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Roman Architecture


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Revision on Roman Architecture.

Published in: Economy & Finance, Technology
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Roman Architecture

  1. 1. Roman Architecture Revision
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Roman culture is the result of different influences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primitive cultures of the area Rome was founded in (they were peasants and warriors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etrurian civilization: urban, offering cult to the ancestors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek and Hellenistic: this was the model the aimed at imitating. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the Italian origins: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practical sense (functionalism) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military expansion (imperialism) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the Etrurian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic sense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cult to the ancestors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From Greece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>General characteristics of Roman Art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is practical and utilitarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest in public works and engeneering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monumentality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great technical advances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colossal to show Roman power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is commemorative and propagandistic </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. General Characteristics <ul><li>Special importance for the internal space </li></ul><ul><li>Integral view of the art combining: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beauty and sumptuosity with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility and practical sense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buildings are integrated in the urban space </li></ul>
  6. 6. General Characteristics <ul><li>Building systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lintelled: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copied from the Greeks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spaces are closed by straight lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaulted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taken from the Etrurian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of arches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barrel vaults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of domes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong walls so that they do not use external supports </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. General Characteristics <ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limestone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They used half point or semicircular arches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They could use lintels above these arches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pediments were combined with them </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. General Characteristics: Building techniques Barrel Vault Mortar in the foundations Opus spicatum                                                                                                             Opus reticulatum Opus testaceum Opus incertum                                                                                                            
  9. 9. General Characteristics <ul><li>Walls were made in one of these ways: </li></ul>Ashlar Masonry Brick
  10. 10. General Characteristics <ul><li>Material combinations in walls: </li></ul>
  11. 11. General Characteristics <ul><li>Greek shapes assimilation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architectonical orders were used more in a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decorative than in a practical way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order superposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of orders linked to the wall created a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decorative element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They used the classical orders and two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tuscan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Roman Town Planning <ul><li>Cities were the centre of Roman life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for infrastructures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water and sewer system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transport and defence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public spaces and markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological effect: power and control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There was a need of linking them throug paved roads </li></ul>
  13. 13. Roman Town Planning <ul><li>The plan of the city was based on the camp </li></ul><ul><li>It had two main axes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardus E-W </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decumanus N-S </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where the two converged was the forum </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the space was divided into squares in which insulae or blocks of flats were built </li></ul>
  14. 14. Roman Town Planning <ul><li>The most important part of the city was the forum, where political, economic, administrative, social and religious activity were centred. </li></ul><ul><li>Main buildings were in this forum </li></ul><ul><li>In big cities there were theatres, circuses, stadiums, odeons. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Caesar Augustae (Zaragoza) plan
  16. 16. Paved Roads <ul><li>Paved roads were needed to reach to any point of the empire </li></ul><ul><li>They facilitated both communication and political control </li></ul>
  17. 17. Paved Roads <ul><li>The roads were made with strong foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Different materials were put into different layers </li></ul><ul><li>To meassure the distance they created the Milliarium or stones located in the sides </li></ul>Section of a Roman paved road
  18. 18. Paved Roads <ul><li>The roads were not completely flat </li></ul><ul><li>They consisted of several parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The central and highest was the most important, it was convex to conduct the water to the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ditches that were built in the sides </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Bridges <ul><li>Roman engineers were true masters building them, since constructions were essential elements for reaching places and cities often situated at the bank of rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>This location was due to defensive and infrastructural reasons -supply and drainage. </li></ul><ul><li>They are characterised by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not pointed arches . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructions of ashlars masonry often with pad shape . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Route of more than 5 m. wide . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Route of horizontal or slightly combed surface &quot;few curved&quot;. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectangular pillars from their basis with lateral triangular or circular cutwaters that end before the railings. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Aqueducts <ul><li>Aqueducts were built in order to avoid geographic irregularities between fountains or rivers and towns. </li></ul><ul><li>Not only valleys were crossed by superposed cannels, but also mountains were excavated by long tunnels, pits and levels of maintenance. </li></ul><ul><li>They were used to bring water to cities. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ports and Lighthouses <ul><li>Roman ships and those for commercial trade should travel from port to port with the speed and security adequate to the life of a great Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>In these ports every necessity for the execution of the usual works in a port ensemble should be found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gateways with stores and bureaux , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shipyards for stationing ships, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>roads for taking ships to earthly ground, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drinkable water fountains and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>machinery for loading and downloading merchandises. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indeed, a system of indication was necessary in order to mark the right access and exit to the port. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Walls <ul><li>Defence of cities has been one of the capital problems that civilizations had to solve in order to project the future of their citizens, goods, culture and ways of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans were the first in the technique of improving different kinds of defence, using walls. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Forums <ul><li>Forums were cultural centres in cities. </li></ul><ul><li>They were often placed at the crossroads of important urban ways: cardo maximus and decumanus . </li></ul><ul><li>A great porticated square was the centre of a group of buildings around it. </li></ul><ul><li>They were communicated through it. </li></ul><ul><li>Temples for Imperial worship, schools, basilicae, markets or even termae had a direct access through forum. </li></ul><ul><li>In many cases even buildings for spectacles -circus, theatres and amphitheatres- were communicated so. </li></ul><ul><li>Forums were a way in for important persons to tribunals. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Architectonic Typology <ul><li>Roman Architecture has a rich typology that includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Religious building: temple </li></ul><ul><li>Civil buildings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public: basilicas, baths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectacles: theatre, amphitheatre, circus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commemorative: Triumph arch, column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic: house, village, palace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funerary: tombs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engineering works: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aqueducts </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Religious: Temple <ul><li>It copied the Greek model </li></ul><ul><li>It has only one portico and a main façade </li></ul><ul><li>It tends to be pseudoperiptero </li></ul><ul><li>The cella is totally closed </li></ul><ul><li>It is built on a podium </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of having stairs all around, it only has them in the main façade </li></ul>
  26. 27.                                                                                                     
  27. 28. Religious: Temple <ul><li>There were other kind of temples: </li></ul><ul><li>Circular: similar to the Greek tholos </li></ul><ul><li>Pantheon: combined squared and circular structures and was in honour of all gods . </li></ul>                                                                                                    
  28. 29. Civil Buildings: Basilica <ul><li>It was the residence of the tribunal </li></ul><ul><li>It is rectangular and has different naves </li></ul><ul><li>The central nave is higher and receives light from the sides </li></ul><ul><li>The building ends in an apse </li></ul><ul><li>It is covered with vaults </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrel over the central nave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edged over the lateral naves </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Civil Buildings: Baths <ul><li>There were spaces for public life </li></ul><ul><li>They consisted of different rooms: </li></ul><ul><li>Changing rooms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different temperature rooms: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frigidarium (cold) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tepidarium (warm) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caldarium (hot) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swimming pool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnasium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Caracalla´s Bath House
  31. 33. Spectacles: Theatre <ul><li>It is similar to the Greek but it is not located in a mountain but it is completely built </li></ul><ul><li>It has a semicircular scenery </li></ul><ul><li>The doors to facilitate peoples’ movement are called vomitoria </li></ul><ul><li>It does not have the orchestra because in Roman plays was not a chorus </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the parts are similar to those of the Greek theatre </li></ul>
  32. 34. Merida’s Roman Theatre
  33. 35. Spectacles: Amphitheatre <ul><li>It comes from the fusion of two theatres </li></ul><ul><li>It was the place for spectacles with animals and fights (gladiators) </li></ul><ul><li>There could be filled with water for naval battles. </li></ul>
  34. 37. Spectacles: Circus <ul><li>It was a building for horse races and cuadriga competitions. </li></ul><ul><li>It has the cavea , the area and a central element to turn around, the spina . </li></ul>
  35. 39. Commemorative monuments: Triumphal Arches <ul><li>They were usually placed at the main entrance of cities in order to remember travellers and inhabitants the Greatness and strength of Roman world. </li></ul><ul><li>At the beginning they were wooden arches where trophies and richness from wars were shown. </li></ul><ul><li>This habitude changed: Romans built commemorative arches with inscriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>They were a Roman creation and they succeeded: many of them have been constructed until the present days. </li></ul><ul><li>Arches were used not only for commemorating Roman victories or military generals: they also marked limits between provincial borders. </li></ul>
  36. 40. Commemorative monuments: Columns <ul><li>They were columns decorated with relieves </li></ul><ul><li>In them some important facts were related </li></ul><ul><li>They were built in the honour of a person. </li></ul><ul><li>The best instance of these works is the famous Traian Column at Rome . It is decorated with a spiral of relieves dealing with scenes of his campaigns in Danube and with inscriptions. </li></ul>
  37. 41. Houses: Insulae <ul><li>There are urban houses </li></ul><ul><li>In order to take advantage from the room in cities, buildings up to four floors were constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>The ground floor was for shops - tabernae - and the others for apartments of different sizes. </li></ul><ul><li>Every room was communicated through a central communitarian patio decorated with flowers or gardens. </li></ul>
  38. 43. Houses: Domus <ul><li>It was the usual housing for important people in each city. </li></ul><ul><li>It was endowed with a structure based on distribution through porticated patios : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the entry - fauces - gives access to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a small corridor - vestibulum -. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It leads to a porticated patio - atrium -. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its center, the impluvium , is a bank for the water falling from the compluvium . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At both sides - alae - there are many chambers used as rooms for service slaves, kitchens and latrines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the bottom, the tablinum or living-room can be found, and close to it, the triclinium or dining-room. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This atrium gave also light enough to next rooms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At both sides of the tablinum , little corridors led to the noble part of the domus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second porticated patio peristylium , was bigger and endowed with a central garden. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It was surrounded by rooms - cubiculum - and marked by an exedra used as a chamber for banquets or social meetings . </li></ul></ul>
  39. 45. Houses: Villa <ul><li>Houses far from cities, were thought for realizing agricultural exploitations - villae rustica -, or else as places for the rest of important persons - villae urbana -. </li></ul><ul><li>Entertaining villa was endowed with every comfortable element in its age as well as gardens and splendid views. </li></ul><ul><li>Country villae got stables, cellars, stores and orchards apart from the noble rooms. </li></ul>
  40. 47. Palaces <ul><li>There were the residence of the emperor </li></ul><ul><li>They consisted of a numerous series of rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Their plan tended to be regular </li></ul>
  41. 48. Diocleciano’s Palace at Splitz