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Examines the modern context of migration

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  1. 1. Migration<br />
  2. 2. Migration<br />The movement from one place to another<br />People have always moved<br />Diversity in US a result of movement of peoples over time. <br />Migration strongly influenced by social, economic, military and political developments. <br />
  3. 3. What is Migration?<br />Movement of people within a country’s geographical boundaries and across national boundaries. <br />Refugees- migrants, but unable or unwilling to return because, or fear of, persecution<br />Displaced Person- forced to leave home because of violence, conflict, persecution but has not crossed international border<br />
  4. 4. Migration<br />Even though Transcontinental migration has increased…<br />Most migration occurs in relatively limited geographical area.<br />Rwandans to Tanzania, Mexicans to US.<br />Africa highest # of migrants (33%), North America (21%), Europe (17%), Asia (15%), Latin America (11%)<br />
  5. 5. Migration<br />Men more likely to migrated than women.<br />Often needed for labor<br />Gender roles often restrict women’s mobility<br />Rural-to- rural migration (India-from one farm to another)<br />Rural-to-urban- Urban area provides opportunity; From farm to city<br />Urban-to-rural- Relieve pressures on major urban centers<br />Seasonal migration- People move with seasonal demand for labor; i.e. harvests, tourism<br />
  6. 6. Causes of Migration<br />Push Factors: Factors that motivate people to leave homes; human rights violations, violence, instability<br />Pull Factors: Factors that motivate people to leave: employment, higher wages, educational opportunities<br />
  7. 7. Push Factors<br />Overpopulation-Threatens resources and causes overcrowding.<br />Natural Disasters, environmental problems, and famines. (Many are manmade problems)<br />Competitive Exclusion- Land taken by large agro-export companies and increase land prices; small subsistence farmers forced to migrate. <br />
  8. 8. Forced Migration<br />Act of evicting those who are hostile to the government.<br />Cultural Revolution- Chinese destroyed anything that challenged communism; Detained Tibetan monks, destroyed temples, desecrated Buddhist scriptures, punished those who practiced religion.<br />Chinese encourage migration of Han to Tibet; Tibet is losing culture;<br />Low Humming chants of Tibetan monks now compete with loud Chinese disco music<br />
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  15. 15. Violence and Conflict<br />Many leave Colombia because of 4 decades of violence; most are young and highly educated.<br />Ethnic conflict & civil wars in Africa=4 million refugees<br />500,000 Kurds in West<br />Vietnamese to Hong Kong and US<br />2 million Iraqi refugees in Syria & Jordan; 2 million internally displaced (2008)<br />
  16. 16. Palestine<br />Between 1947-1948- 800,000 Palestinians became refugees; Israel says Palestinians leave was voluntary<br />3.5 million Palestinian refugees; 1 million in refugee camps; many born & raised in camps<br />Palestinians have moved & been expelled in Lebanon, North Africa, Kuwait & Syria.<br />No resolve in sight. <br />
  17. 17. Pull Factors<br />Economic Opportunities= greater access to health care, consumer services, modern way of life<br />Rural-Urban migration=move away from agriculture<br />Companies need for inexpensive and reliable labor<br />Also results in human smuggling<br />
  18. 18. Impact on Poor Countries<br />Migration deprives region of its valuable human resources<br />Brain Drain- Migration of highly educated and trained people from poor countries to rich countries<br />Brain Overflow- Inability of poor countries to use highly trained individuals<br />Remittance- Money migrant workers send home<br />
  19. 19. Impact on Rich Countries<br />Inexpensive labor=economic growth<br />Keep inflation low by keeping wages from rising rapidly<br />Social tensions (France and Muslims)<br />Large # of Latino’s in US (34 million) altering American political and social institutions<br />