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The Effects Of The Crisis Upon International Migration


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The Effects Of The Crisis Upon International Migration

  1. 1. The effects of the crisis upon International Migration Flows
  2. 2. Worst Affected Economically <ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>Eurozone </li></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Indochina (South Eastern Asia) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Immediate Effects <ul><li>Return migration of some migrant workers to </li></ul><ul><li>their homelands as a reaction to unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>or lower earnings. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced levels of migration from origin countries to destination countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts by governments to persuade or force unemployed migrant workers to leave. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced remittances from migrants to their home communities, leading to possible hardship in communities dependent on such transfers. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased hostility to migrants among majority populations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Growing unemployment in construction, manufacturing and services <ul><li>Migrants represent a huge part of the labor force for these branches. </li></ul><ul><li>United States Construction Industry Unemployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2007 - 7.6% March 2009: 22.3% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Spain, non-EU migrant unemployment jumped to 25% in the period of 2007-2009 </li></ul><ul><li>The United Arab Emirates are planning to lay off up to 4 per cent of the construction-related workforce in 2009, including highly-skilled employees such as managers and analysts. </li></ul><ul><li>In China’s manufacturing sector an estimated 10 million workers have lost their jobs – many of them rural-urban migrants. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Native workers blame migrant workers for taking jobs. <ul><li>Strikes in England, Scotland, Italy and Portugal. </li></ul><ul><li>The explosive character of the issue determines national governments to take swift action. Example: Prime Minister </li></ul><ul><li>Gordon Brown of « British jobs for British workers ». </li></ul><ul><li>Many destination countries, instead of providing protection to migrants – use them as «safety valves» to reduce unemployment and free up jobs for citizens. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Governments unveil anti-migration policies <ul><li>Policy-makers have tried to regulate immigration inflows by: </li></ul><ul><li>1) adjusting numerical limits; </li></ul><ul><li>2) strengthening labour market tests; </li></ul><ul><li>3) limiting possibilities to change status and to renew permits; </li></ul><ul><li>4) applying supplementary conditions to non-discretionary flows; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(family reunification and asylum seekers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5) promoting return migration. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Governments unveil anti-migration policies <ul><li>The United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, Spain, and Australia introduced lower quotas, stricter immigration requirements, and voluntary return programs for both low- and highly-skilled migrants. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Russian Federation, a decree adopted in December 2008 reduced the annual migrant workers quota in order to retain jobs for Russian workers. </li></ul><ul><li>In Japan, a program encouraging Latin American migrant workers of Japanese descent to return to their countries of origin was instituted in April 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>The Czech Republic, laid-off migrants were offered air-fare and €500 (US$704) to return to the origin country, but they were not prevented to return to the destination country in the future. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Governments unveil anti-migration policies <ul><li>British Government has tightened up the entry criteria to reduce the number of non-EU entrants. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish government has offered financial incentives for migrants to return to their origin country but those who accept it have to turn in their work and residence cards to the authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan repatriated 2000 Filipino workers as soon as the crisis began. </li></ul><ul><li>The South Korean Ministry of Labor decided to reduce the number of work permits to 34,000 for the whole of 2009 (1/3 of the usual) </li></ul><ul><li>The Thai government announced in January 2009 that it would not renew migrants’ registrations for the year. </li></ul><ul><li>The Malaysian government halted entries of migrant workers and ordered employers to lay off migrant workers first. </li></ul>
  9. 9. What should be done? <ul><li>Modified labor migration policies in countries of destination on encouraging voluntary return. </li></ul><ul><li>New admissions need to take account of labor demand in specific sectors and occupations. </li></ul><ul><li>The application of labor laws to migrant workers should be closely monitored. </li></ul><ul><li>Labor laws and labor migration policies should incorporate provisions of international labor standards ratified by the concerned countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Social protection measures for migrant workers need to be strengthened, and arrangements made for the portability of the social security contributions. </li></ul>
  10. 10. What should be done? <ul><li>The crisis provides an opportunity for origin countries to expand efforts to create decent work opportunities at home and to incorporate returning migrants into these efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>Remittance flows, which offer a huge amount of tax inflow – must be offered better conditions of communication due to migrant reluctance of sending money through official channels due to a lack of confidence in the stability of banking systems. </li></ul>