Espiritu, Dacze Catherine O.
Paras, Kathleen Y.
Novida, Mary Grace D.
Neo Behaviorism is a behavior cannot be full
understood simply in terms of observable stimuli and
reactions. Neo behaviorism introduce mediating
variables into the behaviorist stimulus-response
- it is also been referred to as Sign Learning
Theory and is often unite between behaviorism
and cognitive theory
Tolman believed that learning is a cognitive process.
Learning involves forming beliefs and obtaining
knowledge about the environment and then revealing
that knowledge through
purposeful and goal-directed behavior.
Tolman’s system was called purposive
behaviorism because it studies behavior as it is
organized around purposes.
Learning is always purposive and goal-
Individuals act on beliefs, attitudes, changing
conditions, and they strive towards goals. Tolman saw
behavior as holistic, purposive, and cognitive.
Learning the location of reward. Once an individual has
learned where a given kind of reward is located, that
location can often be reached by means other than
those originally used.
Whenever learning goes on without its being
evident in performance at the time.
The concept of intervening variable
These are not readily seen but serve as
determinants of behavior.
Reinforcement not essential for learning
Tolman concluded that reinforcement is not
essential for learning, although it provides an
incentive for performance.
1. Learn by observing.
2. Learning can occur through observation alone,
without a change in behavior.
3. Cognition plays a role in learning.
4. Transition between behaviorism and cognitive
1. Contemporary Theory purposes that
reinforcement and punishment have indirect
effects on learning.
2. Reinforcement and Punishment influence
the result of individuals’ behavior that has
3. The expectation of reinforcement
influences cognitive processes.
1. Learning without performance
2. Cognitive processing during learning
4. Reciprocal causation
1. Students often learn a great deal by
simply observing other people.
2. Describing the consequences of behavior
can effectively increase the appropriate
behaviors and decrease the inappropriate
3. Modeling provides an alternative to
shaping for teaching new behaviors. Instead
of using shaping, which is operant
conditioning, modeling can provide a faster,
more efficient means for teaching new
4. Teachers and parents must model
appropriate behaviors and take care that
they do not model inappropriate behaviors.
5. Teachers should expose students to a
variety of other models. This technique is
especially important to break down traditional
FACILITATING LEARNING: A Metacognitive Process
OBE and Kto12
Maria Rita D. Lucas, Ph.D.
Brenda B. Corpuz, Ph.D. and Lorimar Publishing, inc.