Developed vs. Developing countries• When we look at the presentday world, we see that not allcountries share the sameamount of success. Obviously,people in different parts ofthe world do not share thesame standard of living.• Recently countries in theworld have been divided intotwo categories:– Developed Countries (wealthy,successful)– Developing Countries (not sosuccessful)
The Human Development Index rates countries on a number of factorsincluding poverty, literacy, education, health, and equality.
Developed NationsDeveloped Nations tend to share someimportant characteristics.• Economic Success. They are industrializedcountries with modern infrastructures.They tend to have a fair distribution ofwealth and lack widespread poverty• Social Conditions. Almost all its peopleare literate and education is available toeveryone. People in developed countrieshave easy access to health care so thatcommon illnesses and epidemics do notcause serious health risks.
Developed Nations (continued)• Developed Nations as awhole, have lesspopulation thanDeveloping Nations butstill consume largepercentages of theworld’s resources.• Population in developedcountries also grows at amuch slower rate than indeveloping countries.• Developed Nations aremainly located north ofthe developing countriesof the world.
Developing CountriesDeveloping Countries share characteristics that areopposite of the developed countries.• Their economies are not as successful, wealth isconcentrated in a few people’s hands and there iswidespread poverty• Education opportunities are not as great, and largepercentages of the population are often illiterate.• Health care is not easily accessible making diseaseand epidemics serious problems.
Developing Countries (Continued)• Developing countries makeup the majority of theworld’s population and theyhave seen their populationgrow at a much faster rate.• Geographically, developingcountries tend be in thesouthern parts of the world.Developing countrieshave young people makeup a larger percentage oftheir population
Environmental ChallengesEconomic development andthe rapid growth ofpopulation are having animpact on the environment.• Deforestation: fromirresponsible development• Loss of habitat• Global climate change• Pollution – air and waterThese problems have madehealth problems worse indeveloping countries.
Social Challenges• Poverty• Poor health• Illiteracy• Famine• Migration
More Problems: Immigration• Movement of different groups of people have presentedanother challenge for the present day world.• Refugees have been forced to leave their country due to warsor disasters. They are not always welcomed in foreigncountries.• European countries have slowed their natural birth rate andwould see their population decrease if it were not forimmigration. The loss of population has created a laborshortage for some jobs.• European and US cities have seen an influx of “guest workers”who typically perform low paying jobs that Europeans orAmericans refuse to do. The influx of these people thoughhas caused tension and racism in different parts of Europe.
Other Challenges: Technology• The development of computer technology and the internethas made it easier for parts the world to connect with eachother.• However, this technology is not equally accessible by allpeople in the world, which has created a technology gap thatleaves poorer people and part of the world lagging behind.• Other technology challenges deal with possibly having toomuch technology. Genetic engineering and issues such ascloning allow us to possibly create perfect forms of life. Thisraises the issues of bioethics and how involved we should getin controlling nature.
Ethnic and Religious Conflicts• Ethnic and religious conflicts have taken placeor are currently taking place in the followingregions:– Middle East– Northern Ireland– Balkans– Horn of Africa– South Asia
The Middle East: Arab-Israeli Conflict• Muslim Arabs resent the creation ofthe Jewish State of Israel. This countrywas formed with land previously heldby Britain but populated by Arabs(British Palestine).• Jews believe that Israel is their properhomeland and the only way they canbe safe from oppression.• Muslim Arabs view Israel as land takenfrom Arabs.• Israel has received support from the USand become a dominant military powerin the region.• This has led a number of Muslim Arabsto resent the US as well.
Northern Ireland• Northern Ireland is a part of theUnited Kingdom that has religioustension between Irish Catholics whowant to be independent andProtestants (unionists) who want toremain part of the UK.• The Irish Republican Army is aparamilitary group that has oftenattacked British buildings andestablishments to try and gainfreedom. Although they haverecently renounced violence, peacein the area is very unstable.
The Balkans• With the collapse ofcommunism in E. Europeseveral ethnic groups in theBalkan Peninsula have foughtwars to increase their powerand influence in the area.• Serbs – Eastern Orthodox• Croats and Slovenians –Catholic• Bosnia and Herzegovina –Muslims• Atrocities committed inthese wars make peace veryunstable.• Example - Bosnian Serbsused ethnic cleansing to getrid of the Muslims in the area
African Conflicts• Sudan/Darfur: Divisions in thecountry between Arab and AfricanMuslims in the North versustraditional and Christian Africans inthe South has led to a long civil warthat has left thousands massacred ordying of starvation.• Sierra Leone: Brutal civil war has leftthe country in a horrible state ofpoverty even though it containssome of the richest diamond minesin the world.• Somalia: Warlords compete forcontrol of area. Desperate situationhas led many to resort to criminalacts such as piracy.
Asian Conflicts• Several ongoing conflicts in Asia also threatenworld peace.– North Korea v. South Korea: stemming from endof WWII continuing from Cold War– Pakistan v. India: mainly over the area of Kashmir– China v. Taiwan: stemming from the Chinese CivilWar
Hope for the Future• With all of the problemsfacing people of the world,many have sought the keyto success that can helpstruggling countriesovercome.• A common argumentsuggests that a free-market economy creates alarge middle class andgenerates wealth. Ascountries becomewealthier they tend to seemore political freedomsand rights granted to theirpeople.Free Market Economies are seen asthe way to help people of the worldgain wealth and political rights
Success Stories: The “Asian Tigers”• Taiwan and South Korea serveas examples that support thisargument.• Over the last 50 years thesecountries have grown intoregional economic powers andare now often referred to asthe “Asian Tigers.”• Political rights for the peoplein these countries have alsoincreased.