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Group dynamics
Presented by : Yogesh Kumar Tiwari
Moderator : Dr. Deepika khakha
“Never doubt that a small group of
thoughtful citizens can change the
world. Indeed, it is the only thing
that ever has.”
Margaret Mead
GROUP
A group can be defined as several
individuals who come together to
accomplish a particular task or
goal.
GROUP DYNAMICS
Group dynamics refers to the attitudinal and
behavioural characteristics of a group.
The social process by which people interact in
a group environment.
The influences of personality, power and
behavior on the group process.
Group dynamics …
Group dynamics concern how groups form,
their structure and process, and how they
function.
Group dynamics are relevant in both formal
and informal groups of all types.
Why it is important in organization ?
In an organizational setting, groups are
very common
The study of groups and group dynamics
is an important area of study in
organizational behaviour.
IMPORTANCE OF GROUP
IN ORGANISATION
Groups typically outperform individuals when the tasks
involved require a variety of skills, experience, and
decision making.
Groups are often more flexible and can quickly
assemble, achieve goals, and disband or move on to
another set of objectives.
Importance of Group in organization…
Groups have many motivational aspects
Group members are more likely to participate in
decision-making and problem-solving activities leading
to empowerment and increased productivity.
IMPORTANCE OF GROUP IN
ORGANIZATION …
Groups complete most of the work in an organization
Thus , the effectiveness of the organization is limited
by the effectiveness of its groups.
Group development
As applied to group development, group
dynamics is concerned with why and how
groups develop.
GROUP DEVELOPMENT
WHY ?
Theories
Classic Theory
Social Exchange Theory
Social Identity Theory
Classic Theory
Developed by George Homans
Suggests that groups develop based on activities,
interactions, and sentiments.
The theory means that when individuals share
common activities, they will have more
interaction and will develop attitudes (positive
or negative) toward each other.
The major element in this theory is the
interaction of the individuals involved.
SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY
Individuals form relationships based on the implicit
expectation of mutually beneficial exchanges based on
trust and felt obligation.
Thus, a perception that exchange relationships will be
positive is essential if individuals are to be attracted to
and affiliate with a group.
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY
This theory suggests that individuals
get a sense of identity and self-esteem
based upon their membership in salient
groups.
The nature of the group may be
demographically based, culturally
based, or organizationally based.
Social Identity Theory….
Individuals are motivated to
belong to and contribute to identity
groups because of the sense of
belongingness and self-worth
membership in the group imparts.
GROUP TYPES
Formal
Informal
FORMAL GROUPS
Established by an organization to achieve
organizational goals.
May take the form of
Command groups
Task groups
Functional groups.
COMMAND GROUPS
Are specified by the organizational
chart and often consist of a supervisor
and the subordinates that report to that
supervisor.
An example of a command group is
an academic department chairman
and the faculty members in that
department.
TASK GROUPS
Consist of people who work together to
achieve a common task.
Members are brought together to accomplish a
narrow range of goals within a specified time
period.
FUNCTIONAL GROUP
Created by the organization to accomplish
specific goals within an unspecified time frame.
They remain in existence after achievement of
current goals and objectives.
Example : a marketing department
INFORMAL GROUPS …
They are created for purposes other than the
accomplishment of organizational goals and do
not have a specified time frame.
Informal groups can have a strong influence in
organizations that can either be positive or
negative.
INFORMAL GROUPS
Unofficial or emergent groups that
evolve in the work setting to gratify a
variety of member needs not met by
formal groups.
INFORMAL GROUPS …
Types
Interest group
Friendship group
Reference group
INTEREST GROUPS
Usually continue over time and may last longer than
general informal groups.
Members of interest groups may not be part of the
same organizational department but they are bound
together by some other common interest.
The goals and objectives of group interests are
specific to each group and may not be related to
organizational goals and objectives.
FRIENDSHIP GROUPS
Are formed by members who enjoy similar
social activities, political beliefs, religious
values, or other common bonds.
Members enjoy each other's company and often
meet after work to participate in these activities.
REFERENCE GROUP
A type of group that people use to evaluate themselves.
According to Cherrington, the main purposes of
reference groups are social validation and social
comparison.
Social validation allows individuals to justify their
attitudes and values while social comparison helps
individuals evaluate their own actions by comparing
themselves to others.
REFERENCE GROUP…
Reference groups have a strong influence on
members' behaviour.
By comparing themselves with other members,
individuals are able to assess whether their
behaviour is acceptable and whether their
attitudes and values are right or wrong.
GROUP DEVELOPMENT
“HOW”?
by Bruce Tuckman in the 1960s.
FIVE STAGES
Forming
Group members get to know each other and reach
common goals.
Storming
Group members disagree on direction and
leadership.
Managers need to be sure the conflict stays focused.
Norming
Close ties and consensus begin to develop between
group members.
FIVE STAGES
Performing
The group begins to do its real work.
Adjourning
Only for task forces that are temporary.
PHYSICAL CONDITIONS THAT INFLUENCE GROUP
DYNAMICS
Seating
Size
Membership
GROUP STRUCTURE
Group structure is a pattern of relationships
among members that hold the group together
and help it achieve assigned goals.
GROUP STRUCTURE…
Structure can be described in terms of
Group Size
Group Roles
Group Norms
Group Cohesiveness.
GROUP SIZE
Group size can vary from 2 people to a very
large number of people.
Small groups of two to ten are thought to be
more effective because each member has ample
opportunity to participate and become actively
involved in the group.
Large groups may waste time by deciding
on processes and trying to decide who
should participate next.
Group size will affect not only
participation but satisfaction as well.
GROUP SIZE…
Evidence supports the notion that as the size
of the group increases, satisfaction increases
up to a certain point.
In other words, a group of six members has
twice as many opportunities for interaction
and participation as a group of three people.
GROUP SIZE…
Beyond 10 or 12 members, increasing the
size of the group results in decreased
satisfaction.
It is increasingly difficult for members of
large groups to identify with one another and
experience cohesion.
GROUP ROLES
In formal groups, roles are usually
predetermined and assigned to members.
Each role will have specific responsibilities and
duties.
There are emergent roles also that develop
naturally to meet the needs of the groups.
GROUP ROLES
These emergent roles will often replace the assigned roles
as individuals begin to express themselves and become
more assertive.
The main types of roles are
Work role
Maintenance role
Blocking roles
WORK ROLES
Work roles are task-oriented activities that involve
accomplishing the group's goals.
They involve a variety of specific roles such as
The initiator :defines problems, proposes action,
and suggests procedures.
The informer : finds out the facts and give
advice or opinions.
Clarifier :will interpret ideas, define terms, and
clarify issues for the group.
Summarizers : restate suggestions, offer
decisions, and come to conclusions for the
group.
Reality testers :analyze ideas and test the ideas
in real situations.
MAINTENANCE ROLE
Social-emotional activities that help
members maintain their involvement in the
group and raise their personal commitment to
the group.
The maintenance roles are
Harmonizer will reduce tension in the
group, reconcile differences, and explore
opportunities.
Gatekeepers often keep communication
channels open and make suggestions that
encourage participation.
Consensus tester will ask if the group is
nearing a decision and test possible
conclusions.
Encouragers are friendly, warm, and
responsive to other group members.
Compromiser: this involves modifying
decisions, offering compromises, and
admitting errors.
BLOCKING ROLES
are activities that disrupt the group.
Blockers will stubbornly resist the group's ideas,
disagree with group members for personal reasons,
and will have hidden agendas.
BLOCKING ROLES…
The dominator role attempts to control
conversations by patronizing others.
They often interrupt others and assert
authority in order to manipulate members.
BLOCKING ROLES…
Comedians often abandon the group even
though they may physically still be a part.
They are attention-getters in ways that are
not relevant to the accomplishment of the
group's objectives.
BLOCKING ROLES…
Avoidance behaviour, involves pursuing goals
not related to the group and changing the subject
to avoid commitment to the group.
ROLE AMBIGUITY
It concerns the discrepancy between the sent
role and the received role.
Supervisors, directors, or other group leaders
often send (assign) roles to group members in
formal groups.
Group members receive roles by being ready
and willing to undertake the tasks associated
with that role.
Receiver
Role
Ambiguity
Role Conflict
Sender
ROLE AMBIGUITY AND ROLE
CONFLICT
Role
Expectations
Role
Sent
Role
Received
Role
Behavior
ROLE AMBIGUITY
Ambiguity results when members are confused
about the delegation of job responsibilities.
This confusion may occur because the
members do not have specific job descriptions
or because the instructions regarding the task
were not clear.
Group members who experience ambiguity
often have feelings of frustration and
dissatisfaction, which ultimately lead to
turnover.
ROLE CONFLICT
Occurs when there is inconsistency between the
perceived role and role behavior.
There are several different forms of role conflict.
Interrole conflict
Intrarole conflict
ROLE CONFLICT
Interrole conflict occurs when there is conflict
between the different roles that people have.
For example, work roles and family roles often
compete with one another and cause conflict.
Intrarole conflict occurs when individuals must
handle conflicting demands from different sources
while performing the tasks associated with the same
role.
GROUP NORMS.
Norms are acceptable standards of
behavior within a group that are shared by
the members of the group.
Norms define the boundaries of
acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
GROUP NORMS…
They are typically created in order to
facilitate group survival,
make behavior more predictable,
avoid embarrassing situations,
express the values of the group.
GROUP NORMS…
Each group will establish its own set of norms
that might determine anything from the
appropriate dress to how many comments to
make in a meeting.
Groups exert pressure on members to force
them to conform to the group's standards.
GROUP NORMS…
The norms often reflect the level of
commitment, motivation, and performance
of the group.
PERFORMANCE NORMS
Determine how quickly members
should work and how much they should
produce.
They are created in an effort to
determine levels of individual effort.
PERFORMANCE NORMS…
They can be very frustrating to
managers because they are not always
in line with the organization's goals.
Members of a group may have the skill
and ability to perform at higher levels
but they don't because of the group's
performance norms.
REWARD-ALLOCATION NORMS
Determine how rewards are bestowed upon
group members.
For example, the norm of equality dictates
equal treatment of all members. Every member
shares equally so rewards are distributed
equally to everyone.
REWARD-ALLOCATION NORMS…
norm of equity
Suggest that rewards are distributed
according to the member's contribution.
In other words, members who contribute
the most receive the largest share of the
rewards.
Members may contribute through effort,
skill, or ability.
REWARD-ALLOCATION NORMS…
Social responsibility norms reward on the
basis of need.
Members who have special needs therefore
receive the largest share of the reward.
GROUP NORMS…
The majority of the group must agree that the
norms are appropriate in order for the behavior to
be accepted.
There must also be a shared understanding that the
group supports the norms.
GROUP NORMS…
But the members might violate group norms
from time to time.
If the majority of members do not adhere to the
norms, then they will eventually change and
will no longer serve as a standard for
evaluating behavior.
Group members who do not conform to the
norms will be punished by being excluded,
ignored, or asked to leave the group.
GROUP COHESIVENESS.
Group Cohesion - interpersonal attraction
binding group members together
Cohesiveness refers to the bonding of group
members and their desire to remain part of the
group.
Many factors influence the amount of group
cohesiveness.
Generally speaking, the more difficult it is to
obtain group membership the more cohesive the
group.
FACTORS PROMOTING COHESIVENESS
Similarity of work
Physical proximity in the workplace
The work-flow system
Structure of tasks
Size of group (smaller rather than larger)
Threats from outside
The prospect of rewards
Leadership style of the manager
common social factors (age, race, social status etc.)
ADVANTAGES
Groups with high cohesiveness
Demonstrate lower tension & anxiety
Demonstrate less variation in productivity
Demonstrate better member satisfaction,
commitment, & communication
ADVANTAGES
Worker satisfaction
Low turnover and absenteeism
Higher productivity
Enables groups to exercise effective
control over the members.
DISADVANTAGES
Highly cohesive groups may be detrimental
to organizational performance if their goals
are misaligned with organizational goals.
Highly cohesive groups may also be more
vulnerable to groupthink.
GROUPTHINK
Is defined as “the deterioration of
mental efficiency, reality testing, and
moral judgement in the interest of
group solidarity.”
GROUPTHINK
occurs when members of a group exert pressure on
each other to come to a consensus in decision
making.
It results in
careless judgments
unrealistic appraisals of alternative courses
of action
a lack of reality testing
It can lead to a number of decision-
making issues such as the following:
Incomplete assessments of the problem
Incomplete information search
Bias in processing information
Inadequate development of alternatives
Failure to examine the risks of the
preferred choice.
SOCIAL LOAFING
The failure of a group member to contribute
personal time, effort, thoughts, or other resources
to the group
The human tendency to put forth less effort in a
group than individually.
Results in
lower group performance
failure to attain group goals
Factors Leading to Group
Cohesiveness
Factor
Group Size Smaller groups allow for high cohesiveness;
Low cohesiveness groups with many
members can benefit from splitting into two
groups.
Managed Diversity Diverse groups often come up with better
solutions.
Group Identity Encouraging a group to adopt a unique
identity and engage in competition with
others can increase cohesiveness.
Success Cohesiveness increases with success;
finding ways for a group to have some small
successes increases cohesiveness.
Group Behaviour
Group behaviour emanates from the
causes that contribute to the group’s
effectiveness .
Characteristics of a
Well-Functioning, Effective Group
Relaxed, comfortable, informal atmosphere
Task well understood & accepted
People express feelings & ideas
Members listen well & participate
Characteristics of a
Well-Functioning, Effective Group
Consensus decision making
Conflict & disagreement center
around ideas or methods
Clear assignments made & accepted
Group aware of its operation & function
IN NURSING………………
Knowledge of group dynamics is needed by
nurse managers to improve leadership
competencies and facilitates group
discussions and communication.
Nurses participate in group situations
on a daily basis
In health care settings ,nurses serve on
or lead task groups that create policy,
describe procedures, and plan client care
CONCLUSION
The usefulness of groups is nowhere more
apparent than when groups are used to help
their members change.
Groups, by their very nature, provide their
members with information, support, and
guidance, and so many personal and
interpersonal problems can be resolved more
readily when confronted in a group rather than
alone.
REFERENCES
Barge, J. K. (2002). Enlarging the meaning of
groupdeliberation: From discussion to dialogue. IL.
R. Frey (Ed.), New directions in group
communication.
Townsend.C Mary,Psychiatric Mental Health
Nursing.
Group dynamics

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Group dynamics

  • 1. Group dynamics Presented by : Yogesh Kumar Tiwari Moderator : Dr. Deepika khakha
  • 2.
  • 3. “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.” Margaret Mead
  • 4. GROUP A group can be defined as several individuals who come together to accomplish a particular task or goal.
  • 5. GROUP DYNAMICS Group dynamics refers to the attitudinal and behavioural characteristics of a group. The social process by which people interact in a group environment. The influences of personality, power and behavior on the group process.
  • 6. Group dynamics … Group dynamics concern how groups form, their structure and process, and how they function. Group dynamics are relevant in both formal and informal groups of all types.
  • 7. Why it is important in organization ? In an organizational setting, groups are very common The study of groups and group dynamics is an important area of study in organizational behaviour.
  • 8.
  • 9. IMPORTANCE OF GROUP IN ORGANISATION Groups typically outperform individuals when the tasks involved require a variety of skills, experience, and decision making. Groups are often more flexible and can quickly assemble, achieve goals, and disband or move on to another set of objectives.
  • 10. Importance of Group in organization… Groups have many motivational aspects Group members are more likely to participate in decision-making and problem-solving activities leading to empowerment and increased productivity.
  • 11. IMPORTANCE OF GROUP IN ORGANIZATION … Groups complete most of the work in an organization Thus , the effectiveness of the organization is limited by the effectiveness of its groups.
  • 12. Group development As applied to group development, group dynamics is concerned with why and how groups develop.
  • 13. GROUP DEVELOPMENT WHY ? Theories Classic Theory Social Exchange Theory Social Identity Theory
  • 14. Classic Theory Developed by George Homans Suggests that groups develop based on activities, interactions, and sentiments. The theory means that when individuals share common activities, they will have more interaction and will develop attitudes (positive or negative) toward each other. The major element in this theory is the interaction of the individuals involved.
  • 15. SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY Individuals form relationships based on the implicit expectation of mutually beneficial exchanges based on trust and felt obligation. Thus, a perception that exchange relationships will be positive is essential if individuals are to be attracted to and affiliate with a group.
  • 16. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY This theory suggests that individuals get a sense of identity and self-esteem based upon their membership in salient groups. The nature of the group may be demographically based, culturally based, or organizationally based.
  • 17. Social Identity Theory…. Individuals are motivated to belong to and contribute to identity groups because of the sense of belongingness and self-worth membership in the group imparts.
  • 19. FORMAL GROUPS Established by an organization to achieve organizational goals. May take the form of Command groups Task groups Functional groups.
  • 20. COMMAND GROUPS Are specified by the organizational chart and often consist of a supervisor and the subordinates that report to that supervisor. An example of a command group is an academic department chairman and the faculty members in that department.
  • 21. TASK GROUPS Consist of people who work together to achieve a common task. Members are brought together to accomplish a narrow range of goals within a specified time period.
  • 22. FUNCTIONAL GROUP Created by the organization to accomplish specific goals within an unspecified time frame. They remain in existence after achievement of current goals and objectives. Example : a marketing department
  • 23. INFORMAL GROUPS … They are created for purposes other than the accomplishment of organizational goals and do not have a specified time frame. Informal groups can have a strong influence in organizations that can either be positive or negative.
  • 24. INFORMAL GROUPS Unofficial or emergent groups that evolve in the work setting to gratify a variety of member needs not met by formal groups.
  • 25. INFORMAL GROUPS … Types Interest group Friendship group Reference group
  • 26. INTEREST GROUPS Usually continue over time and may last longer than general informal groups. Members of interest groups may not be part of the same organizational department but they are bound together by some other common interest. The goals and objectives of group interests are specific to each group and may not be related to organizational goals and objectives.
  • 27. FRIENDSHIP GROUPS Are formed by members who enjoy similar social activities, political beliefs, religious values, or other common bonds. Members enjoy each other's company and often meet after work to participate in these activities.
  • 28. REFERENCE GROUP A type of group that people use to evaluate themselves. According to Cherrington, the main purposes of reference groups are social validation and social comparison. Social validation allows individuals to justify their attitudes and values while social comparison helps individuals evaluate their own actions by comparing themselves to others.
  • 29. REFERENCE GROUP… Reference groups have a strong influence on members' behaviour. By comparing themselves with other members, individuals are able to assess whether their behaviour is acceptable and whether their attitudes and values are right or wrong.
  • 31. FIVE STAGES Forming Group members get to know each other and reach common goals. Storming Group members disagree on direction and leadership. Managers need to be sure the conflict stays focused. Norming Close ties and consensus begin to develop between group members.
  • 32. FIVE STAGES Performing The group begins to do its real work. Adjourning Only for task forces that are temporary.
  • 33. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS THAT INFLUENCE GROUP DYNAMICS Seating Size Membership
  • 34. GROUP STRUCTURE Group structure is a pattern of relationships among members that hold the group together and help it achieve assigned goals.
  • 35. GROUP STRUCTURE… Structure can be described in terms of Group Size Group Roles Group Norms Group Cohesiveness.
  • 36. GROUP SIZE Group size can vary from 2 people to a very large number of people. Small groups of two to ten are thought to be more effective because each member has ample opportunity to participate and become actively involved in the group.
  • 37. Large groups may waste time by deciding on processes and trying to decide who should participate next. Group size will affect not only participation but satisfaction as well.
  • 38. GROUP SIZE… Evidence supports the notion that as the size of the group increases, satisfaction increases up to a certain point. In other words, a group of six members has twice as many opportunities for interaction and participation as a group of three people.
  • 39. GROUP SIZE… Beyond 10 or 12 members, increasing the size of the group results in decreased satisfaction. It is increasingly difficult for members of large groups to identify with one another and experience cohesion.
  • 40. GROUP ROLES In formal groups, roles are usually predetermined and assigned to members. Each role will have specific responsibilities and duties. There are emergent roles also that develop naturally to meet the needs of the groups.
  • 41. GROUP ROLES These emergent roles will often replace the assigned roles as individuals begin to express themselves and become more assertive. The main types of roles are Work role Maintenance role Blocking roles
  • 42. WORK ROLES Work roles are task-oriented activities that involve accomplishing the group's goals. They involve a variety of specific roles such as The initiator :defines problems, proposes action, and suggests procedures.
  • 43. The informer : finds out the facts and give advice or opinions. Clarifier :will interpret ideas, define terms, and clarify issues for the group. Summarizers : restate suggestions, offer decisions, and come to conclusions for the group. Reality testers :analyze ideas and test the ideas in real situations.
  • 44. MAINTENANCE ROLE Social-emotional activities that help members maintain their involvement in the group and raise their personal commitment to the group. The maintenance roles are Harmonizer will reduce tension in the group, reconcile differences, and explore opportunities.
  • 45. Gatekeepers often keep communication channels open and make suggestions that encourage participation. Consensus tester will ask if the group is nearing a decision and test possible conclusions. Encouragers are friendly, warm, and responsive to other group members. Compromiser: this involves modifying decisions, offering compromises, and admitting errors.
  • 46. BLOCKING ROLES are activities that disrupt the group. Blockers will stubbornly resist the group's ideas, disagree with group members for personal reasons, and will have hidden agendas.
  • 47. BLOCKING ROLES… The dominator role attempts to control conversations by patronizing others. They often interrupt others and assert authority in order to manipulate members.
  • 48. BLOCKING ROLES… Comedians often abandon the group even though they may physically still be a part. They are attention-getters in ways that are not relevant to the accomplishment of the group's objectives.
  • 49. BLOCKING ROLES… Avoidance behaviour, involves pursuing goals not related to the group and changing the subject to avoid commitment to the group.
  • 50. ROLE AMBIGUITY It concerns the discrepancy between the sent role and the received role. Supervisors, directors, or other group leaders often send (assign) roles to group members in formal groups. Group members receive roles by being ready and willing to undertake the tasks associated with that role.
  • 51. Receiver Role Ambiguity Role Conflict Sender ROLE AMBIGUITY AND ROLE CONFLICT Role Expectations Role Sent Role Received Role Behavior
  • 52. ROLE AMBIGUITY Ambiguity results when members are confused about the delegation of job responsibilities. This confusion may occur because the members do not have specific job descriptions or because the instructions regarding the task were not clear. Group members who experience ambiguity often have feelings of frustration and dissatisfaction, which ultimately lead to turnover.
  • 53. ROLE CONFLICT Occurs when there is inconsistency between the perceived role and role behavior. There are several different forms of role conflict. Interrole conflict Intrarole conflict
  • 54. ROLE CONFLICT Interrole conflict occurs when there is conflict between the different roles that people have. For example, work roles and family roles often compete with one another and cause conflict. Intrarole conflict occurs when individuals must handle conflicting demands from different sources while performing the tasks associated with the same role.
  • 55. GROUP NORMS. Norms are acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the members of the group. Norms define the boundaries of acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
  • 56. GROUP NORMS… They are typically created in order to facilitate group survival, make behavior more predictable, avoid embarrassing situations, express the values of the group.
  • 57. GROUP NORMS… Each group will establish its own set of norms that might determine anything from the appropriate dress to how many comments to make in a meeting. Groups exert pressure on members to force them to conform to the group's standards.
  • 58. GROUP NORMS… The norms often reflect the level of commitment, motivation, and performance of the group.
  • 59. PERFORMANCE NORMS Determine how quickly members should work and how much they should produce. They are created in an effort to determine levels of individual effort.
  • 60. PERFORMANCE NORMS… They can be very frustrating to managers because they are not always in line with the organization's goals. Members of a group may have the skill and ability to perform at higher levels but they don't because of the group's performance norms.
  • 61. REWARD-ALLOCATION NORMS Determine how rewards are bestowed upon group members. For example, the norm of equality dictates equal treatment of all members. Every member shares equally so rewards are distributed equally to everyone.
  • 62. REWARD-ALLOCATION NORMS… norm of equity Suggest that rewards are distributed according to the member's contribution. In other words, members who contribute the most receive the largest share of the rewards. Members may contribute through effort, skill, or ability.
  • 63. REWARD-ALLOCATION NORMS… Social responsibility norms reward on the basis of need. Members who have special needs therefore receive the largest share of the reward.
  • 64. GROUP NORMS… The majority of the group must agree that the norms are appropriate in order for the behavior to be accepted. There must also be a shared understanding that the group supports the norms.
  • 65. GROUP NORMS… But the members might violate group norms from time to time. If the majority of members do not adhere to the norms, then they will eventually change and will no longer serve as a standard for evaluating behavior. Group members who do not conform to the norms will be punished by being excluded, ignored, or asked to leave the group.
  • 66. GROUP COHESIVENESS. Group Cohesion - interpersonal attraction binding group members together Cohesiveness refers to the bonding of group members and their desire to remain part of the group. Many factors influence the amount of group cohesiveness. Generally speaking, the more difficult it is to obtain group membership the more cohesive the group.
  • 67. FACTORS PROMOTING COHESIVENESS Similarity of work Physical proximity in the workplace The work-flow system Structure of tasks Size of group (smaller rather than larger) Threats from outside The prospect of rewards Leadership style of the manager common social factors (age, race, social status etc.)
  • 68. ADVANTAGES Groups with high cohesiveness Demonstrate lower tension & anxiety Demonstrate less variation in productivity Demonstrate better member satisfaction, commitment, & communication
  • 69. ADVANTAGES Worker satisfaction Low turnover and absenteeism Higher productivity Enables groups to exercise effective control over the members.
  • 70. DISADVANTAGES Highly cohesive groups may be detrimental to organizational performance if their goals are misaligned with organizational goals. Highly cohesive groups may also be more vulnerable to groupthink.
  • 71. GROUPTHINK Is defined as “the deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgement in the interest of group solidarity.”
  • 72. GROUPTHINK occurs when members of a group exert pressure on each other to come to a consensus in decision making. It results in careless judgments unrealistic appraisals of alternative courses of action a lack of reality testing
  • 73. It can lead to a number of decision- making issues such as the following: Incomplete assessments of the problem Incomplete information search Bias in processing information Inadequate development of alternatives Failure to examine the risks of the preferred choice.
  • 74. SOCIAL LOAFING The failure of a group member to contribute personal time, effort, thoughts, or other resources to the group The human tendency to put forth less effort in a group than individually. Results in lower group performance failure to attain group goals
  • 75.
  • 76. Factors Leading to Group Cohesiveness Factor Group Size Smaller groups allow for high cohesiveness; Low cohesiveness groups with many members can benefit from splitting into two groups. Managed Diversity Diverse groups often come up with better solutions. Group Identity Encouraging a group to adopt a unique identity and engage in competition with others can increase cohesiveness. Success Cohesiveness increases with success; finding ways for a group to have some small successes increases cohesiveness.
  • 77.
  • 78. Group Behaviour Group behaviour emanates from the causes that contribute to the group’s effectiveness .
  • 79. Characteristics of a Well-Functioning, Effective Group Relaxed, comfortable, informal atmosphere Task well understood & accepted People express feelings & ideas Members listen well & participate
  • 80. Characteristics of a Well-Functioning, Effective Group Consensus decision making Conflict & disagreement center around ideas or methods Clear assignments made & accepted Group aware of its operation & function
  • 81. IN NURSING……………… Knowledge of group dynamics is needed by nurse managers to improve leadership competencies and facilitates group discussions and communication.
  • 82. Nurses participate in group situations on a daily basis In health care settings ,nurses serve on or lead task groups that create policy, describe procedures, and plan client care
  • 83. CONCLUSION The usefulness of groups is nowhere more apparent than when groups are used to help their members change. Groups, by their very nature, provide their members with information, support, and guidance, and so many personal and interpersonal problems can be resolved more readily when confronted in a group rather than alone.
  • 84.
  • 85. REFERENCES Barge, J. K. (2002). Enlarging the meaning of groupdeliberation: From discussion to dialogue. IL. R. Frey (Ed.), New directions in group communication. Townsend.C Mary,Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing.