨p.• AX-p-k-cn¨v t{_mWn-Ém-hsb ]Tn-¸n-¡m³ aq¶p  hoSp-I-fn tacn tPmen-sN-bvXp.• t{_mWn-É...
1891  ]mcoknsetkmÀt_m¬kÀÆIemimebn tNÀ¶vKWnXw, `uXnIimkv{Xw,ckX{´w F¶nh]Tn¡m³ XpS§n.1893  `uXnIimkv{X¯nepw 1894 ÂKWnX¯ne...
• kvIqÄ Hm^v ^nknIvkv  B³Uv sIan-kv{Sn-bn  C³kv{S-IvSÀ Bbn tPmen  tm¡p-I-bm-bn-cp¶p  ]nb-dn.• tacn-bpsS BZy Kth-j-W-  ta-...
1895 PqssebnÂ]nbdnbpw tacn-bp-am-bpÅ   hnhmlw S¶p.
FIvkvþtd ¡v kam--amb            HcpXcw civan-IÄ      bp-td-nb¯n n¶pw        ]pd¯p hcp¶Xmbnsl³{Sn _Iz-d Is−¯n.      Cu hn...
•bptd-nbw kwbp-à-§-fn F´p-sN-bvXmepwbptd-nb¯nsâ Af-hn--p-k-cn¨p am{XamWv hnIn-c-W-¯nsâ km{µ-X F¶vtacn {i²n¨p.•AXp-sIm−v X...
Bä-¯n-p-Ån- S¡p-¶ GtXm {]{In-bbmWvCu hnIn-c-W-ap−m¡p-¶-sX¶ nK-a--¯nÂAhÀ F¯nt¨À¶p.tacn CXnv ‘tdUntbmBIvSn-hnän’ F¶pt]cn«p.
A¶v tdUntbmBIvSohvBbn Adn-b-s¸-«ncp¶  c−p aqe-I-§tf  D−m-bn-cp-¶p-Åp.     bptd-n-bhpw      tXmdn-b-hp-w.
tacntbm-sSm¯p {]hÀ¯n¡p-¶-Xn-mbn                  ]nbdn {InÌ-ep-I-sf-¡p-dn-¨pÅXsâ ]Tw nÀ¯nh-¨p.   k¦oÀ®-X-bpÅ Hcp          ...
1898 Pqssebn bptd-n-b-                t¯-¡mÄ tdUn-tbm- B-                IvSnhXbpÅ Hcp ]pXnb                ]ZmÀ°w AhÀ th...
1899 Pp-h-cn-bn   bptd-n-b-t¯-¡mÄ    ]¯p-e£w C-c«n  tdUn-tbm-B-IvSn-h-X-bpÅ Hcp aqeIw IqSn     Is−-¯n. CXnv ‘tdUnbw’ F¶v ...
tacnbpsS ]T§fn n¶pÅ {][m Is−-¯epIÄ tdUnbw {]Im-ihpw NqSpw ]pd-¯p-hnSp¶p F¶Xpw Cu hnIn-c-W-§ÄssPh-tIm-i-§sf in-¸n¡p¶p F¶-X...
•tdUnbw shÅn-t]mseshfp-¯-Xm-Wv.•C¶v Iym³kÀNnIn-Õ¡pw ^vfqd-kâvs]bnâv nÀam-W-¯npw IpdªAf-hn tdUnbwD]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶p.
tdUn-b-hpw AXn-tmSv kmay-apÅ KpW-[À½-§-     fpÅ t_cn-bhpw AS-  §nb k¦oÀ®-amb Hcp  [mXp-hmWv ]n¨v»³Uv. AXn-m tdUnbw am{Xw ...
• 1902 Bb-t¸mtg¡pw Hcp S¬  ]n¨v»³Un n¶pw 0.1 {Kmw tdUnbw  t¢mssdUv AhÀ thÀXncn-s¨-Sp-¯p.• 1910 Bb-t¸mtg¡pw IqSnb Af-hn  ...
• ]n¨vs»³Un n¶pw ip²-amb tdUnbw  thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¡m-pÅ cmk-{]-{In-b-bpsS t]äâv  kz´-am-¡m³ tacn B{K-ln-¨n-Ã.• imkv{X-k-aq-...
•1906þ Hcp IpXn-c-h−nb-]-I-S-¯n ]nb-dn-Iyqdn ac-W-a-S-ªp.•tdUn-tbm-B-IvSohv hnIn-c-W-§Ä [mcm-f-ambn GäXnmÂ]nbdn ZpÀ_-e-m...
• ]nb-dn-bpsS acWw  tacnsb hÃmsX  XfÀ¯n.• Kth-j-W-¯n ebn-¨-  Xp-sIm-−p-am-{X-amWv  B ZpJ-¯n n¶pw  A-hÀ Ic-I-b-dn-b-Xv.
• tkmÀ-t_m-¬ kÀh-I-em-  im-e-bn ]nb-dn-sb BZ-  cn-¡p-¶-Xnpth−n D−m-  ¡s¸« s{]m^-k-À  ]Zhn 1906  tacn¡p  ÂIn.• A§s tacn t...
]nb-dn-bpsS t]cn                          ma-I-cWw sN¿-                          s¸« tdUnbw                          C³Ìn...
•C³Ìn-äyq«v Bcw`n¨vA[nIw sshImsX H¶mwtemIalm-bp²w s]m«n-¸p-d-s¸«p.•AtXmsS C³Ìn-äyq-«nsetPmen-¡m-cpsS F®wsh«n-¡p-d-¡-s¸-«p....
]nb-dn-þ-tacn Iyqdn Z¼-Xn-IÄ¡v tm_Â   k½m--t¯m-sSm¸w  e`n¨ kzÀ®-sa-UÂ     bp²-^−nte¡p kw`m-h sN¿pIbpwHcp gvkmbn tkh--a-   ...
•bp²-cw-K¯vtUmIvSÀamÀ¡v D]-tbm-Kn-¡m³ k©-cn-¡p¶tdUn-tbm-{Km^n bqWn-äp-IÄ nÀ½n-¡m³ tacntXrXzw ÂIn.•A§s k©-cn-¡p¶20 bqWn-äp-...
•]«m-f-¡msc NnIn-Õn-¡m³tdUn-b-¯n n¶p-−m-Ip¶ “dmtUm¬” nd¨sIm¨p Syq_p-IÄ tacnXs¶ tcn«v nÀ½n-¨vÂIn.•“enän Iyqdokv” F¶mWvCu ...
tUmIvSÀamÀ tcmKn-bpsS tcmK-_m-[n-X-ambtImi-§sf in-¸n-¡m³ Cu Syq_p-IÄ tImi-     §-fpsS ASp¯v tNÀ¯phbv¡pw.
•1918  bp²w Ah-km-n-¨-t¸mÄ tacn Xsâ a¡-fmbsFdn-tâbpw Cuhn-tâbpwH¸w Gsd mÄ sNe-hgn¨p.•c−p aq¶p hÀj-¯nvtijw ]mco-knse C³Ìn-...
•tdUn-b-hp-am-bpÅ nc-´-c-k-¼À¡w A]-I-S-am-sW¶vtacn-¡-dn-bn-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p.•tdUn-tbm-B-IväohvsFtkm-tSm-¸p-IÄ AS-§nb Syq_p-IÄ t...
tdUn-b-hp-am-bpÅnc-´-c-k-¼À¡waqew 1911 Bb-t¸m-tg¡pw tacn ISp¯hr¡-tcm-K-¯n--Sn-s¸-«p.
kpc-£m-kw-hn-[m--§Ä      H¶p-an-Ãm¯ Hcp      sjUn-emWv tacnKth-j-W-{]-hÀ¯--§Ä         sNbvXn-cp-¶-Xv.
• Cu hnIn-c-W-§Ä aqew D−m-  Ip¶ A¹m-ÌnIv Ao-anb  F¶ tcmKw _m[n-¨-tXmsS  tacnbpsS BtcmKyw Ap-  Znw £bn¨p h¶p.• tacn ssIImcy...
1934 Pqsse 4 v  Ing-¡³ {^m³knseHcp km-täm-dn-b-¯n h¨vB al-¯mb Pohn-X-¯nv     Xnc-Èoe hoWp.
•   1903þ^n-kn-Ivkn tm_ k½mw•   1911-þ-sI-an-kv{Sn-bn tm_ k½mw•   1903-þ-tUhn saU•   1904-þ-am-äyqkn saU•   1909-þ-F...
• 1935-þ-hmgvkm tdUnbw C³Ìn-äyq-«nsâ  ap¶n amUw Iyqdn-bpsS {]Xna• 1967þ amUw Iyqdn-bpsS HmÀ½bv¡v  hmgvk-bn ayqkn-bw.• td...
• tm_Âk½mw tSnb BZy hn-X.     • c−p taJ-e-I-fn tm_ k½mw       tSnb Htc Hcp hnX.     • tkmÀ-t_m-¬ kÀh-I-em-im-e-bnse     ...
bps-kvtImbv¡v th−n    yq kbânÌv amK-kn³ 2009         S-¯nb thms«-Sp-¸n           imkv{X-¯nÂGähpw Bth-iw-sIm-Ån-¡p¶ hn-X-...
am-hnI aqey-§-fpsS DZm-¯-am-Xr-I.     {]Xn-_-²-X-bpÅ imkv{X-K-th-j-I.         ASn-bp-d¨ kmaq-ly-t_m-[w.          efn-X-amb...
amUw Iyqdn-       F-s¶¶pwap¡v Bth-ihpw amXr-Ibpw      Bbn-cn-¡s«.
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Madamcurrie

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This presentation prepared by Mr. KVS Kartha on behalf of Parishath Padanakendram Kottarakkara for Science Classes Campaign in connection with the International Year of Chemistry.

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Madamcurrie

  1. 1. ck-X{´hÀjw 2011tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-j¯v
  2. 2. amUw tacn Iyqdn Ah-X-cWw X¿m-dm-¡n-bXv ]T--tI-{µw, sIm«m-c-¡-c.
  3. 3. • 1903  s_Iz-dÂ, ]nbdn Iyqdn, amUw Iyqdn F¶n- hÀ¡v ^nkn-Ivkn-pÅ tm_Âk-½mw.• 1911  amUw Iyqdn¡v ck- X-{´-¯n-epÅ tm_ k½m-w.• ^nkn-Ivknepw sIan-kv{Sn- bnepw tm_Âk½mw e`n¨ Htc Hcp hyàn amUw Iyqdn-bm-Wv.
  4. 4. • tdUntbmBIvSn-h-X-bpsS XpSÀ]-T--¯npw Kth-j- W-¯n-p-apÅ kw`m-h-- IÄ¡mbncp¶p ^nkn-Ivkn- pÅ tm_Âk-½mw.• s]mtfm-Wn-bhpw tdUn- bhpw I−p-]n-Sn-¨Xnpw Ah thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¡m- pÅ cmk-{]-{Inb hnI-kn- ¸n-¨Xn-p-amWv ck-X-{´-¯n- epÅ tm_Â k½m-w.
  5. 5. 1867 hw_À 7 v t]mf−nse hmÀkbn Pn¨p.tacn kvt¢mtUmhvkvInF¶mWv bYmÀ° t]c.v Iq«pImcpw ho«pImcpwAhsf enänÂanb F¶p hnfn¨p.
  6. 6. ]nXmhv `uXnIimkv{X þKWnXimkv{XA[ym]Imbncp¶p. amXmhv A[ym]nI, ]m«pImcn,Nn{XImcn F¶oneIfnÂ{]ikvXbmbncp¶p. ]{´−mas¯ hbkn A½£b-tcmKw _m[n¨v acn¨p.
  7. 7. ]¯p hb-Êm-b-t¸mÄA½ S-¯n-bn-cp¶t_mÀUn§v kvIqfnÂtNÀ¶v ]Tn-¡m³ XpS-§n.]n¶oSv s]¬Ip«n-IÄ¡pÅ kvIqfn tNcp-Ibpw 1884  AhnsS n¶v]mkm-Ip-Ibpw sNbvXp.
  8. 8. • t]mf-−nse tZiob ka-c-§-fn tacn-bpsS AÑ-tâbpw A½-bp-tSbpw IpSpw-_mw-K-§Ä kPoh ]¦mfn-I-fm-bn-cp-¶p.• AXp-aqew Ah-cpsS kz¯p-¡Ä jvS-am-bn.• tacn-bpsS Xe-apd AXn-m km¼-¯nI ]cm-[o--X-I-fn s]«p.
  9. 9. • tacn-¡pw aq¯ ktlm-Zcn “t{_mWn-Ém-h”¡pw ]Tn- ¡Wsa¶v B{K-l-ap-−m-bn- cp-¶p.• F¶m AXn-pÅ ]Ww D−m-bn-cp-¶n-Ã.• BZyw tacn tPmen sNbvXv ]W-ap-−m-¡m-sa¶pw c−p hÀjw Ignªv tacnsb ]Tn-¡m³ klm-bn-¨m aXn-sb¶pw AhÀ Iq«mbn Xocp-am-n-¨p.
  10. 10. • ktlm-Z-cn-amÀ Ah-cpsS hm¡p ]men-¨p.• AX-p-k-cn¨v t{_mWn-Ém-hsb ]Tn-¸n-¡m³ aq¶p hoSp-I-fn tacn tPmen-sN-bvXp.• t{_mWn-Ém-hbpsS nÀ_-Ô-¯nv hg§n 1891  ]T--¯n-mbn tacn ]mco-kn-te¡v t]mbn.
  11. 11. 1891  ]mcoknsetkmÀt_m¬kÀÆIemimebn tNÀ¶vKWnXw, `uXnIimkv{Xw,ckX{´w F¶nh]Tn¡m³ XpS§n.1893  `uXnIimkv{X¯nepw 1894 ÂKWnX¯nepw _ncpZwtSn
  12. 12. • kvIqÄ Hm^v ^nknIvkv B³Uv sIan-kv{Sn-bn C³kv{S-IvSÀ Bbn tPmen tm¡p-I-bm-bn-cp¶p ]nb-dn.• tacn-bpsS BZy Kth-j-W- ta-J-e-bmb Im´n-I-X-bn- epÅ Xmev]-cy-amWv ]nb-dntbbpw tacn-tbbpw ASp-¸n-¨-Xv.
  13. 13. 1895 PqssebnÂ]nbdnbpw tacn-bp-am-bpÅ hnhmlw S¶p.
  14. 14. FIvkvþtd ¡v kam--amb HcpXcw civan-IÄ bp-td-nb¯n n¶pw ]pd¯p hcp¶Xmbnsl³{Sn _Iz-d Is−¯n. Cu hnIn-c-W-§-sf-¸än Bbn-cp¶ptacn-bpsS Kth-j-W-hn-j-bw.
  15. 15. •bptd-nbw kwbp-à-§-fn F´p-sN-bvXmepwbptd-nb¯nsâ Af-hn--p-k-cn¨p am{XamWv hnIn-c-W-¯nsâ km{µ-X F¶vtacn {i²n¨p.•AXp-sIm−v X·m-{X-IÄX½n-epÅ {]hÀ¯--¯n n¶Ã Bä-¯nÂn¶p-X-s¶-bmWo hnIn-c-W-§Ä F¶ Ap-am--¯n tacn F¯n-t¨À¶p.
  16. 16. Bä-¯n-p-Ån- S¡p-¶ GtXm {]{In-bbmWvCu hnIn-c-W-ap−m¡p-¶-sX¶ nK-a--¯nÂAhÀ F¯nt¨À¶p.tacn CXnv ‘tdUntbmBIvSn-hnän’ F¶pt]cn«p.
  17. 17. A¶v tdUntbmBIvSohvBbn Adn-b-s¸-«ncp¶ c−p aqe-I-§tf D−m-bn-cp-¶p-Åp. bptd-n-bhpw tXmdn-b-hp-w.
  18. 18. tacntbm-sSm¯p {]hÀ¯n¡p-¶-Xn-mbn ]nbdn {InÌ-ep-I-sf-¡p-dn-¨pÅXsâ ]Tw nÀ¯nh-¨p. k¦oÀ®-X-bpÅ Hcp [mXp-hmb ‘]n¨v»³UnÂ’ tacn Xsâ {]hÀ¯w XpSÀ¶p.
  19. 19. 1898 Pqssebn bptd-n-b- t¯-¡mÄ tdUn-tbm- B- IvSnhXbpÅ Hcp ]pXnb ]ZmÀ°w AhÀ thÀXn-cn-s¨- Sp-¯p.Xsâ P·-m-SntmSpÅ AZ-ay-amb {]Xn-]¯n- sIm−v Cu ]pXnb ]ZmÀ°s¯ tacn‘s]mtfm-Wnbw’ F¶p hnfn-¨p.
  20. 20. 1899 Pp-h-cn-bn bptd-n-b-t¯-¡mÄ ]¯p-e£w C-c«n tdUn-tbm-B-IvSn-h-X-bpÅ Hcp aqeIw IqSn Is−-¯n. CXnv ‘tdUnbw’ F¶v t]cv ÂIn.
  21. 21. tacnbpsS ]T§fn n¶pÅ {][m Is−-¯epIÄ tdUnbw {]Im-ihpw NqSpw ]pd-¯p-hnSp¶p F¶Xpw Cu hnIn-c-W-§ÄssPh-tIm-i-§sf in-¸n¡p¶p F¶-Xpam-Wv.
  22. 22. •tdUnbw shÅn-t]mseshfp-¯-Xm-Wv.•C¶v Iym³kÀNnIn-Õ¡pw ^vfqd-kâvs]bnâv nÀam-W-¯npw IpdªAf-hn tdUnbwD]-tbm-Kn-¡p-¶p.
  23. 23. tdUn-b-hpw AXn-tmSv kmay-apÅ KpW-[À½-§- fpÅ t_cn-bhpw AS- §nb k¦oÀ®-amb Hcp [mXp-hmWv ]n¨v»³Uv. AXn-m tdUnbw am{Xw thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¡pI Gsd t¢i-I-c-am-Wv. 1898 Bb-t¸m-tg¡pw IyqdnZ¼-Xn-amÀ t_cnbw H«pw Ie-cm¯ Hcev]w td-Unbw thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¯p.
  24. 24. • 1902 Bb-t¸mtg¡pw Hcp S¬ ]n¨v»³Un n¶pw 0.1 {Kmw tdUnbw t¢mssdUv AhÀ thÀXncn-s¨-Sp-¯p.• 1910 Bb-t¸mtg¡pw IqSnb Af-hn tdUnbw Hä¡v thÀXncn-s¨-Sp-¡mpÅ sshZKv[yw tacn BÀPn¨p Ign-ªn-cp¶p.
  25. 25. • ]n¨vs»³Un n¶pw ip²-amb tdUnbw thÀXn-cn-s¨-Sp-¡m-pÅ cmk-{]-{In-b-bpsS t]äâv kz´-am-¡m³ tacn B{K-ln-¨n-Ã.• imkv{X-k-aq-l-¯nv Cu hnZy kz´-am-Is« F¶m-W-hÀ B{K-ln-¨-Xv.
  26. 26. •1906þ Hcp IpXn-c-h−nb-]-I-S-¯n ]nb-dn-Iyqdn ac-W-a-S-ªp.•tdUn-tbm-B-IvSohv hnIn-c-W-§Ä [mcm-f-ambn GäXnmÂ]nbdn ZpÀ_-e-m-bn-cps¶¶vDuln-¡ps¶-¦nepw A]-ISwD−m-bXv AXp-sIm-−mWvF¶-Xnv hyà-amb sXfn-shm¶pw CÃ.
  27. 27. • ]nb-dn-bpsS acWw tacnsb hÃmsX XfÀ¯n.• Kth-j-W-¯n ebn-¨- Xp-sIm-−p-am-{X-amWv B ZpJ-¯n n¶pw A-hÀ Ic-I-b-dn-b-Xv.
  28. 28. • tkmÀ-t_m-¬ kÀh-I-em- im-e-bn ]nb-dn-sb BZ- cn-¡p-¶-Xnpth−n D−m- ¡s¸« s{]m^-k-À ]Zhn 1906  tacn¡p ÂIn.• A§s tacn tkmÀ-t_m- Wnse BZy hn-Xm- s{]m-^-k-dm-bn.
  29. 29. ]nb-dn-bpsS t]cn ma-I-cWw sN¿- s¸« tdUnbw C³Ìn-«yq-«nsâ ]Wn-IÄ 1914 BKÌn ]qÀ¯o-I-cn¨p.{^©p-K-h¬saân n¶pÅ [-k-lm-b-t¯msS nÀ½n¨ C³Ìn-äyq«v {][m--ambpw sshZyimkv{X ta-J-e-bn-se Kth-j-W§Ä¡p th-−n-bmWv Øm]n-X-am-bXv.
  30. 30. •C³Ìn-äyq«v Bcw`n¨vA[nIw sshImsX H¶mwtemIalm-bp²w s]m«n-¸p-d-s¸«p.•AtXmsS C³Ìn-äyq-«nsetPmen-¡m-cpsS F®wsh«n-¡p-d-¡-s¸-«p.•tacnbpw aIÄ sFdnpwam{X-am-Wv A¶v C³Ìn-äyq-«n Ah-ti-jn-¨-Xv.
  31. 31. ]nb-dn-þ-tacn Iyqdn Z¼-Xn-IÄ¡v tm_Â k½m--t¯m-sSm¸w e`n¨ kzÀ®-sa-UÂ bp²-^−nte¡p kw`m-h sN¿pIbpwHcp gvkmbn tkh--a- p-jvSn-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
  32. 32. •bp²-cw-K¯vtUmIvSÀamÀ¡v D]-tbm-Kn-¡m³ k©-cn-¡p¶tdUn-tbm-{Km^n bqWn-äp-IÄ nÀ½n-¡m³ tacntXrXzw ÂIn.•A§s k©-cn-¡p¶20 bqWn-äp-I-f-S¡w 220bqWn-äp-IÄnÀ½n-¡-s¸-«p.
  33. 33. •]«m-f-¡msc NnIn-Õn-¡m³tdUn-b-¯n n¶p-−m-Ip¶ “dmtUm¬” nd¨sIm¨p Syq_p-IÄ tacnXs¶ tcn«v nÀ½n-¨vÂIn.•“enän Iyqdokv” F¶mWvCu Syq_p-IÄ Adn-b-s¸-«-Xv.
  34. 34. tUmIvSÀamÀ tcmKn-bpsS tcmK-_m-[n-X-ambtImi-§sf in-¸n-¡m³ Cu Syq_p-IÄ tImi- §-fpsS ASp¯v tNÀ¯phbv¡pw.
  35. 35. •1918  bp²w Ah-km-n-¨-t¸mÄ tacn Xsâ a¡-fmbsFdn-tâbpw Cuhn-tâbpwH¸w Gsd mÄ sNe-hgn¨p.•c−p aq¶p hÀj-¯nvtijw ]mco-knse C³Ìn-äyq-«n Xncn-s¨¯n XsâtdUnbw Kthj-W-§-fnÂapgpIn.
  36. 36. •tdUn-b-hp-am-bpÅ nc-´-c-k-¼À¡w A]-I-S-am-sW¶vtacn-¡-dn-bn-Ãm-bn-cp-¶p.•tdUn-tbm-B-IväohvsFtkm-tSm-¸p-IÄ AS-§nb Syq_p-IÄ tacn tai-h-en-¸n kq£n-¡p-Ibpwt]m¡-än sIm−p--S-¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-¶p.
  37. 37. tdUn-b-hp-am-bpÅnc-´-c-k-¼À¡waqew 1911 Bb-t¸m-tg¡pw tacn ISp¯hr¡-tcm-K-¯n--Sn-s¸-«p.
  38. 38. kpc-£m-kw-hn-[m--§Ä H¶p-an-Ãm¯ Hcp sjUn-emWv tacnKth-j-W-{]-hÀ¯--§Ä sNbvXn-cp-¶-Xv.
  39. 39. • Cu hnIn-c-W-§Ä aqew D−m- Ip¶ A¹m-ÌnIv Ao-anb F¶ tcmKw _m[n-¨-tXmsS tacnbpsS BtcmKyw Ap- Znw £bn¨p h¶p.• tacn ssIImcyw sNbvXn-cp¶ t]¸-dp-IÄ t]mepw hfsc A]-I-S-Im-cn-I-fm-sW¶v Is−- ¯n-b-Xp-sIm−v seUvsse-n- §pÅ s]«n-I-fn-emWv C¶h kq£n-¨n-cn-¡p-¶-Xv.
  40. 40. 1934 Pqsse 4 v Ing-¡³ {^m³knseHcp km-täm-dn-b-¯n h¨vB al-¯mb Pohn-X-¯nv Xnc-Èoe hoWp.
  41. 41. • 1903þ^n-kn-Ivkn tm_ k½mw• 1911-þ-sI-an-kv{Sn-bn tm_ k½mw• 1903-þ-tUhn saU• 1904-þ-am-äyqkn saU• 1909-þ-F-en-b«v {Ik¬ saU• {^©v eoPn-b³ Hm^v HmWÀ• t]m-f−nse tem t]mfn-sS-Ivn-Iv, s]mkvm³ kÀh-I-em-im-e, {Iqt¡mhv PmKn-sb-tÃm-Wn-b³ - kÀh-I-em-im-e, hmgvk t]mfn-sS-IvnIv F¶n-h-bpsS HmW-ddn tUmIvS-tdäv
  42. 42. • 1935-þ-hmgvkm tdUnbw C³Ìn-äyq-«nsâ ap¶n amUw Iyqdn-bpsS {]Xna• 1967þ amUw Iyqdn-bpsS HmÀ½bv¡v hmgvk-bn ayqkn-bw.• tdUn-tbm-B-IvSo-h-X-bpsS bqWn-änv Iyqdn F¶p t]cp ÂIn.• Atäm-an-IvkwJy 96 DÅ aqe-I-¯nv Iyqdnbw F¶p t]cp ÂIn.• Iyqssd-äv, kvtImtkmhv kvssIäv, Ipt{]m-kvtIm-tkmhvkv kvssIäv F¶nh bptd-nbw [mXp-¡Ä¡p ÂInb t]cp-IÄ.• {^m³knsâ Ìm¼v, ]gb 500 {^m¦v tm«v, mW-b-§Ä Ch-bn amUw Iyqdn-bpsS Nn{Xw.
  43. 43. • tm_Âk½mw tSnb BZy hn-X. • c−p taJ-e-I-fn tm_ k½mw tSnb Htc Hcp hnX. • tkmÀ-t_m-¬ kÀh-I-em-im-e-bnse BZy hnXm s{]m^-kÀ. • ]mcokv ]m´n-tbm-Wn-te¡v tijn-¸p- IÄ amä-s¸« BZy hnX. F¶n«pw {^©v kb³kv A¡m-Uan tacn¡v AwKXzw ÂIn-bn-Ã.hnX Bb-Xp-sIm-−p-am-{Xw.
  44. 44. bps-kvtImbv¡v th−n yq kbânÌv amK-kn³ 2009  S-¯nb thms«-Sp-¸n imkv{X-¯nÂGähpw Bth-iw-sIm-Ån-¡p¶ hn-X-bmbn sXc-sª-Sp-¡-s¸-«Xv aäm-cp-ambn-cp¶n-Ã. amUw Iyqdn Xs¶.
  45. 45. am-hnI aqey-§-fpsS DZm-¯-am-Xr-I. {]Xn-_-²-X-bpÅ imkv{X-K-th-j-I. ASn-bp-d¨ kmaq-ly-t_m-[w. efn-X-amb Pohn-X-ssi-en. hn-X-I-fpsS hgn-Im-«n.am-h-cm-in-¡v PohnXw _en-bÀ¸n¨ t]mcmfn.
  46. 46. amUw Iyqdn- F-s¶¶pwap¡v Bth-ihpw amXr-Ibpw Bbn-cn-¡s«.

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