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International migration lesson 6


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International migration lesson 6

  1. 1. International Migration Lesson 6
  2. 2. International Migration• The movement of people across national borders, such as between Germany and Poland.• Immigrant – movers into a country• Emigrants – the people moving out of a country
  3. 3. Two main reasons:• The receiving countries prefer high skilled immigrants• The influence of multinational companies, as they expands, develops their own internal markets for skilled migrants. Big companies want freedom to shift employees from country to country as demand requires.
  4. 4. Advantages Disadvantages • A reduction in • Brain drain - losing your unemployment as more most educated and jobs become available skilled workers. • Remittances are sent home • A shortage of workers, from migrants living abroad especially during SOURCE periods of harvestCOUNTRY • Migrants may return home with new skills • An increase in the(LOSING) dependency ratio as • Increased political ties with economically active migrants host country migrate • Reduced pressure on • Separation of families. education and healthcare This may include system children losing one or both of their parents • Reduction in BR and TFR as many migrants are in the • Creates dependency on reproductive age range remittances
  5. 5. Advantages Disadvantages • Brain gain - Receiving • There may be an increase in educated and skilled workers. racial tensions between newly arrived migrants and local population • As well as trained migrants there will be as source of •The increased population will cause greater pollution and HOST cheap migrants (low paid) to fill overcrowdingCOUNTRY manual jobs.(RECEIVING) •There may be a rise in •There will be increased cultural unemployment when migrants diversity as migrants arrive with accept lower paid positions, their own culture of food, making more of the local population unemployed. dance, language, etc. •There will be an increase pressure •Growth of local market with on services. This may include increase of population schools and hospitals, but also electricity and water supply. If migrants are legal, then an increase in tax revenues for the •Growth of black market and government informal economy if migrants are
  6. 6. Case Study: International voluntary migrationGERMANY: Turkish migrant workers
  7. 7. Sakaltutan – Central Turkey• A village of 900 inhabitants• A poor isolated settlement dependent upon agriculture• High BR and limited resources – overpopulated• Too many males to work• The demand for craftsmen was limited
  8. 8. Pforzheim industrial town in Germany• An industrial town near Stuttgart• Extra labour needed was obtained• Many of the ‘guest workers’ (initially in agriculture / farmers) turned to relatively better paid jobs in factories & construction
  9. 9. Migration - Mexico to the USA
  10. 10. What is the situation?• There is a 2000km border between USA and Mexico.• 1 million + Mexicans migrate to the USA every year.• Illegal migration is a huge problem for USA and Mexico• US Border Patrol guard the border and try to prevent illegal immigrants• 850,000 were caught in 1995 and were deported
  11. 11. Push Factors Pull FactorsPoor medical facilities - 1800 Excellent medical facilities -per doctor 400 per doctor Well paid jobs - GNP =Low paid jobs - (GNP = $24,750)$3750) Adult literacy rates 99% -Adult literacy rates 55% - good education prospectspoor education Life expectancy 76 yrsProspects Many jobs available for lowLife expectancy 72 yrs paid workers such as Mexicans40% Unemployed
  12. 12. What are the impacts on the USA• Illegal migration costs the USA millions of dollars for border patrols and prisons• Mexicans are seen as a drain on the USA economy• Migrant workers keep wages low which affects Americans• They cause problems in cities due cultural and racial issues• Mexican migrants benefit the US economy by working for low wages• Mexican culture has enriched the US border states with food, language and music• The incidents of TB has been increasing greatly due to the increased migration
  13. 13. What are the impacts on Mexico?• The Mexican countryside has a shortage of economically active people• Many men emigrate leaving a majority of women who have trouble finding marraige partners• Young people tend to migrate leaving the old and the very young• Legal and illegal immigrants together send some $6 billion a year back to Mexico• Certain villages such as Santa Ines have lost 2/3 of its inhabitants