Welcome




A D V A N C E D F lig h t
            C o n t r o ls


                     Presented by

               2LT K...
Learning Objectives
At the end of this course, you will be able to…

    v   Describe four basic aerodynamic forces and th...
Four Basic Forces




                    3
Three Axes of Movement




 Lateral        Longitudinal   Vertical
  Pitch             Roll        Yaw
Elevators        Ai...
Standard Flight Controls
                                  Modern Complex Wings




1   WINGLET
    Keeps high pressure ai...
Standard Flight Controls
                                    Modern Complex Wings




2   LOW-SPEED AILERON
    Wider for ...
Standard Flight Controls
                                  Modern Complex Wings




3   HIGH-SPEED AILERON
    Narrow for ...
Standard Flight Controls
                                 Modern Complex Wings




4   FLAP TRACK FAIRING
    Houses the f...
Standard Flight Controls
                                   Modern Complex Wings




5   KRUGER FLAP
    Hinged leading ed...
Standard Flight Controls
                                    Modern Complex Wings




6   SLATS
    Sliding leading edge f...
Standard Flight Controls
                                     Modern Complex Wings




7/8   THREE-SLOTTED FLAPS
      Inc...
Standard Flight Controls
                                 Modern Complex Wings




9/10   SPOLIERS
       Disrupt airflow ...
Secondary Effects
                                      Adverse Yaw

               Left aileron
            down increase...
Secondary Effects
                              Adverse Yaw



 Rudder can be                  By producing a
     used ei...
Secondary Effects
                               Adverse Yaw


     FRISE-TYPE                  This
AILERONS pivot       ...
Secondary Effects
                                                  Adverse Bank

  Since rudders
         generally      ...
Alternative Controls
                                                     Stabilators




Subsonic aircraft, like the C-5,...
Alternative Controls
                                                           Stabilators
                     ADVANTAGE...
Alternative Controls
                                                          Tailerons
                     ADVANTAGES
 ...
Alternative Controls
                                                    Spoilerons
              ADVANTAGES
       Very e...
Alternative Controls
                                            Ruddervators
            ADVANTAGES
 Reduces drag and wei...
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Advanced Aerodynamics

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Advanced Aerodynamics

  1. 1. Welcome A D V A N C E D F lig h t C o n t r o ls Presented by 2LT Kevin McNulty 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives At the end of this course, you will be able to… v Describe four basic aerodynamic forces and three movement axes of aircraft v Identify standard flight controls of modern aircraft v Describe some of the secondary effects of flight controls in use v Identify alternative flight controls of high performance or non-traditional aircraft v Describe the advantages and disadvantages of each type of alternative control 2
  3. 3. Four Basic Forces 3
  4. 4. Three Axes of Movement Lateral Longitudinal Vertical Pitch Roll Yaw Elevators Ailerons Rudder 4
  5. 5. Standard Flight Controls Modern Complex Wings 1 WINGLET Keeps high pressure air under the wing from spilling over the wingtip and robbing the tip of lift or creating drag and vortices 5
  6. 6. Standard Flight Controls Modern Complex Wings 2 LOW-SPEED AILERON Wider for increased lift; placed at wingtip for better control at slower speeds 6
  7. 7. Standard Flight Controls Modern Complex Wings 3 HIGH-SPEED AILERON Narrow for reduced drag; placed closer to fuselage to reduce overcontrol at higher speeds 7
  8. 8. Standard Flight Controls Modern Complex Wings 4 FLAP TRACK FAIRING Houses the flap extension mechanism since flaps separate from wing edge as they deploy 8
  9. 9. Standard Flight Controls Modern Complex Wings 5 KRUGER FLAP Hinged leading edge flap increases lift while slow, stowed while fast to reduce drag 9
  10. 10. Standard Flight Controls Modern Complex Wings 6 SLATS Sliding leading edge flap increases lift while slow, stowed while fast to reduce drag 10
  11. 11. Standard Flight Controls Modern Complex Wings 7/8 THREE-SLOTTED FLAPS Increases lift at slower speeds; increases stall speed; slotted configuration allows more surface area to be deployed 11
  12. 12. Standard Flight Controls Modern Complex Wings 9/10 SPOLIERS Disrupt airflow over the top of the wing to dump lift; also provides drag for airbraking 12
  13. 13. Secondary Effects Adverse Yaw Left aileron down increases LIFT on left This pulls the wing nose to the left, producing ADVERSE YAW But since aileron dips into high pressure air stream, it also increases DRAG on the left side of the plane RIGHT AILERON ROLL 13
  14. 14. Secondary Effects Adverse Yaw Rudder can be By producing a used either counteracting manually in a yaw force, the COORDINATED rudder can TURN or it can be linked to overcome aileron controls adverse yaw OVERCOMING ADVERSE YAW 14
  15. 15. Secondary Effects Adverse Yaw FRISE-TYPE This AILERONS pivot produces further back on equivalent their chord, dipping the drag in both leading edge of ailerons, the aileron into negating the high- adverse yaw pressure stream OVERCOMING ADVERSE YAW 15
  16. 16. Secondary Effects Adverse Bank Since rudders generally Pushing the rudder extend above to the right not only the aircraft's pulls the tail to the center of left and the nose to gravity, a torque the right, but it also is imparted to "spins" the aircraft the aircraft as if a left turn were resulting in an going to be made adverse bank Out of all the control inputs, rudder input creates the greatest amount of adverse effect. For this reason ailerons and rudder are generally used together on light aircraft 16
  17. 17. Alternative Controls Stabilators Subsonic aircraft, like the C-5, Supersonic, high-performance commonly use a horizontal fighters like the F-16 use a single, stabilizer and elevator fully-movable, stabilator. arrangement 17
  18. 18. Alternative Controls Stabilators ADVANTAGES Generate greater pitching moment with little effort One-piece design more aerodynamic at supersonic speeds (no hinge to generate shock wave) Increase lift in bank, allowing tighter turns for dogfighting DISADVANTAGES Require increased strength and Due to high tail loads, stabilators weight in empannage pivot about their aerodynamic Must be rigged to avoid center - this is the point at which the overcontrol tendancies pitching moment is constant regardless of angle of attack 18
  19. 19. Alternative Controls Tailerons ADVANTAGES Drastically improve maneuverability Flight control software or mechanical mixers can blend control inputs so that elevator and aileron functions can be performed by the same control surfaces DISADVANTAGES Complex design & control needed Expense, complexity and weight Stabilators always move up and make tailerons impractical for most down together. Tailerons can move applications in opposing directions to impart further roll. 19
  20. 20. Alternative Controls Spoilerons ADVANTAGES Very effective quickly Used in large aircraft like the B-52 to avoid flexing long wings excessively by using wingtip ailerons (ailerons must be near tips to be effective at low speed) DISADVANTAGES Add weight and complexity Spoilers dump lift from both wings or Net loss of lift serve as airbrakes. If they are Bumpy ride - harsh turns deployed individually (over the inside wing) in a turn to aid roll, they are spoilerons. 20
  21. 21. Alternative Controls Ruddervators ADVANTAGES Reduces drag and weight Keeps stabilizers out of wing air (F-117) or engine wash (Predator and Global Hawk) DISADVANTAGES Requires more complex control system Stresses empennage A V-tail serves the functions of during pitch and yaw elevators and rudders. And I promise it’s the last silly name. 21

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