6 Social Migration


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6 Social Migration

  1. 1. Social Migration
  2. 2. The Specification
  3. 3. What is migration? ♦ Migration is the movement of peoples from one area to another. ♦ Social migration is the movement of people due to social reasons.
  4. 4. Multicultural Societies ♦ Often created by migration, as ethnic groups move into one country. ♦ Examples – Nigeria, there are over 300 different ethnic groups. The main ones are Hausa-Fulani, Ibo and Yoruba. Hausa-Falini are Muslim and have tried to opress people in the north, encouraging people to migrate.
  5. 5. Multicultural Societies – USA has long been known for its diverse ethnic groups. For example there are more Irish people in the USA than in Ireland. Only 1% of the people of the USA were indigenous people in 2000. – Many Hispanic people have moved from Mexico, Puerto Rico and Cuba in the last 40 years as they have been attracted by the higher living standards in the USA and better job prospects.
  6. 6. Multicultural Societies – Like many multicultural societies, USA is unevenly distributed. Black people live in the South and East, and mainly in urban areas, famously Harlem in NYC. – Hispanics are concentrated near the Mexican border and in Florida, where Spanish is widely spoken language. – Where the racial groups are integrated there is often violence as in Los Angeles, where Hispanic, Armenian and black gangs fight. Harlem, NYC
  7. 7. Multicultural societies ♦ These are examples of social migration, as people move to areas where they feel comfortable with people of the same background. This can be also related to on a smaller scale for places like Sparkbrook and Sparkhill in Birmingham, which have large non-white populations.
  8. 8. Multicultural Societies ♦ However, these societies can induce further social migration as minority groups often feel discriminated against, and sometimes flee to escape oppression. President Mugabe’s regime in Zimbabwe for instance, and the apartheid in South Africa caused many people to flee these countries. Soweto riots in S.Africa during the aparthied caused people to flee
  9. 9. Issues and attitudes ♦ Britain has a fairly relaxed view towards migrants as immigration made up more than half of Britain's population growth from 1991 to 2001, and migrants are vital to the countries economic success. Many migrants moved for economic oppurtunities, family links and from fear of a political regime. 7.535.755.144.55People born abroad as % of total 4,301,2803,153,3752,751,1302,390,759People born abroad 57,103,33154,888,74453,550,27052,559,260All people 2001199119811971 People living in Britain
  10. 10. Issues and Attitudes ♦ However immigration has become a political issue, with parties such as the Conservative party wishing to tighten immigration control. This maybe because the number of low-skilled jobs in the UK has dropped, and therefore there is less jobs for migrants. Also some people claim that asylum seekers are often just economic migrants in disguise.
  11. 11. Conclusion To conclude, it seems that the attitudes towards migrants and multiculturalism tend to reflect the extent to which the host country encourages and welcomes the opportunity for cultural diversity, or attempts to minimise the difference in culture.
  12. 12. Social Migration (pull factors) ♦ Migration to spread a religion ♦ Migration to reunite with family, friends, etc. who have previously migrated ♦ Migration to spread a political philosophy, such as Marxism, democracy, etc. ♦ Migration to find personal freedom, to live a certain lifestyle, or to hold certain beliefs, not necessary as the result of persecution
  13. 13. Case Study of Social Migration; ISRAEL •One of the most important - and difficult - issues facing the teams negotiating the Israeli-Palestinian peace process is the issue of the "right of return" for the Palestinians. During the Arab-Israeli war that followed the creation of Israel in 1947, many Palestinians fled their homes. Another wave left the West Bank following the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, most of them to settle in neighboring Jordan.
  14. 14. •Palestinians claim that they have the right to return to their ancestral homes that are now within the internationally recognized borders of the state of Israel, citing a number of resolutions by the United Nations. The Israelis disagree, arguing that, among other things, Israel simply could not absorb all of the people who could potentially be permitted to return. This issue is emotionally charged and difficult to resolve, but its resolution is essential to finding a lasting solution to the Israeli-Arab conflict.