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steel roof truss

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Types, advantages and disadvantages

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steel roof truss

  1. 1. In Architecture and Structural Engineering, a truss is a structure comprising one or more triangular units constructed with straight slender members whose ends are connected at joints referred to as nodes. INTRODUCTION:- •King Post Truss •Queen Post Truss •Howe Truss •Pratt Truss •Fan Truss •North Light Roof Truss •Quadrangular Roof Truss DIFFERENT TYPES OF STEEL ROOF TRUSSES:- ADVANTAGES OF ROOF TRUSSES:- • Are Cost effective. Can be installed quickly even without heavy equipment to lift it into place. • Unique properties of a triangular object allow trusses to span across longer distances. •A triangular truss maintains its shape, preventing shift and sag. Thus giving stability to the structure. •The shape of a triangle allows all of the weight applied to the sides to be redistributed down and away from the center. Tubular Steel Truss are used for large span constructions such as factories, industry worksheds, shopping malls, huge exhibition centre, multiplexes etc. They are generally used for spans as large as 25-30m. TUBULAR STEEL TRUSS:- ADVANTAGES OF TUBULAR STEEL ROOF TRUSSES:- •30% to 40% less surface area than that of an equivalent rolled steel shape. Therefore, the cost of maintenance, cost of painting or protective coatings reduce considerably. •The moisture and dirt do not collect on the smooth external surface of the tubes. Therefore, the possibility of corrosion also reduces. •The ends of tubes are sealed. As a result of this, the interior surface is not subjected to corrosion. The interior surface do not need any protective treatment. •They have more torsional resistance than other section of the equal weight. DISADVANTAGES OF ROOF TRUSSES:- •Truss uplift only occurs in cold climates because of the heat differential between the bottom of the truss buried in insulation and the top exposed to the cold attic air. •High heat conductivity of metals requires careful incorporation of insulation into the roof structure. •Rusting.. SUB:-BUILDING CONSTRUCTION` TOPIC:-STEEL ROOF TRUSS SUBMITTED BY:- ROHIT DUTTA (32) REMARK:-
  2. 2. `m OFFICE BUILDING AND LOGISTIC CENTER The project is located in a strategic industrial area, well connected with the main highway which bring traffic from the north to the south part of Italy. Regarding the materials, due to the fact that the structure and the main envelope was made of precast concrete. All the other side of the building will be made by a precast concrete panel with a vertical texture. The top floor of this office block in Italy by architects Modostudio is screened by faceted concrete panels that resemble Inca stonework. The ground floor has a glazed curtain wall, in contrast to the heavy precast cladding on the upper floor. Glass partitions across the interior of the building allow natural light to filter through every office NILOTPAL NATH(31) ROHIT DUTTA(32) JYOTIRMOY DEB(13) ANKUR RAJ TALUKDER(26) THUNGBEN LOTHA(17) TOPIC:- PRECAST CONCRETE STUCTURE SUB:- BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ASSIGNMENT NO:- Precast concrete is a construction product produced by casting concrete in a reusable mold which is then cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into place. INTRODUCTION Advantages: • Very rapid speed of erection • Good quality control • Entire building can be precast-walls, floors, beams ,etc. • Rapid construction on site • High quality because of the controlled conditions in the factory • Prestressing is easily done which can reduce the size and number of the structural members Disadvantages: • Very heavy members • Camber in beams and slabs • Very small margin for error • Connections may be difficult • Somewhat limited building design flexibility • Can not be used for two-way structural systems. • Need for repetition of forms will affect building design. • Joints between panels are often expensive and complicated. • Skilled workmanship is required in the application of the panel on site. USES: • Used as fireplace mantels, cladding, trim products, accessories, and curtain walls. Structural applications of precast concrete include foundations, beams, floors, walls, and other structural components. • Multi- storey car parking are commonly constructed using precast concrete. • Floating docks, underwater infrastructure, decking, railings and a host of amenities are among the uses of precast along the waterfront. • Used in building, including schools, office buildings, apartment buildings, townhouses, condominiums, hotels, motels, dormitories, and single-family homes
  3. 3. •A SPACE FRAME IS A TRUSS-LIKE, LIGHTWEIGHT RIGID STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTED FROM INTERLOCKING STRUTS IN A GEOMETRIC PATTERN. SPACE FRAMES USUALLY UTILIZE A MULTIDIRECTIONAL SPAN, AND ARE OFTEN USED TO ACCOMPLISH LONG SPANS WITH FEW SUPPORTS. THEY DERIVE THEIR STRENGTH FROM THE INHERENT RIGIDITY OF THE TRIANGULAR FRAME; FLEXING LOADS (BENDING MOMENTS) ARE TRANSMITTED AS TENSION AND COMPRESSION LOADS ALONG THE LENGTH OF EACH STRUT. INTRODUCTION:- APPLICATION SPACE FRAME IS USED FOR COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS, AUDITORIUMS, AIRPORT HANGERS, SPORT STADIUM, SKY LIGHTS, MOSQUE, LIGHTING TOWERS, PETROL PUMPS, CANOPIES, EXHIBITION HALL, ATRIUM, TOLL NAKA, LPG BOTTLING PLANTS. TYPES OF SPACE FRAMES •SINGLE LAYER GRID. •DOUBLE LAYER GRID. •TRIPLE LAYER GRID •PLEATED METALLIC STRUCTURES. •HANGING COVERS. CLASSIFICATION BY THE ARRANGEMENT OF ITS ELEMENTS THE SIMPLEST FORM OF SPACE FRAME IS A HORIZONTAL SLAB OF INTER LOCKING SQUARE PYRAMIDS AND TETRAHEDRA BUILT FROM ALUMINIUM TUBULAR STEEL STRUTS. SALIENT FEATURES •ENORMOUS SPANNING CAPABILITY •LIGHT WEIGHT •HIGH AESTHETICS •HIGH RESALE VALUE •HIGHER SAFETY FACTOR •EXTENSION WITH ADDITIONAL UNIT LONDON STANSTED AIRPORT JOINT DETAIL ASSIGNMENT NO:- NAME:- ROHIT DUTTA ROLL NO:- 11750 ARC 00032 TOPIC:- SPACE FRAME STRUCTURE SUBJECT:- BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION:- PRECAST CONCRETE IS A CONSTRUCTION PRODUCT PRODUCED BY CASTING CONCRETE IN A REUSABLE MOLD OR "FORM" WHICH IS THEN CURED IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT, TRANSPORTED TO THE CONSTRUCTION SITE AND LIFTED INTO PLACE. DEPENDING UPON THE GEOMETRY OF MIDDLE SURFACE WALLS THE SHELL STRUCTURES CAN BE CLASSIFIED AS: •DOMES •SHELL BARREL ARCH/VAULT •TRANSLATION SHELLS •RULED SURFACE SHELL DOME: •ARE HEMISPHERICAL IN SHAPE •USED AS ROOF STRUCTURE •CONSTRUCTED OF STONE, CONCRETE & BRICK •SUPPORTED ON CIRCULAR/REGULAR POLYGON SHAPED WALLS •HAVE CERTAIN HEIGHT &DIAMETER RATIO •HAVE VERY SMALL THICKNESS •ARE OF TWO TYPES: 1. SMOOTH SHELL 2. RIBBED SHELL DIFFERENT TYPES OF SHELL VAULT: •MULTI-BARREL VAULT •CANTILEVER BARREL VAULT •SHORT OPEN VAULT •NORTH LIGHT BARREL VAULT SHELL BARREL VAULT: •IS AN ARCHED FORM •USED TO PROVIDE A SPACE WITH CEILING OR ROOF •ELEMENTS OF BARREL SHELL- *CURVED MEMBRANE *TENSION ZONE *RISE *SPAN *WIDTH *EDGE BEAMS *END FRAME OF DIAPHRAM DIFFERENT TYPES OF DOME: TRANSLATION SHELL: •IS A TYPE OF SHELL STRUCTURE •DOME SET ON 4 ARCHES •DIFFERENT FROM SPHERICAL DOME •EASIER TO FORM THAN SPHERICAL DOME •OBTAINED BY MOVING A VERTICAL CURVE PARALLEL TO ITSELF ALONG ANOTHER VERTICAL CURVE USUALLY IN PLAN AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE PLANE OF SLIDING CURVE •HIGH TENSION FORCES IN THE CORNER •SPECIAL CASES ARE: 1. CYLINDRICAL SHELL 2. HYPERBOLIC PARABOID ASSIGNMENT NO:- TOPIC:- DOME SUBJECT:- BUILDING CONSTRUCTION NAME:- ROHIT DUTTA ROLL NO:- 11750 ARC 00032
  5. 5. ASSIGNMENT NO:- TOPIC:- SHELL ROOF NAME:- ROHIT DUTTA ROLL NO:- 11750 ARC 00032 SUBJECT:- BUILDING CONSTRUCTION INTRODUCTION:- A THIN SHELL IS DEFINED AS A SHELL WITH A THICKNESS WHICH IS SMALL COMPARED TO ITS OTHER DIMENSIONS.IT IS MADE FROM THIN MATERIAL.THE ROOF IS CURVED AND USED TO COVER LARGE BUILDINGS.LOT OF LOAD IS TRANSFERRED IN THESE ROOFS MEMBRANE COMPARISSION RATHER THAN BENDING AS IN THE CASE OF CONVENTIONAL SLAB AND BEAM CONSTRUCTION. TYPES OF SHELL ROOFS:- •MORE STRENGTH COMPARED WITH OTHER STRUCTURES •ECONOMICAL IN CONSTRUCTION •ATTRACTIVE AND DECORATIVE APPEARANCE •AESTHETIC IN VIEWS •REQUIRE MINIMUM STEEL AND CONCRETE ADVANTAGES •MOSTLY USED FOR RCC ROOFING •SHUTTERING AND CENTERING IS COSTLY •THE COST OF LABOUR IS HIGH •SKILL LABOUR IS REQUIRED DISADVANTAGES USES: IT IS USED IN FACTORIES, MUSEUM OR GALLERY, PAVILION, ETC One of Dalian’s key high-end construction projects is the new Shell Museum. With more than 5,000 kinds of precious shells from all over the world on display inside, the building’s exterior has created quite a stir METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION OF SHELL ROOF
  6. 6. FOLDED PLATES FOLDED PLATES ARE ASSEMBLIES OF FLAT PLATES RIGIDLY CONNECTED TOGETHER ALONG THEIR EDGES IN SUCH A WAY SO AS TO MAKE THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM CAPABLE OF CARRYING LOADS WITHOUT THE NEED FOR ADDITIONAL SUPPORTING BEAMS ALONG MUTUAL EDGES. TYPES OF FOLDED PLATES : 1- PRISMATIC : IF THEY CONSIST OF RECTANGULAR PLATES. 2- PYRAMIDAL : WHEN NON-RECTANGULAR PLATES ARE USED. 3- PRISMOIDAL, TRIANGULAR OR TRAPEZOIDAL. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TOPIC: FOLDED PLATES NAME: ROHIT DUTTA ROLL NO: 32 7TH SEM GCA. SHEET REMARKS NET STUDY NATIONAL BUILDING FOR WALES ADVANTAGES: •SIMPLICITY IN MANUFACTURE •MADE IN SITE •CAN BE CURVED IN ANY FORM DISADVANTAGES: •REQUIRES HIGH SKILL LABOUR •COST IS MORE •RISE OF ROOF OF THE STRUCTURE THE ELECTION OF THE WELSH NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, THE CREATION OF WHICH WAS APPROVED BY A REFERENDUM IN 1999, WAS A TURNING POINT IN THE HISTORY OF WALES. ITS HOME, CARDIFF'S FORMER DOCKLANDS, IS A STRIKING ADDITION TO THE LOCAL SCENE AND A STATEMENT OF FAITH IN THE REGENERATION PROCESS. ARCHITECTURALLY, THE ASSEMBLY BUILDING SEEKS TO EMBODY DEMOCRATIC VALUES OF OPENNESS AND PARTICIPATION, WHILE ITS HIGHLY PROGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL AGENDA WILL ESTABLISH A NEW STANDARD FOR PUBLIC BUILDINGS IN BRITAIN. THE IDEA OF OPENNESS IS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE TRANSPARENT FORM OF THE BUILDING. PUBLIC SPACES ARE ELEVATED ON A SLATE-CLAD PLINTH STEPPING UP FROM THE WATER LEVEL AND CUT AWAY TO ALLOW DAYLIGHT TO PENETRATE THE ADMINISTRATIVE SPACES AT LOWER LEVEL. A LIGHTWEIGHT, GENTLY UNDULATING ROOF SHELTERS BOTH INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SPACES, PIERCED BY THE PROTRUDING EXTENSION OF THE 60-SEAT DEBATING CHAMBER. NEITHER GRANDILOQUENT NOR LACKING IN PRESENCE, THIS IS A BUILDING CLOSELY IN TUNE WITH THE INSTITUTION IT HOUSES AND PROMISES TO BE THE FIRST MAJOR ARCHITECTURAL LANDMARK OF 21ST CENTURY WALES.
  7. 7. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION TOPIC- NORTH LIGHT ROOF TRUSS NAME- ROHIT DUTTA ROLL NO- 32 SEM- VII GCA REMARKS SHEET NO- INTRODUCTION: NORTH LIGHT TRUSSES ARE TRADITIONALLY USED FOR SHORT SPANS IN INDUSTRIAL WORKSHOP-TYPE BUILDINGS. THEY ALLOW MAXIMUM BENEFIT TO BE GAINED FROM NATURAL LIGHTING BY THE USE OF GLAZING ON THE STEEPER PITCH WHICH GENERALLY FACES NORTH OR NORTH-EAST TO REDUCE THE SOLAR GAIN. NORTHLIGHT ROOF TRUSS USES – *IT IS USED IN WAREHOUSE, INDUSTRIES, FACTORIES, ETC. *NORTH LIGHT TRUSSES ARE TRADITIONALLY USED FOR SHORT SPANS IN INDUSTRIAL WORKSHOP-TYPE BUILDINGS. *THEY ALLOW MAXIMUM BENEFIT TO BE GAINED FROM NATURAL LIGHTING BY THE USE OF GLAZING ON THE STEEPER PITCH WHICH GENERALLY FACES NORTH OR NORTH-EAST TO REDUCE THE SOLAR GAIN. CRITERIA:- *WHEN THE FLOOR SPAN EXCEEDS 15M, IT IS GENERALLY MORE ECONOMICAL TO CHANGE FROM A SIMPLE TRUSS ARRANGEMENT TO ONE EMPLOYING WIDE SPAN LATTICE GIRDERS WHICH SUPPORT TRUSSES AT RIGHT ANGLES. *THIS ROOF CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF TRUSSES FIXED TO GIRDERS. THE SHORT VERTICAL SIDE OF THE TRUSS IS GLAZED SO THAT WHEN THE ROOF IS USED IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE, THE GLAZED PORTION FACES NORTH FOR THE BEST LIGHT. *IT CAN BE USED FOR SPANS FROM 20-30M. *USED FOR INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS, DRAWING ROOMS ETC.

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