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Personality Biological Theories, Genetics, and personality, Temperament, Parental Behaviour, Sexual Behaviour
Personality
Biological Theories
For years, biological theory played a significant role in our view of human development and personality.   Toward the beginning of the 20th Century, however, views began to change and personality was seen as involving both biology and environment.   Hans Eysenck, however, fought against this trend.   Hans Eysenck
By using the statistic known as Factor Analysis, he concluded that all human traits can be broken down into two distinct categories: 		1. Extroversion-Introversion 		2. Neuroticism Hans Eysenck
Extraversion-Introversion
Extraversion
Introversion
Extraversion-Introversion
Temperament is that aspect of our personalities that is genetically based, inborn, there from birth or even before.   That does not mean that a temperament theory says we don't also have aspects of our personality that are learned!  The issue of personality types, including temperament, is as old as psychology.   The ancient Greeks, to take the obvious example, had given it considerable thought, and came up with two dimensions of temperament, leading to four “types,” based on what kind of fluids (called humors) they had too much or too little of.   This theory became popular during the middle ages. Temperaments
In the 1950’s,  William Sheldon (b. 1899) became interested in the variety of human bodies.   He built upon earlier work done by Ernst Kretschmer in the 1930's.  Kretschmer believed that there was a relationship between three different physical types and certain psychological disorders.   Specifically, he believed that the short, round pyknic type was more prone to cyclothymic or bipolar disorders, and that the tall thin asthenic type (a too a lesser degree the muscular athletic type) was more prone to schizophrenia.   His research, although involving thousands of institutionalized patients, was suspect because he failed to control for age and the schizophrenics were considerably younger than the bipolar patients, and so more likely to be thinner. Body Types
He theorized that the connection between the three physical types and the three personality types was embryonic development.   In the early stages of our prenatal development, we are composed of three layers or “skins:”  the ectoderm or outer layer, which develops into skin and nervous system; the mesoderm or middle layer, which develops into muscle; and the endoderm or inner layer, which develops into the viscera. Body Types
Body Types
Endomorph Chubby people, tending to “pear-shaped.” Viscerotonics:  Sociable types, lovers of food and physical comforts.
Mesomorph Stockier people, with broad shoulders and good musculature. Somatotonics:  Active types, physically fit and energetic.
Ectomorph Slender, often tall, people, with long arms and legs and fine features. Cerebrotonics:  Nervous types, relatively shy, often intellectual.
In the last couple of decades, an increasing number of theorists and researchers have come to the conclusion that five is the “magic number” for temperament dimensions.   The first version, called The Big Five, was introduced in 1963 by Warren Norman. Big Five Test Big Five Interpretation Big Five ppt The Big Five
Emotional Development – is an interaction between temperament (nature) and positive or negative environmental feedback (nurture) Temperament – refers to individual differences in attention, arousal, and reactivity to new or novel situations. Temperaments
Baby’s Temperaments
Transactional Analysis Eric Berne P-A-C (Structural Analysis) The brain is like a tape recorder. Parental Behavior
This is a set of feelings, thinking and behaviora that we have copied from our parents and significant others. As we grow up we take in ideas, beliefs, feelings and behaviors from our parents and caretakers.  If we live in an extended family then there are more people to learn and take in from.  When we do this, it is called introjecting and it is just as if we take in the whole of the care giver.  For example, we may notice that we are saying things just as our father, mother, grandmother may have done, even though, consciously, we don't want to.  We do this as we have lived with this person so long that we automatically reproduce certain things that were said to us, or treat others as we might have been treated. Transactional Analysis
Parent The parent represents a massive collection of recordings in the brain of external events experienced or perceived in approximately the first five years of life.   Since the majority of the external events experienced by a child are actions of the parent, the ego state was appropriately called Parent.   Note that events perceived by the child from individuals that are NOT parents (but who are often in parent-like roles) are also recorded in the Parent.   There are two forms of Parent we can play. The Nurturing Parent is caring and concerned and often may appear as a mother-figure (though men can play it too). They seek to keep the Child safe and offer unconditional love, calming them when they are troubled. The Controlling (or Critical) Parent, on the other hand, tries to make the Child do as the parent wants them to do, perhaps transferring values or beliefs or helping the Child to understand and live in society.  P-A-C
Child In contrast to the Parent, the Child represents the recordings in the brain of internal events associated with external events the child perceives.   Stated another way, stored in the Child are the emotions or feelings which accompanied external events. Like the Parent, recordings in the Child occur from childbirth all the way up to the age of approximately 5 years old. There are two types of Child we can play. The Natural Child is largely un-self-aware and is characterized by the non-speech noises they make (yahoo, etc.). They like playing and are open and vulnerable. The cutely-named Little Professor is the curious and exploring Child who is always trying out new stuff (often much to their Controlling Parent's annoyance).  The Adaptive Child  reacts to the world around them, by changing themselves to fit in, or through obedience P-A-C
Adult the Adult in us is the 'grown up' rational person who talks reasonably and assertively, neither trying to control nor reacting. The Adult is comfortable with themselves and is, for many of us, our 'ideal self'. P-A-C
P-A-C
Psychosexual Stages of Development (Sigmund Freud) five different developmental periods during which an individual seeks pleasure from different areas of the body that are associated with sexual feelings Sexual Behaviors
Oral Stage (Birth to 18 months).  During the oral stage, the child if focused on oral pleasures (sucking).  Too much or too little gratification can result in an Oral Fixation or Oral Personality which is evidenced by a preoccupation with oral activities.  This type of personality may have a stronger tendency to smoke, drink alcohol, over eat, or bite his or her nails.  Personality wise, these individuals may become overly dependent upon others, gullible, and perpetual followers. (Oral receptive) On the other hand, they may also fight these urges and develop pessimism and aggression toward others. (Oral aggressive) Psychosexual Stages of Development
Anal Stage (18 months to three years).  The child’s focus of pleasure in this stage is on eliminating and retaining feces.  Through society’s pressure, mainly via parents, the child has to learn to control anal stimulation. In terms of personality, after effects of an anal fixation during this stage can result in an obsession with cleanliness, perfection, and control (anal retentive).  On the opposite end of the spectrum, they may become messy and disorganized (anal expulsive). Psychosexual Stages of Development
Phallic Stage (ages three to six).  The pleasure zone switches to the genitals. Freud believed that during this stage boy develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother (Oedipus complex).  Because of this, he becomes rivals with his father and sees him as competition for the mother’s affection.  During this time, boys also develop a fear that their father will punish them for these feelings, such as by castrating them A fixation at this stage could result in sexual deviancies (both overindulging and avoidance) and weak or confused sexual identity  Psychosexual Stages of Development
Latency Stage (age six to puberty).  It’s during this stage that sexual urges remain repressed and children interact and play mostly with same sex peers. Psychosexual Stages of Development
Genital Stage (puberty on).  The final stage of psychosexual development begins at the start of puberty when sexual urges are once again awakened.  Through the lessons learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers, with the primary focus of pleasure is the genitals.  Psychosexual Stages of Development
The End Prepared by: JC de Egurrola jeelchristine@i.ph

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Personality Theories

  • 1. Personality Biological Theories, Genetics, and personality, Temperament, Parental Behaviour, Sexual Behaviour
  • 4. For years, biological theory played a significant role in our view of human development and personality.  Toward the beginning of the 20th Century, however, views began to change and personality was seen as involving both biology and environment.  Hans Eysenck, however, fought against this trend.  Hans Eysenck
  • 5. By using the statistic known as Factor Analysis, he concluded that all human traits can be broken down into two distinct categories: 1. Extroversion-Introversion 2. Neuroticism Hans Eysenck
  • 10. Temperament is that aspect of our personalities that is genetically based, inborn, there from birth or even before.  That does not mean that a temperament theory says we don't also have aspects of our personality that are learned!  The issue of personality types, including temperament, is as old as psychology.  The ancient Greeks, to take the obvious example, had given it considerable thought, and came up with two dimensions of temperament, leading to four “types,” based on what kind of fluids (called humors) they had too much or too little of.  This theory became popular during the middle ages. Temperaments
  • 11. In the 1950’s,  William Sheldon (b. 1899) became interested in the variety of human bodies.  He built upon earlier work done by Ernst Kretschmer in the 1930's.  Kretschmer believed that there was a relationship between three different physical types and certain psychological disorders.  Specifically, he believed that the short, round pyknic type was more prone to cyclothymic or bipolar disorders, and that the tall thin asthenic type (a too a lesser degree the muscular athletic type) was more prone to schizophrenia.  His research, although involving thousands of institutionalized patients, was suspect because he failed to control for age and the schizophrenics were considerably younger than the bipolar patients, and so more likely to be thinner. Body Types
  • 12. He theorized that the connection between the three physical types and the three personality types was embryonic development.  In the early stages of our prenatal development, we are composed of three layers or “skins:”  the ectoderm or outer layer, which develops into skin and nervous system; the mesoderm or middle layer, which develops into muscle; and the endoderm or inner layer, which develops into the viscera. Body Types
  • 14. Endomorph Chubby people, tending to “pear-shaped.” Viscerotonics:  Sociable types, lovers of food and physical comforts.
  • 15. Mesomorph Stockier people, with broad shoulders and good musculature. Somatotonics:  Active types, physically fit and energetic.
  • 16. Ectomorph Slender, often tall, people, with long arms and legs and fine features. Cerebrotonics:  Nervous types, relatively shy, often intellectual.
  • 17. In the last couple of decades, an increasing number of theorists and researchers have come to the conclusion that five is the “magic number” for temperament dimensions.  The first version, called The Big Five, was introduced in 1963 by Warren Norman. Big Five Test Big Five Interpretation Big Five ppt The Big Five
  • 18. Emotional Development – is an interaction between temperament (nature) and positive or negative environmental feedback (nurture) Temperament – refers to individual differences in attention, arousal, and reactivity to new or novel situations. Temperaments
  • 20. Transactional Analysis Eric Berne P-A-C (Structural Analysis) The brain is like a tape recorder. Parental Behavior
  • 21. This is a set of feelings, thinking and behaviora that we have copied from our parents and significant others. As we grow up we take in ideas, beliefs, feelings and behaviors from our parents and caretakers. If we live in an extended family then there are more people to learn and take in from. When we do this, it is called introjecting and it is just as if we take in the whole of the care giver. For example, we may notice that we are saying things just as our father, mother, grandmother may have done, even though, consciously, we don't want to. We do this as we have lived with this person so long that we automatically reproduce certain things that were said to us, or treat others as we might have been treated. Transactional Analysis
  • 22. Parent The parent represents a massive collection of recordings in the brain of external events experienced or perceived in approximately the first five years of life.  Since the majority of the external events experienced by a child are actions of the parent, the ego state was appropriately called Parent.  Note that events perceived by the child from individuals that are NOT parents (but who are often in parent-like roles) are also recorded in the Parent.  There are two forms of Parent we can play. The Nurturing Parent is caring and concerned and often may appear as a mother-figure (though men can play it too). They seek to keep the Child safe and offer unconditional love, calming them when they are troubled. The Controlling (or Critical) Parent, on the other hand, tries to make the Child do as the parent wants them to do, perhaps transferring values or beliefs or helping the Child to understand and live in society. P-A-C
  • 23. Child In contrast to the Parent, the Child represents the recordings in the brain of internal events associated with external events the child perceives.  Stated another way, stored in the Child are the emotions or feelings which accompanied external events. Like the Parent, recordings in the Child occur from childbirth all the way up to the age of approximately 5 years old. There are two types of Child we can play. The Natural Child is largely un-self-aware and is characterized by the non-speech noises they make (yahoo, etc.). They like playing and are open and vulnerable. The cutely-named Little Professor is the curious and exploring Child who is always trying out new stuff (often much to their Controlling Parent's annoyance). The Adaptive Child  reacts to the world around them, by changing themselves to fit in, or through obedience P-A-C
  • 24. Adult the Adult in us is the 'grown up' rational person who talks reasonably and assertively, neither trying to control nor reacting. The Adult is comfortable with themselves and is, for many of us, our 'ideal self'. P-A-C
  • 25. P-A-C
  • 26. Psychosexual Stages of Development (Sigmund Freud) five different developmental periods during which an individual seeks pleasure from different areas of the body that are associated with sexual feelings Sexual Behaviors
  • 27. Oral Stage (Birth to 18 months). During the oral stage, the child if focused on oral pleasures (sucking). Too much or too little gratification can result in an Oral Fixation or Oral Personality which is evidenced by a preoccupation with oral activities. This type of personality may have a stronger tendency to smoke, drink alcohol, over eat, or bite his or her nails. Personality wise, these individuals may become overly dependent upon others, gullible, and perpetual followers. (Oral receptive) On the other hand, they may also fight these urges and develop pessimism and aggression toward others. (Oral aggressive) Psychosexual Stages of Development
  • 28. Anal Stage (18 months to three years). The child’s focus of pleasure in this stage is on eliminating and retaining feces. Through society’s pressure, mainly via parents, the child has to learn to control anal stimulation. In terms of personality, after effects of an anal fixation during this stage can result in an obsession with cleanliness, perfection, and control (anal retentive). On the opposite end of the spectrum, they may become messy and disorganized (anal expulsive). Psychosexual Stages of Development
  • 29. Phallic Stage (ages three to six). The pleasure zone switches to the genitals. Freud believed that during this stage boy develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother (Oedipus complex). Because of this, he becomes rivals with his father and sees him as competition for the mother’s affection. During this time, boys also develop a fear that their father will punish them for these feelings, such as by castrating them A fixation at this stage could result in sexual deviancies (both overindulging and avoidance) and weak or confused sexual identity Psychosexual Stages of Development
  • 30. Latency Stage (age six to puberty). It’s during this stage that sexual urges remain repressed and children interact and play mostly with same sex peers. Psychosexual Stages of Development
  • 31. Genital Stage (puberty on). The final stage of psychosexual development begins at the start of puberty when sexual urges are once again awakened. Through the lessons learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers, with the primary focus of pleasure is the genitals. Psychosexual Stages of Development
  • 32. The End Prepared by: JC de Egurrola jeelchristine@i.ph