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dome and vault

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dome and vault

  1. 1. BHAGWAN MAHAVIR COLLEGE OF ARCHITECRURE SUBJECT : BUILDING MATERIAL AND CONSTRUCTION DOME AND VAULTS FACULTIES : KUNAL SIR NITU MAM Sem : 3
  2. 2. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Definition : A dome is a element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of the sphere.  Dome is rounded vault made of either curved segments or a shell of revolution , meaning an arch rotated around its central axis.  A masonary dome produces an thrust downward and outward so domes can be divided into 2 kinds: simple and compound , depending on the use.  A dome can be supported by columns or piers that transition to the dome through squinches or pendentives.
  3. 3. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Early and indigenous domes  the early domes were likely to be made from saplings, reeds timbers and covered with thatch tuff or skins.  Materials may have transmitted to ramed earth , mud bricks or more durable adobes as result of local conditions.  Roman and byzantine domes  They are customarily hemispherical in shape on general and monumental dome in particular.  The dome of pantheon is the most important dome of roman period Largest roman concrete dome.  Morden period domes  Morden period domes were made from many durable materials and in many new styles and forms.  New production techniques allowed iron, wood and many different materials to use in dome construction..  Unique glass domes springing straight from ground level were used for green house.
  4. 4. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Elements of dome  Coffer  Cupola  Lantern  Oculus  Pendentive  Rotunda  Squinch  Tholobate  Whispering gallery
  5. 5. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS A Coffer A coffer in architecture is a series of sunken panels. PENTEON
  6. 6. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Cupola  A cupola is a small, most often dome like structure on top of building. It usually crowns a larger dome.
  7. 7. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Lantern  A lantern is a day lighting cupola architectural element
  8. 8. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Rotunda  The rotunda is any building with a circular ground plan and covered by a dome
  9. 9. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Squinch  A squinch in architecture is a construction filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a base to receive a dome
  10. 10. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Tholobate  A tholodate or drum is the upright part of building on which dome is raised
  11. 11. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Pendentive  A pendentive is constructive device which allows the placement of the circular dome over the square room or elliptical over the rectangular room.
  12. 12. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Whispering gallery  A whispering gallery is a circular, hemispherical, enclosure, often beneath a dome in which whispers can be heard clearly in other parts other gallery GOL GUMBAJ
  13. 13. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  TYPES OF DOME • Geodesic dome • Beehive dome • onion dome • oval dome • hemispherical dome • Cross arch dome • Bullbose dome
  14. 14. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS A. Geodesic dome is a sphere or say partial spherical structure based on a network of great circles on the surface of a sphere. B. The triangular elements formed by network makes it rigid and also helps in distributing stress of the structure. C. Its main part is the joints that completes the whole sphere. D. Geo means earth and desic means divided Geodesic Dome Spaceship Earth At Epcot Walt Disney World A Geodesic Sphere
  15. 15. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  The Panelized Technique Allows The Builder To Attach The Plywood Skin To The Triangles While Safely Working On The Ground Or In A Comfortable Shop Out Of The Weather. This Method Does Not Require Expensive Steel Hubs….  Holes Are Drilled Through The Members At Precise Locations And Steel Bolts Then Connect The Triangles To Form The Dome. These Members Are Often 2x4's Or 2x6's, Which Allow For More Insulation To Fit Within The Triangle PANELIZED DOMES
  16. 16. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Generally For Such Domes They Start With A Steel Framework Dome, Wrapped With Chicken Wire And Wire Screen For Reinforcement. The Chicken Wire And Screen Is Tied To The Framework With Wire Ties.  A Coat Of Material Is Then Sprayed Or Molded Onto The Frame. Tests Should Be Performed With Small Squares To Achieve The Correct Consistency Of Concrete Or Plastic.  Generally, Several Coats Are Necessary On The Inside And Outside. The Last Step Is To Saturate Concrete Or Polyester Domes With A Thin Layer Of Epoxy Compound To Shed Water CONCRETE AND FOAM PLASTIC DOMES Concrete Dome Plastic Dome
  17. 17. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS HEMISPHERICAL DOME The hemispherical dome is half of a sphere
  18. 18. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS EXAMPLES cathedral at valencia,spain gol gumbaz,karnataka
  19. 19. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS MATERIALS AND MASONARY DETAILS bricks
  20. 20. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS BAMBOO temporary bamboo dome for india pavilion at 2010 shanghai expo .
  21. 21. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS PREFABRICATED SHEETS permanent structures from prefabricated sheets for fast construction on site
  22. 22. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  It is a dome having the form of a segment of a sphere, with the center well below the springing line; a shallow dome.  A dome that is very shallow; its radius of curvature of the dome is very large compared with its rise.  They exist entirely in compression so that it can be built much thinnoer than other dome shapes without becoming unstable.  The trade-off between the proportionately increased horizontal thrust at their abutments and their decreased weight and quantity of materials may make them more economical.  They are more vulnerable to damage from movement in their supports. SAUCER DOME
  23. 23. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS
  24. 24. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Also called gadrooned,fluted,organ- piped,pumpkin,melon, ribbed,parachute, scalloped,or lobed domes.  these are a type of dome divided at the base into curved segments, which follow the curve of the elevation.  The "ribs" of a dome are the radial lines of masonry that extend from the crown down to the springing. UMBRELLA DOME st.peter's basilica,rome
  25. 25. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  A parabolic dome is a unique structure in which bending stress due to the uniformly distributed load of its dead load is zero.  Hence it was widely used in buildings in ancient times,before the advent of composite structure.  However if a point load is applied on the apex of a parabolic dome,the bending stress becomes infinite.  Hence it is found in most ancient structures,the apex of the dome is stiffened or the shape modified to avoid the PARABOLIC DOME
  26. 26. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS SAIL DOME This type can be throught of as pendentives That,Rather than Merely Touching each other to farm a circular base for a drum or compound Dome,Smoothy continue Their Curvature to farm the dome itself.The Dome gives the impression of a square sail pinned down at each corner and billowing upward.
  27. 27. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS DEFINITION: A vault is a ceiling of brick , concrete , Stone , timber , etc built in principle of arch. VAULT lisbon cathedral
  28. 28. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS • In ancient Egypt brick vaulting was used ,chiefly for drains . The Chaldeans and Assyrians used vaults for the same purpose but seem also to have made architectural use of high domes and barrel vaults. • The Greeks made no use of vaults. • Then Rome adopted this technique by using concrete as a construction material so that no outer or external thrust or buttresses need to be given. Thus vaults could be easily erected over vast spaces ,producing impressive and complex thermo , amphitheatres , and basilicas . • The tunnel vault spans between two walls ,like a continuous arch. The cross , or groined , vault is formed by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults , producing a surface that has arched openings for its four sides and concentration of load at the four corner points of the square or rectangle . • the semicircular arch was universally employed in Romanesque vaulting throughout Europe , and the roman cross vault was the type used for covering square or rectangular compartments.
  29. 29. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  TYPES 0F VAULTS • Barrel vault • Pitched brick barrel vault • Groin vault • Rib vault • Fan vault
  30. 30. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS • Formed by an extension of arch as an unbroken series passed together one behind another.  Characteristics • It is known as wagon or tunnel vault. • Circular in shape and semi cylindrical in appearance. • Series of arches placed side by side is known as barrel roof. • It is the simplest form of vault. • It is best for roofing purpose. BARREL VAULT
  31. 31. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  Short span barrel vaults  Short span barrel vaults are those in which span is shorter than its width . It is used for the width of the arch ribs between which the barrel vault span.  Long span barrel vault  Long span barrel vaults are those in which span is larger then its width.
  32. 32. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  JOINERY AND DETAILS
  33. 33. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  STRENGTH • The thrust generated against wall which is its failure. • Solution : 1. Walls should be thick(approx. 4m) and strong.  2. Two or more vaults should be kept parallel to each other. 3. Intersection of two vaults sholud be done at right angle which is known as groin vault. • Butressing should be done. • Uses: church,cloisters,cellars,crypts, hallways,caponier,etc.
  34. 34. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  EXAMPLES Roman barrel vault Mausoleum, Recoleta cemetery Argentina
  35. 35. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  MATERIALS • Bricks , stone , timber , wood are use generally. • In stone barrel vault due to the problem of fenestration , they provide a small window which restricts the more light and hence for this cloister is used. the cloisters, new york city
  36. 36. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  PITCHED BRICK BARREL VAULT • Bricks are installed vertically ( not radially ) and are leaning at an angle. • Its construction doesn’t reaquire centering
  37. 37. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  GROIN VAULT  Definition  A Groin vault (also known as a double barrel vault) is produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vault.  Characteristics  The word “groin” refers to the edge between the intersecting vaults.  Sometime the arches of groin vaults are pointed instead of round.  In comparison with a barrel vault, a groin vault provides good economies of material and labour.  The groin vault required great skills in cutting stone to from a neat arris.  Difficult to construct neatly because of the geometry of cross groins.  The construction of groin vault can be understood most simply by visualizing two barrel vault section at right angles merging to form a squarish unit.
  38. 38. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS
  39. 39. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS Santa maria maggiore at guardiagrele
  40. 40. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  CROSS ARCH A cross vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault or groin vault) is produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. The word "groin" refers to the edge between the intersecting vaults. so the vault need only be abutted at its four corners.
  41. 41. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  STRUCTURE  The construction method was particularly common on the basement level, such as at Myres Castle in Scotland, or at the ground floor level for the storerooms as at Muchalls Castle in Scotland.  accomplish the multiple goals of minimum materials use, wide span of construction, ability to achieve lateral illumination, and avoidance of lateral stresses.
  42. 42. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  FAN VAULT A fan vault is a form of vault in which the ribs are all of the same curve and spaced equidistantly, in a manner
  43. 43. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS
  44. 44. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  RIB VAULT  Definition  The intersection of two or three barrel vaults produces a rib vault or ribbed vault .  Characteristics  when they are edged with an armature of piped masonry often carved in decorative patterns compare groin vault an older from of vault construction.  While the mechanics of the weight of a groin vault and its transmission outwards to the supporting pillars remained as it had been the new use of rib vaults demonstrates the skill of the masons and the grandeu of the new ideas circulating at the introduction of gothic architecture in the end of the eleventh century.  This technique was new in the leta eleventh century for example in the roof of the lchoir side aisles at Durham cathedral.  Ancestors of the gothic rib vault in the Romanesque vault can be found at caen and durham both sites of early gothic constructions and elsewhere.  Some ribbed vaults even have six section in each bay.
  45. 45. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS
  46. 46. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  TYPES OF RIB VAULT  Rib vaults is reinforced by masonry ribs.  There are two types of rib vault. - Quadripartite rib vault -Sexpartite rib vault
  47. 47. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS  TYPES OF RIB VAULTS The vault has two masonry ribs dividing into four sections is called Quadripartite vault
  48. 48. DEFINATION HISTORY OF DOME ELEMENTS OF DOME TYPES OF DOMES VAULTS HISTORY OF VAULTS TYPES OF VAULTS Lierne vault of the nave of chester cathedral

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