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Gagne’s Conditions of Learning


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Gagne’s Conditions of Learning

  2. 2. Gagne’s Principles
  3. 3. Gagne’s Principles 1. Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes. Gagne’s theory asserts that there are several different types or levels of learning. Furthermore, the theory implies that each different type of learning calls for different types of instruction.
  4. 4. Gagne’s Principles Gagne named five categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes. Distinct internal and external conditions are required for each type of learning. For instance, for cognitive strategies to be learned, there must be an opportunity for problem solving; to learn attitudes, the learner must be exposed to credible role model or arguments that are convincing and moving.
  5. 5. Five Categories of Learning
  6. 6. Five Categories of Learning Category of Learning Verbal Information Example of Learning Outcome Conditions of Learning Stating previous learned 1. Draw attention to materials such as facts, distinctive features by concepts, principles, and variations in print or procedures, e. g., listing speech. 14 learner-centered 2. Present information so psychological principles that it can be made into chunks. 3. Provide a meaningful context for effective encoding of information. 4. Provide cues for effective recall and generalization of information.
  7. 7. Five Categories of Learning Intellectual Skills: Discriminations, Concrete Concepts, Defined Concepts, Rules, Higher Order Rules Discriminations: 1. Call attention to Distinguishing objects, distinctive features. features or symbols, e. g., 2. Stay within the limits of distinguishing an even and working memory. an odd number 3. Stimulate the recall of previously learned Concrete Concepts: component skills. Identifying classes of 4. Present verbal cues to concrete objects, features the ordering or or events, e. g., picking combination of out all the red beads from component skills. a bowl of beads 5. Schedule occasions for practice and spaced Defined Concepts: review. Classifying new examples 6. Use a variety of of events or ideas by their contexts to promote definition, e. g., noting transfer. “she sells seashells” as
  8. 8. Five Categories of Learning Rules: Applying a single relationship to solve a class of problems, e. g., computing average monthly of a company Order Rules: Applying a new combination of rules to solve a complex problem, e. g., generating a balanced budget for a school organization
  9. 9. Five Categories of Learning Cognitive Strategies Employing personal 1. Describe or ways to guide demonstrate the learning, thinking, strategy. acting, and feeling, e. 2. Provide a variety of g., constructing occasions for concept maps of practice using the topics being studied strategy. 3. Provide informative feedback as to the creativity or originality of the strategy or outcome.
  10. 10. Five Categories of Learning Attitudes Choosing personal 1. Establish an actions based on internal expectancy of success states of understanding associated with the and feeling, e. g., desired attitude. deciding avoid soft drinks 2. Assure student and drinking at least 8 identification with an glasses of water admired human model. everyday. 3. Arrange for communication or demonstration of choice of personal action. 4. Give feedback for successful performance; or allow observation of feedback in the human
  11. 11. Five Categories of Learning Motor Skills Executing 1. Present verbal or performances involving other guidance to cue the use of muscles, e. the executive g., doing the steps of subroutine. the singkil dance 2. Arrange repeated practice. 3. Furnish immediate feedback as to the accuracy of performance. 4. Encourage the use of mental practice.
  12. 12. Gagne’s Principles 2. Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to be learned and a sequence of instruction. Gagne suggests that according to complexity: stimulus recognition, response generation, procedure following, use of terminology, discriminations, concept formation, rule application, and problem solving. The primary significance of the hierarchy is to identify prerequisites that should be completed to facilitate learning at each level. Prerequisites are identified by doing a task analysis of a learning/training task. Learning hierarchies provide a basis for the sequencing of instruction.
  13. 13. Gagne’s Principles 3. Events of learning operate on the learner in ways that constitute the conditions of learning. These events should satisfy or provide the necessary conditions for learning and serve as the basis designing instruction and selecting appropriate media. The theory includes nine instructional events and corresponding cognitive processes:
  14. 14. Gagne’s Principles (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Gaining attention (reception) Informing learners of the objective (expectancy) Stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval) Presenting the stimulus (selective perception) Providing learning guidance (semantic encoding) Eliciting performance (responding) Providing feedback (reinforcement) Assessing performance (retrieval) Enhancing retention and transfer (
  15. 15. Nine Instructional Events
  16. 16. Nine Instructional Events Event of Instruction 1. Gaining Attention Lesson Example/ Conditions of Learning Teacher tells learners how she has used PowerPoint in the classroom. Shows an example or a PowerPoint. Asks learners questions about using PowerPoint. Rationale Giving information validity. background creates The use of multimedia grabs the audience’s attention. Asking questions in the beginning creates an interactive atmosphere. 2. Informing the Teacher says, “Today we Learner of the are going to work on Objective using a multimedia presentation software, Make learners aware of what to expect so that they are aware and prepared to receive
  17. 17. Nine Instructional Events 3. Stimulating Recall of Prior Learning For this particular group of learners, they have learned previously about Microsoft Windows, particularly Microsoft Word. Teacher associates this knowledge with lesson at hand. When learning something new, assessing prior knowledge is a major factor in the process of acquiring new information. 4. Presenting the Stimulus Teacher gives students hands-on, step-by-step tutorial on using Microsoft PowerPoint. The goal is information acquisition, therefore, the stimulus employed is written content and the actual software program.
  18. 18. Nine Instructional Events 5. Providing Learner Guidance Teacher demonstrates how to create a presentation, Teacher moves around and shows students how to use the tools to type text, add links, add symbols and clip art, insert videos and diagrams, use sounds, etc. Learners are allowed to try the tools demonstrated in partners on their computers. Teacher uses “discovery learning” because learners are adults and it gives them the freedom to explore. Teacher facilitates the learning process by giving hints and cues when needed. Since the audience are pre-service with some basic level of technology skills and the software program is easy to follow and understand, guidance is minimal.
  19. 19. Nine Instructional Events 6. Eliciting Performance Teacher asks students Requiring the learner to to demonstrate produce based on what PowerPoint tools. has been taught enables the learner to confirm their learning. Regular feedback enhances learning. 7. Giving Feedback Teacher gives immediate feedback to learners after eliciting responses. 8. Assessing Performance Assign a practice activity – Create an electronic story book using Microsoft PowerPoint. Teacher checks work. Independent practice forces students to use what they learned and apply it. Assessing such gives instructors a means of testing student learning
  20. 20. Nine Instructional Events 9. Enhancing Retention and Transfer Teacher asks learners to create activities using PowerPoint presentation for 6th Grade pupils. Teacher also assigns learner to teach another learner how to make PowerPoint presentations. Applying learning in reallife situations is a step towards Mastery Learning.