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It Consulting Slides

  1. 2. IT & Technology Consulting Dr. Joe O’Mahoney 2007
  2. 3. The Agenda <ul><li>IT Consulting </li></ul><ul><li>What is IT? </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the Business, Stupid </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Case-studies </li></ul>IT Consulting
  3. 4. IT Consulting
  4. 5. IT Systems Development Outsourcing Services Outsourcing Advice IT Consulting Tax Audit Finance Engineering Asset Management Infrastructure “ Pure” Management Consuting* *Program/Project Management, Strategy, Change Management, Human Resources, BPR, Operations, Marketing, Corporate Communications
  5. 6. Who does what? Strategy Consulting - McKinsey , BCG - Sapient, Methods Consulting, Xantus Program Management - Deloitte - PWC - E&Y Implementation - IBM - Accenture - Cap Gemini Board Level - IT Strategy - Business Case <ul><li>Management Level </li></ul><ul><li>- Requirements Management </li></ul><ul><li>Process Design </li></ul><ul><li>- Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Operations Level </li></ul><ul><li>- Systems Interation </li></ul><ul><li>IT Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Coding </li></ul>HIGH VOLUME LOW VALUE HIGH INVESTMENT HI-VALUE LOW-VOLUME MED-VOLUME MED-VALUE
  6. 7. IT Consulting Market <ul><li>10% Pure IT / Strategy (e.g. McKinseys) </li></ul><ul><li>10% with Audit / Accounting (e.g. Deloitte) </li></ul><ul><li>80% with integration / outsourcing (e.g. IBM) </li></ul><ul><li>UK Market - aprx £2.1bn revenue </li></ul><ul><li>World Market - aprx £18bn revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest type of consulting </li></ul><ul><li>Public Bodies: (NHS, DVLA etc…) </li></ul><ul><li>Central & Local Government </li></ul><ul><li>Banking </li></ul>
  7. 9. For example? <ul><li>M&A: inconsistent systems </li></ul><ul><li>Modernisation: cheque clearing, e-business </li></ul><ul><li>New Opportunities: RFID, mobile working </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting costs: Outsourcing, automation </li></ul><ul><li>Improving service: CRM, Security, Business Intelligence </li></ul>
  8. 10. Trends <ul><li>India & China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>moving towards consultancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developing centres of expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Infosys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Away from strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefit realisation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size of projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>£100m + </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is a consultant? </li></ul>
  9. 11. What is IT?
  10. 12. What is IT? <ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful, Structured, Value-add </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data  Information  Assets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- A way of doing something </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IT Consultants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Experts in finding ways of turning information into assets </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Data  Products <ul><li>MIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A faulty part  Recorded  Trends Identified  Benchmarked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing if production has a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Football Goal  Digitized  Protected  tagged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A product that can be promoted and sold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FaceBook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friends  Digitized  Structured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A product to enhance sociability </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. The Goal…… <ul><li>The Asset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagged, Protected, Digitized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-channel: TV, Mobile, Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer2Peer, Storage, Tasters…. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising, user information, network details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pricing: time, subscription, per view…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sport vs. news, porn, game etc… </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. The Business
  14. 17. Focus on Business Requirements <ul><li>What the system will be able to do…….. </li></ul><ul><li>MoSCoW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would like… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traceable </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchies </li></ul><ul><li>Change Management </li></ul>
  15. 18. Example: Windows Media Player <ul><li>WMP will play all music and video formats </li></ul><ul><li>The system will play mpeg, mp3, aac, wmf, atrack 3 </li></ul><ul><li>The system will prevent illegal ripping of CDs </li></ul><ul><li>The system will support a DRM solution so that protected files will need a lisence </li></ul><ul><li>WMP will enable the creation of a media library </li></ul><ul><li>The system will read metadata tags associated with music files </li></ul>
  16. 19. When it comes to requirements, the pencil costs pennies… it is the eraser that can cost millions.
  17. 20. Other forms of requirements <ul><li>User Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Business Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Flow charts </li></ul><ul><li>Use Cases </li></ul>
  18. 21. Example: Amazon
  19. 22. Business Requirements <ul><li>Functional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The system must allow searches by title, author and ISBN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The system must allow a purchase within five clicks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The customer must have the ability to unsubscribe from emails </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical / System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>99% of search returns will be faster than 0.5 sec. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Card transactions with be encoded with 128bit coding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The system must be available 99.999% of the time </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Requirement Hierarchy (examples) <ul><li>Anyone can post a review of a book </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All reviews must be spell and key word checked before publication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The administrator can remove and edit a review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A customer must enter a password before posting a review </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The customer will be able to search for a product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By name, genre, author, album and publisher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A maximum of 50 results will be shown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The return must never be zero </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The search results can be ordered by price, alphabetically or popularity </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Business Rules <ul><li>If the customer enters a wrong password three times then their PC will be blocked for an hour </li></ul><ul><li>If the search return delivers nil then automatically search with variants of the spelling </li></ul><ul><li>If a customer makes a purchase then recommend the product that most customers who purchased that product also bought </li></ul><ul><li>If a cookie is present on the customer’s PC then automatically populate the customer’s email on the log-in screen </li></ul>
  22. 25. Scenario <ul><li>Katherine visits Amazon for the first time </li></ul><ul><li>She types “Russia” into the search box </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon returns items fitting this term by product type and listed by popularity </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon remembers what Katherine has searched for </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine clicks on the first item then clicks Add to Shopping Basket </li></ul><ul><li>Katherine is presented with a screen recommending similar items that other buyers of this product bought. </li></ul>
  23. 26. IT Projects
  24. 27. Building a house? <ul><li>Just start building!? </li></ul><ul><li>Start with a plan </li></ul><ul><li>What are the requirements? </li></ul><ul><li>What components do you need? </li></ul><ul><li>What do those components do? </li></ul><ul><li>Who builds it? Based on what? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a good design? </li></ul><ul><li>You need a good method!! </li></ul>
  25. 28. 3-Schema Architecture
  26. 29. Project Lifecycle I <ul><li>A. Study Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Link to Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>User Need </li></ul><ul><li>Project Scoping </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment </li></ul><ul><li>B. Design Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Business Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Systems Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Data Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>System Design </li></ul><ul><li>Software Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment Selection </li></ul>
  27. 30. Project Lifecycle II <ul><li>C. Development Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed System Design </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed Application Design </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed Database Design </li></ul><ul><li>Coding and Debugging </li></ul><ul><li>D. Test Phase </li></ul><ul><li>System Testing </li></ul><ul><li>User Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Reference Manual Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel Training </li></ul><ul><li>E. Operation Phase </li></ul><ul><li>System Changeover </li></ul><ul><li>Routine Operation </li></ul><ul><li>System Performance Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>System Changes/Enhancements </li></ul>
  28. 31. So Who’s Involved? <ul><li>Product Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Business / Systems Analyst </li></ul><ul><li>Coders </li></ul><ul><li>Project Manager </li></ul>
  29. 32. Understand Question Analyse Present <ul><li>What is the key question here? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of case is this (e.g. New Product etc…)? </li></ul><ul><li>If verbal, clarify the case. </li></ul><ul><li>What information is missing? </li></ul><ul><li>Use frameworks (e.g. 4Cs, 4Ps, Porter) as a prompt. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask both qualitative and quantitative questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Structure your information e.g. tree, mind map </li></ul><ul><li>Perform calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Make assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritise recommendations. </li></ul><ul><li>Base recommendations on facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine impementation “how” issues. </li></ul>

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