The term “metacognition ” was coined by John
*according to Flavell (1979, 1987), metacognition
consist of both metacognitive knowledge and
metacognitive experiences or regulation.
- “ thinking about thinking” or “learning how to
• Refers to higher order thinking which
involves active awareness and control
over the cognitive processes engaged in
• METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE
- Refers to acquired knowledge about
cognitive processes, knowledge that can
be used to control cognitive processes.
3 Categories of metacognitive
- Includes how one views himself as a
learner and thinker.
- Knowledge of person variables refers to
knowledge about how human beings learn
and process information, as well as
individual knowledge of one’s own
- Includes knowledge about the nature of
the task as well as the type of processing
demands that it will place upon the
- Is about knowing what exactly needs to
be accomplished, gauging its difficulty and
knowing the kind of effort it will demand.
- Involves awareness of the strategy you
are using to learn a topic and evaluating
whether this strategy is effective.
-the awareness of specific strategies so
that you can keep your attention focused
on the topic or task at hand.
-is your awareness of memory strategies
that work best for you.
Omrod, includes the following in the
practices of metacognition.
Knowing the limits of one’s own learning and
Knowing what learning task one can realistically
accomplish within a certain amount of time
Knowing which learning strategies are effective
and which are not
Planning an approach to learning task that is
likely to be successful
Using effective learning strategies to process
and learning new material
Monitoring one’s own knowledge and
comprehension. In other words, knowing when
information has been successfully learned and
when its not
Using effective strategies for retrieval of
previously stored information.
Knowledge is said to be metacognitive if it is
keenly used in a purposeful manner to ensure
that a goal is met.
Huitt believes that metacognition includes the
ability to ask and answer the ff. types of question;
What di I know about this subject, topic, issue?
Do I know what I need to do now?
Do I know where I can go to get some information,
How much time will I need to learn this ?
What are some strategies and tactics that I can use to
Did I understand what I just heard, read or saw?
How will I know if I am learning at an appropriate rate?
How can I spot an error if I make one?
How should I revise my plan if its not working to my
- Researchers such as that of Fang and Cox
showed that metacognitive awareness was
evident in preschoolers and in students as
young as eight years old. Children already
may have the capacity to be more aware
and reflective of their own learning.
However, not may have been taught and
encourage to apply metacognition.
Teaching strategies to develop
Have students monitor their own learning and
Have students learn study strategies
Have students make predictions about information
to be presented next based on what they have read
Have students relate ideas to existing knowledge
Have students develop questions; ask questions of
themselves, about what’s going on around them.
Help students to know when to ask for help.
Show students how to transfer knowledge,
attitudes, values, skills to other situations or task.
NOVICE AND EXPERT LEARNERS
- In the last twenty years, cognitive psychologists
have studied the distinctions among learners in the
manner they absorb or process information.They
were able to differentiate expert learners from
novice learners.A very important factor that
separate these two types of learners mentioned is
metacognition. Expert learners employed
metacognitive strategies in learning .They were
more aware of their learning process as they read,
studied and did problem solving. Experts learners
monitored their learning and consequently adjusted
their strategies to make learning more effective.
Differences Between Novice and Expert Learners
Aspects of Learning Novice Learning Expert Learning
Knowledge in different
*have limited knowledge
in the different subject
*have a deeper
knowledge in different
subject areas because
they look for
things they learn
Problem solving *satisfied at just scratching
the surface; hurriedly gives
a solution to the problem
*first try to understand
the problem, look for
boundaries, and create a
mental picture of the
*employ rigid strategies
that may not be
appropriate to the task at
*design new strategies
that would be
appropriate to the task
*attempts to process all
information they receive
information to process;
able to breakdown