3 Economic Migration


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3 Economic Migration

  1. 1. Economic Migration
  2. 2. Specification <ul><li>The relationship between international migration and multi-cultural societies. </li></ul><ul><li>Major forms of international migration. </li></ul><ul><li>Using case studies look at examples of economic, social, refugee and illegal movements. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is economic migration? <ul><li>Economic migration is where people move to other countries to benefit from their greater economic opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally this is from LEDCs in the developing south to MEDCs in the affluent north. </li></ul><ul><li>The main areas for economic migration are: Mexico to the USA, north Africa to Europe, and from territories to their former mother country. </li></ul>
  4. 4. International Migration <ul><li>This chart shows the number of migrants entering and leaving the 6 continents. </li></ul><ul><li>Above the line indicates migrants are entering the country which suggests they are moving here for employment, and wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Below the line indicates people are moving out of these areas for economic and health reasons. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Case Study : Mexico  USA
  6. 6. Mexico  USA <ul><li>In 1980’s 3.5 million migrants entered the USA from Mexico of which 700,000 are legal, 2.3 million were legalised and 500,000 were illegal. </li></ul><ul><li>The huge wealth gap between Mexico and the neighbouring USA promotes this movement. </li></ul><ul><li>People move to look for casual employment in farming in the southwest. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hopes and Fears <ul><li>Many economic migrants find the reality is very different from their dreams. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people experience hostility from their new countrymen and feel that they are treated as second class citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Many immigrants work in low paid jobs that no one else want to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Also there is little protection from unscrupulous employers who take advantage of these illegal workers, in the terms and conditions they offer. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, many economic immigrants live in appalling conditions and again find themselves in the poverty trap they sought to leave behind. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Push Factors <ul><li>The problems of an area that encourage people to leave are known as push factors. Examples include: </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of employment </li></ul><ul><li>Low pay, and poor standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>Poor housing </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of educational opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of medical facilities and services </li></ul><ul><li>War and/or persecution </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pull Factors <ul><li>The attractions of a area that migrants move to are called pull factors. They include </li></ul><ul><li>Better employment opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Better education chances, including higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Better medical care </li></ul><ul><li>Higher wages, and improved standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>The bright lights, that is entertainments like pubs and clubs </li></ul>
  10. 10. Case Study : North Africa  Europe
  11. 11. North Africa  Europe <ul><li>Migration has changed in Africa over the last 100 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Migration has changed from a mainly male based population to a more balanced gender percentage. </li></ul><ul><li>Migration has become more commercial with less labour seeking migrants and more entrepreneurs. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Problems with Migration <ul><li>AIDS pandemic in Africa creates a problem in Europe with migrants passing on the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>African migrants are adopting more sophisticated, daring, and evasive methods to elude increasingly tight border controls and enter countries in the developed North. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain drain in Africa as the educated elite are migrating into Europe leaving Africa with fewer professionals. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Resolutions in Africa <ul><li>African countries are encouraging regional migration so that certain professionals can be distributed evenly across the countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The free movement of people in Africa has been introduced to help promote this theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Providing more jobs to reduce the levels of unemployed persons in Africa and more incentive to stay in their mother country. </li></ul><ul><li>Confronting leaders to provide economic, social, and political stability within their country. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Attitudes to Migration <ul><li>Migrants may not have equal opportunities in obtaining employment, and may be subject to discrimination. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost for housing, educating, and unemployment causes resentment within tax paying residents. </li></ul><ul><li>The government policy of constructing ‘safe centres’ causes racial unrest. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude to migration depends on economic stability of host country. </li></ul><ul><li>If in period of recession, migrants are accused of taking jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>However when in period of economic growth migrants residents do not worry about migrants. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Multicultural Societies <ul><li>This is a result of migration of various ethnic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>In most countries there is at least one minority group which results in prejudice and discrimination towards this group. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin colour is a visible distinction between people, but they vary in terms of language, religion and culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Multicultural societies may be a result of an oppression in the migrant’s mother country causing migration to another country. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Multicultural Society in South Africa <ul><li>For a long time the white minority in South Africa was in political and economic control. </li></ul><ul><li>The black population making up 75% had virtually no say in the running of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1946 the policy of apartheid was introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>This meant that mixed race were now considered “coloureds”. </li></ul><ul><li>Indians were second class and blacks had no rights outside their homeland. </li></ul><ul><li>Nelson Mandela was released from prison in 1994 and more ethnic stability followed. </li></ul><ul><li>However there are still many black people living in poverty and high unemployment. </li></ul>