ck-X{´hÀjw 2011tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-j¯v
ap-jy-i-co-c-¯nse    ck-X{´w   Ah-X-cWw X¿m-dm-¡n-bXv   ]T--tI-{µw, sIm«m-c-¡-c.
ap-jy-i-cocwHcp k©-cn-¡p¶ BhÀ¯--]-«nI  ½psS Npäp-]m-Sp-w ImWs¸-Sp¶     aqe-I-§Ä Xs¶-bmWv      ½psS ico-c-¯nepw.
i-co-c-¯nse aqe-I-§Ä             3% 2% 2%       10%18%                                    65%       HmIvknP³   ImÀ_¬   ssl...
i-co-c-¯nse aqe-I-§Ä
aqe-I-§fpsS [À½w              FÃnpw96.5 % hpw                            tkmUnbw              ]ÃnpwHmIvkn-P³              ...
k´p-en-Xm-hØ• Ab-Unsâ Ipdhv þ ssXtdm-bn-Unsâ {]hÀ¯-  s¯ _m[n¡pw þ amµyX• {]mb-amb-h-cn tkmUnbw Ipdhv þ ]n¨pw  t]bpw ]dbpw...
`£Ww         ImÀt_m-ssl-t{Uäv             `£Ww       t{]m«o³     sImgp¸v
• hmb apX ae-ZzmcwZl-w     hsc 5þ6 aoäÀ          of-¯n-epÅ          Øe¯mWv          Zl--{]-{InbbpsS          BZy L«-§Ä.  ...
hmb-bn• `£Ww Danocpw tNÀ¯v Nh-¨-c-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p.• Hcp Znhkw H¶c enä-tdmfw Dan-oÀ.• Dan-ocnse Assa-tekv F¶ F³sskw A¶-  Ps¯ am...
s]cn-Ìm-fn-knkv
Bam-ibw   A[n-I-apÅ shÅw        `£-Wt¯mSv   Ie-cmsX hf-hnsâ      DÄh-i-¯p-IqSn          (Nn-{X-¯n          CS-Xp-`m-Kw)ts...
Bam-ib¯n• Bam-i-b-¯n [mcmfw hkvXp-¡Ä DÂ]m-Zn-¸n-  ¡-s¸-Sp-¶p.• Kmkv{Sn³, ayq¡kv F¶n-h-bvs¡m¸w Hcp Znhkw  1 þ 1.5 enäÀ ss...
{]hÀ¯--§Ä• `£-Ws¯ Iq«n-¡-eÀ¯p-¶pþa-kn-ep-I-fpsS  ]¦v.• F³ssk-ap-I-fpsS klm-b-t¯msS t{]m«o³,  yq¢nIv Bkn-Uv, sImgp¸v Ch-bps...
_nþ12 sâ BKn-cWw• hnäm-an³ _n-þ12 sâ BKn-c-W-¯nv klm-bn-  ¡p-¶ Kmkv{Snsâ DÂ-]m-Z-w th−-{X-bnÃm-¯-  h-cn _n-þ12 sâ Ipd-hp-...
hb-än Hcp Fcn¨n• Bam-i-b-¯nse HCL sâ PH c−v B-Wv.• Akn-Un-än¡v Ign-¡p¶ sPeq-kn t]mepÅ  Aâm-kn-Up-IÄ, `£Ww Zln¨p Ignªv  ...
`£-Whpw acp¶pw• hb-än `£-W-ap-Å-t¸mÄ Bkn-Up-Ifpw  D−m-Ipw.• Nne Bâo-_-tbm-«n-¡p-I-tfbpw (DZm: Bw]n-  kn-en³) Bkn-Up-IÄ in...
Icfpw ]m³{Inbmkpw• sImgp¸v shÅ-¯n ebn-¡n-Ã. IcÄ DÂ]m-Zn-  ¸n-¡p¶ ss_ sImgp-¸ns shÅ-¯n Ie-  ¡p¶ Hcp {]{Inb (Emulsificati...
sNdp-Ip-S   Icfpw ]m³{In-bmkpw nÀ½n-¡p¶F³ssk-ap-IÄ sNdp-Ip-S-ensâ BZy-`m-K-amb Untbm-Un--¯n-te-¡mWv F¯n-t¨-cp-¶Xv.
Ht«sd F³ssk-ap-IÄsNdp-Ip-S-en-te-bvs¡-¯p¶ F³ssk-ap-IÄ  –   Amino-Peptidases  –   Di-Peptidases  –   Tri-Peptidases  –   Su...
F³sskw ^mIvS-dn-IÄ1. hmbn           Salivary amylase2. Bam-i-b-¯n     Gastric acid3. sNdp-Ip-S-en   trypsin, chymotryps...
Zl--¯nsâ ck-X{´w•    `£Ww Zln-¸n-¡p-¶Xv ssls{Um-ssfkv     sNbvXmWv.    1.   A¶-Ps¯ efn-X-amb ]©-km-c-I-fm-¡pw.    2.   t{]...
F³ssk-ap-I-fpsS ]Wn
sNdp-Ip-S-enÂt{]m«o³,ImÀt_m-ssl-t{U-äv,^mddn Bkn-Uv,hnäm-anpIÄ,an-d-ep-IÄ               XpS-§n-b-h-sbÃmw             sNdp-...
h³Ip-S• h³Ip-S-en Zlw S-¡p-¶n-sÃ-¦nepw Zln-  ¡msX _m¡n-h-¶-hsb _mIvSo-cn-b-IÄ Zln-  ¸n-¡p-¶p. hmX-I-§Ä D−m-Ip-¶p.• h³Ip-...
Zl--]m-X-bnÂHmtcm-bn-S-t¯bpwPH Dw AhnsSsNe-hn-Sp¶ka-bhpw
DuÀtÖmÂ]m-Zw• `£Ww Zln¨v cà-¯n IeÀ¶p Ign-  ªm cà-¯n sh¨pS-¡p¶ Nne {]{In-  b-Ifpw IqSn Bsb-¦nte DuÀtPm-Xv]m-Zw  ]qÀ®-am-...
skÃp-emÀ Zlw  ¥qt¡m-kns ATP X·m-{X-I-fmbn        amän Ign-bp-t¼mÄshÅhpw ImÀ_¬ssU-Hm-IvsskUpw     am{X-amWv _m¡n-bm-hp-I.
• cmk-{]-{In-b-I-fn-eqsS D−m¡n-sb-Sp¯  DuÀPw AUn-tm-kn³ ss{S t^mkvt^äv F¶  ATP X·m-{XIfmbn IcpXn h¡p-¶p.• DuÀPw Bh-iy-ap-Å...
amen-y-nÀ½mÀPw     • IcÄ     • hr¡     • Xz¡v
[À½-§Ä                          IcÄ• t{]m«o³ kwtÇjWw• ss¥t¡m-Pn³ kw`-cWw• tlmÀt½m¬ nÀ½mWw• sImf-kvt{SmÄ kwtÇjWw• Zl-s¯ klm...
BtcmKyapÅ IcÄ
knsdmknkv _m[n¨t¸mÄ
B¡-tlm-fnsâ Afhv   •   hntZ-i-aZyw þ 42.8%   •   Nmcmbw þ 35%   •   _nbÀ þ 4%   •   ssh³ þ 6%   •   IÅv þ 4%   •   A-[n-I...
DÅn-se-¯p¶ Nmcmbw_nbÀ: 4% x 12 Hu¬kv      = 0.48 Hu¬kv B¡-tlmÄssh³: 12% x 4 Hu¬kv      = 0.48 Hu¬kv B¡-tlmÄhnkvIn: 40% x...
kw`-hn-¡p-¶Xv• B¡-tlmÄ Unssl-t{Um-Pn-ss-kn§v  F³ssk-ansâ (ADH) {]hÀ¯--^-e-ambn  F¯-tmÄ Ak-ämÂUn-ssl-Um-Ip-¶p.• Ak-ämÂUn-s...
A]-ISw• lrZ-b-kv]-µ--¯nsâ nc¡v IqSp-I, aw ]nc-  «Â, OÀ±nÂ, A[n-I-amb ip²o-I-cWw F¶n-h-  h-bvs¡ms¡ ASn-ªp-Iq-Sp¶ Ak-ämÂUn- ...
hr¡-IÄ
[À½-§Ä• cà-k-½À±w nb{´n-¡p-I.• Ce-Ivt{Sm-sse-äp-Isf nb-{´n-¡p-I.• Bkn-Uv-þ-s_bvkv Xpew ne-nÀ¯p-I.• bqdn-b, Atam-Wnbw Ch-bp...
s^vtdm-Wp-IÄHcp hr¡-bn 13 e£w s^vtdm-Wp-IÄ.        BsI ofw 160 In-ao.
• hn{ia ka-b¯v Hcp ann-«n 1.2  enäÀ càw Acn-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶p.• Hcp Znhkw 1750 enäÀ• CXn n¶pw ann-«n 125 anÃo  enäÀ shÅw Acn-...
Xz¡v
Hcp NXp-c{i sk:- aoädn• 100-þ600 tkzZ{KÙn-IÄ.• Chbv¡v aWn-¡q-dn 3 enäÀ, Znhkw 24 enäÀ,  hnbÀ¸v D−m-¡m-m-Ipw. ¶mbn hnbÀ¯m...
[À½-§Ä• kv]Ài-w, NqSv, XWp-¸v, aÀ±w, thZ F¶nh  Ap-`-h-th-Zy-am-¡m³.• sImgp-¸n-tâbpw shÅ-¯n-tâbpw kw`-c-W-  tI{µw• hnäm-an³...
izkw
izkmfn(apIÄ`mKw)  [À½-§ÄizmktIm-i-¯n-te-¡pÅ hgn.aWw Xncn¨dn-bm-pÅ kwhn-[mw.s]mSn-]-S-e-an-ÃmsX hmbp-hns Acn-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶p.hm...
izkmfn(Iogv`mKw)[À½-§ÄLarynx: `£-Whpw hmbphpw AXm-Xnsâ hgn-I-fn-eqsS IS-¶p-t]m-Im³ klm-bn-¡p-¶p. i_vZwD−m¡p¶-Xnv klm-bn-¡p...
BÂhn-tbmÄ                               70 Zi-e£w                             BÂhn-tbm-fp-IÄ                             7...
à hmbp• hmbp-hn 21% HmIvkn-P³. 5% D]-tbm-Kn¡pw.  ]pd-t¯¡v hnSp¶ hmbp-hn 16% HmIvkn-P³.• ]cn-k-cs¯ hmbp aWn-¡q-dn 3 {]mh...
BÀ_n-knbpw lotam-t¥m-_npw
HmIvkn-P³ hml-IÀ
Xe-t¨mdv
nb-{´W Øm-§Ä
ck-X-{´-abw• Xe-t¨m-dn-p-Ån Hcp sk¡³Un Hcp  e£w cmk-{]-hÀ¯--§Ä.• mUn-I-fn-eqsS ktµ-i-§Ä IS-¶p-t]m-Ip-  ¶Xpw tkmUnbw, s]m...
mUokÔn-I-fnseck-X{´ ktµ-i-hm-l-IÀ• Acetylcholine (ACh) þ GtIm-]w• Dopamine (DA) þ kwXr]vXn• Serotonin (SER) þ kt´mjw• Gamm...
ktµ-i-hm-l-I-cpsS [À½-§ÄIqSn-bm       Ipd-ªm tZjyw          hnjmZw                         cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§-fpsS            ...
Ap-`-h-§Ä {][mw• Nn´-Ifpw Ap-`-h-§fpw Cu cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§-  fpsS nÀ½mW-s¯ kzm[on¡pw. (]ncn-ap-dp-  ¡-apÅ Pohn-X-km-l-Ncyw tmtd...
Blm-chpw Xe-t¨mdpwkntdm-t«m¬, tUm]an³ Ch-bpsS nÀ½m-W-¯nv     Ah-iy-amb {Sn]vä-^m³ DÅ Blmcw          hnjm-Zs¯ CÃm-Xm-¡pw.
^mÌv ^pUv   kntdm-t«m¬, tUm]-an³nÀ½m-Ws¯ klm-bn-¡p-¶n-Ã.
kvtl-¯nsâ ck-X{´w• tamlw þ Lust             • Estrogen, Testosterone• aXn-{`aw þ Infatuation   • Phenyl Ethyl Amine (PEA) ...
½fpw cmkn-I-§fpw• ½sf ASn-apSn kzm[o-n-¡p¶ Ht«sd cmk-]-  ZmÀ°-§sf ½Ä ]cn-N-b-s¸-«p.• Cu cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§Ä D−m-Ip-¶-Xn ½psS  `...
AXn-m   à `£-Ww     à Nn´  à Ap-`-h-§ÄHs¡bpÅ Hcp kaqlw  D−m-tI-−-Xp-−v.
Manushya Sareerathile Rasathantram
Manushya Sareerathile Rasathantram
Manushya Sareerathile Rasathantram
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Manushya Sareerathile Rasathantram

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This presentation prepared by Mr. KVS Kartha on behalf of Parishath Padanakendram Kottarakkara for Science Classes Campaign in connection with the International Year of Chemistry.

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Manushya Sareerathile Rasathantram

  1. 1. ck-X{´hÀjw 2011tIcf imkv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-j¯v
  2. 2. ap-jy-i-co-c-¯nse ck-X{´w Ah-X-cWw X¿m-dm-¡n-bXv ]T--tI-{µw, sIm«m-c-¡-c.
  3. 3. ap-jy-i-cocwHcp k©-cn-¡p¶ BhÀ¯--]-«nI ½psS Npäp-]m-Sp-w ImWs¸-Sp¶ aqe-I-§Ä Xs¶-bmWv ½psS ico-c-¯nepw.
  4. 4. i-co-c-¯nse aqe-I-§Ä 3% 2% 2% 10%18% 65% HmIvknP³ ImÀ_¬ ssl{UP³ ss{SP³ ImÕyw aäpÅh
  5. 5. i-co-c-¯nse aqe-I-§Ä
  6. 6. aqe-I-§fpsS [À½w FÃnpw96.5 % hpw tkmUnbw ]ÃnpwHmIvkn-P³ t¢mdn³ ImÕywImÀ-_¬ ico-c-¯nse Pe-¯nsâ t^mkv^-dkvssl{U-P³ Afhv Xpew sN¿m³ss{S-P³ s]m«mkyw Ccp¼v lrZ-b-kv]-µ--¯nsâ ssXtdm-bnUv lotam-t¥m-_n³ nc¡v nb-{´n-¡p-¶-Xnv tlmÀtam¬ nÀ-½m-W-¯nv nÀ½m-W¯nv - Ab-Un³ CXnsems¡ D−m-Ip¶ ]ÃnvsNdnb Gä-¡p-d-¨n t]mepw ^vfqdn³ ½psS Xmfw -sX-än¡pw.
  7. 7. k´p-en-Xm-hØ• Ab-Unsâ Ipdhv þ ssXtdm-bn-Unsâ {]hÀ¯- s¯ _m[n¡pw þ amµyX• {]mb-amb-h-cn tkmUnbw Ipdhv þ ]n¨pw t]bpw ]dbpw cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§-fpsS k´p-en-Xm-h-Ø-bmWv mtam-cp-¯-cpw.
  8. 8. `£Ww ImÀt_m-ssl-t{Uäv `£Ww t{]m«o³ sImgp¸v
  9. 9. • hmb apX ae-ZzmcwZl-w hsc 5þ6 aoäÀ of-¯n-epÅ Øe¯mWv Zl--{]-{InbbpsS BZy L«-§Ä. • AXy´w AXn-i-bn-¸n¡p¶ {]hÀ¯--§-fmWv Hmtcm nan-jhpw ChnsS S-¡p¶Xv
  10. 10. hmb-bn• `£Ww Danocpw tNÀ¯v Nh-¨-c-¡-s¸-Sp-¶p.• Hcp Znhkw H¶c enä-tdmfw Dan-oÀ.• Dan-ocnse Assa-tekv F¶ F³sskw A¶- Ps¯ amÄt«mkv F¶ ]©-km-c-bm¡n amäp¶p.• Bam-i-b-¯n-se¯n sslt{Um-t¢m-dnIv A¾-hp- ambn tNcp-¶-Xp-hsc Assa-tekv {]hÀ¯n-¨p- sIm-−n-cn-¡pw.• Dan-oÀ Xp¸n-¡-f-bm-p-Å-X-Ã.
  11. 11. s]cn-Ìm-fn-knkv
  12. 12. Bam-ibw A[n-I-apÅ shÅw `£-Wt¯mSv Ie-cmsX hf-hnsâ DÄh-i-¯p-IqSn (Nn-{X-¯n CS-Xp-`m-Kw)tsc sNdp-Ip-S-en-te¡v IS-¡pw.
  13. 13. Bam-ib¯n• Bam-i-b-¯n [mcmfw hkvXp-¡Ä DÂ]m-Zn-¸n- ¡-s¸-Sp-¶p.• Kmkv{Sn³, ayq¡kv F¶n-h-bvs¡m¸w Hcp Znhkw 1 þ 1.5 enäÀ sslt{Um-t¢m-dnIv BknUpw.• t{]m«o-p-Isf Zln-¸n-¡p¶ F³ssk-ap-Isf Dt¯-Pn-¸n-¡p-I-bmWv sslt{Um-t¢m-dnIv BknUnsâ tPmen.• Bam-i-b-`n-¯n-IÄ I«n-bpÅ ayq¡kv (I-^w) sIm−v s]mXn-ªn-«n-Ãmbn-cp¶p F¦n iàn-tb- dnb BknUv Bam-i-b`n¯n-I-tfbpw Zln-¸n-¨p-I- f-bpam-bn-cp-¶p þ s]]vänIv AÄkÀ.
  14. 14. {]hÀ¯--§Ä• `£-Ws¯ Iq«n-¡-eÀ¯p-¶pþa-kn-ep-I-fpsS ]¦v.• F³ssk-ap-I-fpsS klm-b-t¯msS t{]m«o³, yq¢nIv Bkn-Uv, sImgp¸v Ch-bpsS Zlw Bcw-`n-¡p-¶p.• Bam-i-b-¯nÂn¶pw B¡-tlmÄ, shÅw, ent¸m-^n-enIv Bkn-Uv, hnäm-an³ _nþ12 F¶nh BKn-cWw sN¿-s¸-Sp-¶p.• H¸w Nne _mIvSo-cn-b-Isf in-¸n-¡p-¶p.
  15. 15. _nþ12 sâ BKn-cWw• hnäm-an³ _n-þ12 sâ BKn-c-W-¯nv klm-bn- ¡p-¶ Kmkv{Snsâ DÂ-]m-Z-w th−-{X-bnÃm-¯- h-cn _n-þ12 sâ Ipd-hp-−mIpw.• C¯-c-¡mÀ _n-þ12 sâ Ipd-hp- ]cn-l-cn-¡m³ yqtdm-_-tbm¬ t]mepÅ _n-þ12 Kpfn-I-IÄ Ign-¨n«v Hcp Imcy-hp-an-Ã. Kmkv{Sn-n-ÃmsX AXpw BKn-cWw sN¿m-m-In-Ã.• Hcp hÀjw 300 tImSn cq]-bpsS Kpfn-I-IÄ shdpsX aq{X-¯n-eqsS jvS-am-Ip-¶p.
  16. 16. hb-än Hcp Fcn¨n• Bam-i-b-¯nse HCL sâ PH c−v B-Wv.• Akn-Un-än¡v Ign-¡p¶ sPeq-kn t]mepÅ Aâm-kn-Up-IÄ, `£Ww Zln¨p Ignªv _m¡n-bpÅ HCL s nÀÆo-cy-am-¡m-p-Å-Xm- Wv.• CXv `£Ww Ign-ªp-Ss Ign-¨mtem ?• Aâm-kn-Up-IÄ `£-W-¯nv Ac-a-Wn-¡qÀ apt¼m `£Ww Ignªv 2þ3 aWn-¡qÀ Igntªm am{Xw.
  17. 17. `£-Whpw acp¶pw• hb-än `£-W-ap-Å-t¸mÄ Bkn-Up-Ifpw D−m-Ipw.• Nne Bâo-_-tbm-«n-¡p-I-tfbpw (DZm: Bw]n- kn-en³) Bkn-Up-IÄ in-¸n-¡pw.• AXn-m `£Ww Ign-ªÃ, shdpw hb-än- emWv Ah Ign-t¡-−-Xv.
  18. 18. Icfpw ]m³{Inbmkpw• sImgp¸v shÅ-¯n ebn-¡n-Ã. IcÄ DÂ]m-Zn- ¸n-¡p¶ ss_ sImgp-¸ns shÅ-¯n Ie- ¡p¶ Hcp {]{Inb (Emulsification) am{XamWv sN¿p-¶-Xv.• t{]m«o-³, ImÀt_m-ssl-t{U-äv, sImgp¸v, yq¢nIv BknUv Chsb Zln-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn ]m³{In-bmkv DÂ]m-Zn-¸n-¡p¶ F³ssk-ap- IÄ {][m ]¦p-h-ln-¡p¶p.• ]m³{In-bmkv DÂ]m-Zn-¸n-¡p¶ tkmUnbw ss_ImÀ_-tWäv Bkn-Up-Isf nÀho-cy-am- ¡p-¶p.
  19. 19. sNdp-Ip-S Icfpw ]m³{In-bmkpw nÀ½n-¡p¶F³ssk-ap-IÄ sNdp-Ip-S-ensâ BZy-`m-K-amb Untbm-Un--¯n-te-¡mWv F¯n-t¨-cp-¶Xv.
  20. 20. Ht«sd F³ssk-ap-IÄsNdp-Ip-S-en-te-bvs¡-¯p¶ F³ssk-ap-IÄ – Amino-Peptidases – Di-Peptidases – Tri-Peptidases – Sucrases – Maltase – Lactase – Di- Saccharidases – Tri- Saccharidases – Lipase – Nucleases
  21. 21. F³sskw ^mIvS-dn-IÄ1. hmbn Salivary amylase2. Bam-i-b-¯n Gastric acid3. sNdp-Ip-S-en trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, aminopeptidase dipeptidase Pancreatic amylase Pancreatic lipase
  22. 22. Zl--¯nsâ ck-X{´w• `£Ww Zln-¸n-¡p-¶Xv ssls{Um-ssfkv sNbvXmWv. 1. A¶-Ps¯ efn-X-amb ]©-km-c-I-fm-¡pw. 2. t{]m«o-p-Isf Aantm Bkn-Up-I-fm-¡pw. 3. sImgp-¸ns ^mänBkn-Up-w ¥nk-tdm-fp-am¡pw. 4. yq¢nIvBkn-Uns yq¢n-tbm-ssS-Up-I-fm¡pw.
  23. 23. F³ssk-ap-I-fpsS ]Wn
  24. 24. sNdp-Ip-S-enÂt{]m«o³,ImÀt_m-ssl-t{U-äv,^mddn Bkn-Uv,hnäm-anpIÄ,an-d-ep-IÄ XpS-§n-b-h-sbÃmw sNdp-Ip-S-en h¨p Xs¶ BKn-cWw sN¿-s¸-Spw.
  25. 25. h³Ip-S• h³Ip-S-en Zlw S-¡p-¶n-sÃ-¦nepw Zln- ¡msX _m¡n-h-¶-hsb _mIvSo-cn-b-IÄ Zln- ¸n-¡p-¶p. hmX-I-§Ä D−m-Ip-¶p.• h³Ip-S-en n¶pw hnäm-an³ _n, sI Ch-tbm- sSm¸w IqSp-X shÅ-t¯bpw cà-¯n-te¡v BKn-cWw sN¿-s¸-Sp-¶p.• shÅw o¡w sN¿-s¸« tijw Ah-in-jvS- §Ä ]pdw-X-Åp-¶p.
  26. 26. Zl--]m-X-bnÂHmtcm-bn-S-t¯bpwPH Dw AhnsSsNe-hn-Sp¶ka-bhpw
  27. 27. DuÀtÖmÂ]m-Zw• `£Ww Zln¨v cà-¯n IeÀ¶p Ign- ªm cà-¯n sh¨pS-¡p¶ Nne {]{In- b-Ifpw IqSn Bsb-¦nte DuÀtPm-Xv]m-Zw ]qÀ®-am-Iq.• ¥qt¡m-kn n¶pw ATP X·m{X D−m-Ip¶ Hcp coXn.• asäm¶v Ic-fnepw amwk-t]-in-I-fn-ep-sams¡ ss¥s¡m-Pn³ Bbn kq£n-¨p-h-¡p¶ coXn.
  28. 28. skÃp-emÀ Zlw ¥qt¡m-kns ATP X·m-{X-I-fmbn amän Ign-bp-t¼mÄshÅhpw ImÀ_¬ssU-Hm-IvsskUpw am{X-amWv _m¡n-bm-hp-I.
  29. 29. • cmk-{]-{In-b-I-fn-eqsS D−m¡n-sb-Sp¯ DuÀPw AUn-tm-kn³ ss{S t^mkvt^äv F¶ ATP X·m-{XIfmbn IcpXn h¡p-¶p.• DuÀPw Bh-iy-ap-Å-t¸mÄ sslt{Um-fn-kn- eqsS Cu X·m-{Xsb hnL-Sn-¸n-¨mWv ico-c- ¯nv Bh-iy-amb DuÀPw D−m¡p¶-Xv.
  30. 30. amen-y-nÀ½mÀPw • IcÄ • hr¡ • Xz¡v
  31. 31. [À½-§Ä IcÄ• t{]m«o³ kwtÇjWw• ss¥t¡m-Pn³ kw`-cWw• tlmÀt½m¬ nÀ½mWw• sImf-kvt{SmÄ kwtÇjWw• Zl-s¯ klm-bn-¡Â• RBC in-¸n-¡Â• hnj-a-b-h-kvXp-¡-fpsS nÀ½mÀPw• B¡-tlmÄ hnL-Sw
  32. 32. BtcmKyapÅ IcÄ
  33. 33. knsdmknkv _m[n¨t¸mÄ
  34. 34. B¡-tlm-fnsâ Afhv • hntZ-i-aZyw þ 42.8% • Nmcmbw þ 35% • _nbÀ þ 4% • ssh³ þ 6% • IÅv þ 4% • A-[n-IrX aZyw þ ambw þ sa¯-tmÄ
  35. 35. DÅn-se-¯p¶ Nmcmbw_nbÀ: 4% x 12 Hu¬kv = 0.48 Hu¬kv B¡-tlmÄssh³: 12% x 4 Hu¬kv = 0.48 Hu¬kv B¡-tlmÄhnkvIn: 40% x 1.25 Hu¬kv = 0.50 Hu¬kv B¡-tlmÄ
  36. 36. kw`-hn-¡p-¶Xv• B¡-tlmÄ Unssl-t{Um-Pn-ss-kn§v F³ssk-ansâ (ADH) {]hÀ¯--^-e-ambn F¯-tmÄ Ak-ämÂUn-ssl-Um-Ip-¶p.• Ak-ämÂUn-ssl-Uv Unssl-t{Um-Pn-ss-kn§v F³ssk-ansâ (ALDH) {]hÀ¯--^-e-ambn Ak-ämÂUn-ssl-Uv Ak-tääm-Ip-¶p.• ]s£ Gjy³hwi-P-cn 50% t]cnepw ALDH {]hÀ¯--£-a-a-Ã.
  37. 37. A]-ISw• lrZ-b-kv]-µ--¯nsâ nc¡v IqSp-I, aw ]nc- «Â, OÀ±nÂ, A[n-I-amb ip²o-I-cWw F¶n-h- h-bvs¡ms¡ ASn-ªp-Iq-Sp¶ Ak-ämÂUn- sslUv tlXphm-Ip-¶p. CXv Ic-fnv tISp-h-cp- ¯p-¶p.• aZy-]mw nÀ¯m³ ÂIp¶ ssUkÄ^ndmw ALDH sâ {]hÀ¯-s¯ XS-bp-I-bmWv sN¿p- ¶-Xv. aZy-]mw nÀ¯m-pÅ B{K-lhpw COm-i-ànbpw CÃm¯ BÄ¡v CXp ÂIp- Ibpw ho−pw IpSn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p¶Xv IqSp- X A]-I-S-am-Wv.
  38. 38. hr¡-IÄ
  39. 39. [À½-§Ä• cà-k-½À±w nb{´n-¡p-I.• Ce-Ivt{Sm-sse-äp-Isf nb-{´n-¡p-I.• Bkn-Uv-þ-s_bvkv Xpew ne-nÀ¯p-I.• bqdn-b, Atam-Wnbw Ch-bpsS hnkÀPw.• shÅw, ¥qt¡m-kv, Aantm BknUv Ch ho−pw BKn-cWw sN¿Â.• ImÂkn-t{SmÄ, sdn³, Fdn-t{Xm-t]m-bn-än³ F¶o tlmÀtam-Wp-I-fpsS nÀ½m-Ww.
  40. 40. s^vtdm-Wp-IÄHcp hr¡-bn 13 e£w s^vtdm-Wp-IÄ. BsI ofw 160 In-ao.
  41. 41. • hn{ia ka-b¯v Hcp ann-«n 1.2 enäÀ càw Acn-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶p.• Hcp Znhkw 1750 enäÀ• CXn n¶pw ann-«n 125 anÃo enäÀ shÅw Acn-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶p. aWn-¡q-dn 7.5 enäÀ, Znhkw 180 enäÀ þ tkmUn-bw, s]m«m-kyw, t¢mdn³ þ th−Xv FSp-¡p-¶p.• Hcp Znhkw Hcp enäÀ aq{Xw ]pdw-X- Åp¶p.
  42. 42. Xz¡v
  43. 43. Hcp NXp-c{i sk:- aoädn• 100-þ600 tkzZ{KÙn-IÄ.• Chbv¡v aWn-¡q-dn 3 enäÀ, Znhkw 24 enäÀ, hnbÀ¸v D−m-¡m-m-Ipw. ¶mbn hnbÀ¯m 500-þ600 an: enäÀ shÅw ]pd-¯p-t]mIpw.• 100-þ900 kvtl {KÙn-IÄ.• ¥nk-ssd-Up-IÄ, ^män Bkn-Up-I-Ä, hmIvkv FÌ-dp-IÄ, sImf-kvt{SmÄ F¶nh AS-§nb sImgp¸v ico-c-¯nv BIm-chpw `wKnbpw ÂIp-¶p.• sXmen hc−v DW§n t]mIm-Xn-cn-¡m³.
  44. 44. [À½-§Ä• kv]Ài-w, NqSv, XWp-¸v, aÀ±w, thZ F¶nh Ap-`-h-th-Zy-am-¡m³.• sImgp-¸n-tâbpw shÅ-¯n-tâbpw kw`-c-W- tI{µw• hnäm-an³ Un bpsS kwtÇ-j-Ww þ shbn sImÅWw þ saem-n³ bp hn civan-I-fn n¶pÅ kwc-£-W-¯nv þ {]Xn-tcm-[-ti-jn.• ico-tcm-jvam-hnsâ {Iao-IcWw• ameny hnkÀPw
  45. 45. izkw
  46. 46. izkmfn(apIÄ`mKw) [À½-§ÄizmktIm-i-¯n-te-¡pÅ hgn.aWw Xncn¨dn-bm-pÅ kwhn-[mw.s]mSn-]-S-e-an-ÃmsX hmbp-hns Acn-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶p.hmbp-hns Pemw-i-hpw NqSpap-ÅXm¡p-¶p.i_vZ-¯n-pÅ kv]µ Ad-IÄ.
  47. 47. izkmfn(Iogv`mKw)[À½-§ÄLarynx: `£-Whpw hmbphpw AXm-Xnsâ hgn-I-fn-eqsS IS-¶p-t]m-Im³ klm-bn-¡p-¶p. i_vZwD−m¡p¶-Xnv klm-bn-¡p-¶p.Trachea: izmk-tIm-i-¯n--I-t¯-¡pw ]pd-t¯-¡p-apÅ hmbp k©m-c-¯nvBronchi: c−mbn ]ncn-bp-¶p.Lungs: hmbp BÂhn-tbm-fp-I-fn-te-¡v.
  48. 48. BÂhn-tbmÄ 70 Zi-e£w BÂhn-tbm-fp-IÄ 70 NXp-c{i aoäÀ hnkvXoÀ®w•Hcp ann-«n 6 enäÀ HmIvkn-P³.•izmk-tImi tcmK-§Ä IqSp-¶p. ImcWw izkn-¡m³ à hmbphnÃ. Figure 10.8A
  49. 49. à hmbp• hmbp-hn 21% HmIvkn-P³. 5% D]-tbm-Kn¡pw. ]pd-t¯¡v hnSp¶ hmbp-hn 16% HmIvkn-P³.• ]cn-k-cs¯ hmbp aWn-¡q-dn 3 {]mhiyw F¦nepw amd-Ww, 6 {]mhiy¯n IqS-cp-Xv.• Xd -hn-kvXoÀ®-¯nsâ 25% hmXnÂ+P¶Â - hn-kvXoÀ®w. shân-te-äÀ+Xmg¯pIqsS hmbp IS-¡m-pÅ kwhn-[m-w.• knna Xotb-äÀ, kvIqÄ þ Dbcw IqSp-X thWw
  50. 50. BÀ_n-knbpw lotam-t¥m-_npw
  51. 51. HmIvkn-P³ hml-IÀ
  52. 52. Xe-t¨mdv
  53. 53. nb-{´W Øm-§Ä
  54. 54. ck-X-{´-abw• Xe-t¨m-dn-p-Ån Hcp sk¡³Un Hcp e£w cmk-{]-hÀ¯--§Ä.• mUn-I-fn-eqsS ktµ-i-§Ä IS-¶p-t]m-Ip- ¶Xpw tkmUnbw, s]m«mkyw Ch-bpsS {]hÀ¯--¯m-em-Wv.• cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§-fmWv ½psS kz`mhw nÀ®- bn-¡p-¶Xv þ tZjyw, k¦-Sw, kwXr-]vXn, kt´m-jw, Nn´, ssewKn-IX ............
  55. 55. mUokÔn-I-fnseck-X{´ ktµ-i-hm-l-IÀ• Acetylcholine (ACh) þ GtIm-]w• Dopamine (DA) þ kwXr]vXn• Serotonin (SER) þ kt´mjw• Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA)• Endorphins (END) þ hyàn_Ô-§Ä• Glutamate (GLU)
  56. 56. ktµ-i-hm-l-I-cpsS [À½-§ÄIqSn-bm Ipd-ªm tZjyw hnjmZw cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§-fpsS Gä-¡p-d-¨n-emWv ½psS kz`m-hs¯ nÀ®-bn-¡p-¶-Xv. Ipd-ªm Akw-Xr]vXn
  57. 57. Ap-`-h-§Ä {][mw• Nn´-Ifpw Ap-`-h-§fpw Cu cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§- fpsS nÀ½mW-s¯ kzm[on¡pw. (]ncn-ap-dp- ¡-apÅ Pohn-X-km-l-Ncyw tmtd-]n-n-^-dnsâ DXv]m-Zw Iq«pw)• Ap-`-h-§-sfÃmw dn¡mÀUv sN¿-s¸-Sp-¶p.• à Ap-`-h-§Ä à hyànsb krjvSn ¡p¶p.
  58. 58. Blm-chpw Xe-t¨mdpwkntdm-t«m¬, tUm]an³ Ch-bpsS nÀ½m-W-¯nv Ah-iy-amb {Sn]vä-^m³ DÅ Blmcw hnjm-Zs¯ CÃm-Xm-¡pw.
  59. 59. ^mÌv ^pUv kntdm-t«m¬, tUm]-an³nÀ½m-Ws¯ klm-bn-¡p-¶n-Ã.
  60. 60. kvtl-¯nsâ ck-X{´w• tamlw þ Lust • Estrogen, Testosterone• aXn-{`aw þ Infatuation • Phenyl Ethyl Amine (PEA) Dopamine, Norepinephrine• sshIm-cnI kvtlw • Oxytoxin– cuddling emotional attachments chemical • Vasopressin –monogamy chemical• KmV -ku-lr-Z-_Ôw Intimate relationships • Endorphin
  61. 61. ½fpw cmkn-I-§fpw• ½sf ASn-apSn kzm[o-n-¡p¶ Ht«sd cmk-]- ZmÀ°-§sf ½Ä ]cn-N-b-s¸-«p.• Cu cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§Ä D−m-Ip-¶-Xn ½psS `£-Ww, Nn´, Ap-`-h-§Ä, ImgvN-¸m-Sp-IÄ FÃmw henb ]¦p-h-ln-¡p-¶p-−v.• cmk-]-ZmÀ°-§Ä ½psS kz`m-hs¯ kzm[o- n-¡p-t¼mÄ ½psS `£-Whpw Nn´bpw Ap-`-h-§fpw ImgvN-¸m-Sp-Ifpw cmk-]-ZmÀ°- §fpsS nÀ½m-W-s¯bpw kzm[o-n-¡p-¶p.
  62. 62. AXn-m à `£-Ww à Nn´ à Ap-`-h-§ÄHs¡bpÅ Hcp kaqlw D−m-tI-−-Xp-−v.

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