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  1. 1. Definition of Group Stephen P. Robins: “two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.” G. C. Homans: “any number of people who share goals, often communicate with each other over a period of time, and are few enough so that each individual may communicate with all the others, person-to-person.” In the modern days of IT, pple need not physically come together, but they communicate and interact with each other. i.e., virtually coming together.
  2. 2. They strive for a common goal, which becomes a bondage. The members of the groups share their skills and other resources and achieve their goals through the integrated effort. Thus, we can say that the group is a ‘combination of two or more pple with a purpose of achieving their common and shared goals through their integrated effort.’
  3. 3. Features/Characteristics of a Group 1. Combination of two or more individuals. 2. Individuals are motivated to come closer physically, and/ or virtually for interaction. 3. They come closer to achieve their common and shared goals. 4. Grp members achieve their common goals through integrated efforts. 5. Perceive the group as a unified unit and stable structure. 6. Members contribute different inputs (skills, kn, effort, etc) towards achievement of grp goals. 7. Reach agreement and disagreement through various forms of interaction.
  4. 4. Need/Reasons for Formation of Group Formation of grps is necessary as humans are basically social beings. Most pple prefer to live and work in grps. Some reasons cld be: 1. Security 2. Empowerment through sharing of resources: exchange of skills, kn, talents, values, etc. 3. Becoming a leader: pple with leadership skills can become leaders to form the grps, lead the grps. 4. Synergy: outcome of the grp effort is greater than the sum of the individual contributions of the group. 5. Goal attainment 6. Status 7. Affiliation Needs 8. Self-esteem
  5. 5. Types of groups  Different pple join grps with various purposes or due to the forces of different factors. – Hence different types of grps are formed 1. 2. 3. Formal Group: when two or more individuals join together as a grp due to the official job structure and relationship in a org. ex: grp of production managers, mtrls mngr, qlty control mngr,etc. Informal Group: when two or more individuals join together as a grp in order to satisfy their social needs but not due to official job structure and org.l requirements. These are formed out of the common interests, aptitudes, values, opinions, ideas and characteristics of the pple. Ex: qlty circles. Command Group: a grp of the superior and his/her subordinates. i.e., it is a grp of individual employees and their manager to whom they report. Ex: finance mngr and asst. finance mngrs.
  6. 6. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Task Group: pple working together in order to accomplish a particular task. Interested Group: Friendship Groups: pple with common characteristics like hard working, work avoiding, smart working, status seeking, family orientation, risk taking, etc. Primary Groups: individuals with a feeling of comradeship, loyalty and a commonsense of values form into a group. Ex: grp of family members such as father, mother, brother and sister. Coalitions: individuals from different grps form into an ad hoc group in order to achieve a specific task or goals. Here the individuals have dual membership, i.e., one in the original grp and another in the coalition. - the coalition gets dissolved once the goal is attained.
  7. 7. Stages of Group Formation 1. Forming: - characterised by uncertainty and confusion. -members observe others, various events and issues and decide what type of behaviour is acceptable. - thus members ‘test the waters’ during this stage and decide within themselves as part of a group. 2. Storming: - characterised by conflict and confrontation among the group members. - members accept the group, but there would be conflict over the leadership. - members know the hierarchy and chain of command when the leader within the group is determined. - this stage is complete when the members are clear about the leader and the hierarchy.
  8. 8. 3. Norming: -members settle, start cooperating and collaborating with each other, develop close relationship among themselves, exhibit cohesiveness and prefer to identify themselves with the group. - members formulate common goals and expectations of the group. 4. Performing: -group members exert all their energies towards functioning and performing the tasks in order to attain the group goals. 5. Adjourning: - attention is directed toward wrapping up activities. - the group prepares for its disbandment. but, this may cause worry to some due to loss of friendship and effective leaders.
  9. 9. Groups @ the Work Place • Work place is more prominent for the formation and development of groups. • Groups are formed both officially (formal groups) and • unofficially (informal groups)at the work place.
  10. 10. Formal Groups A formal grp is one that is deliberately created to perform a specific task. -mgmt formulates the grps. - These are relatively permanent grps. - However, they get changed whenever there are changes in org structure, job structure, job design, etc. - A hierarchy of authority exists with specified members, rules and regulations. - Rules, regulations, incentives and sanctions guide the behaviour of grp.
  11. 11. Two types of formal groups 1. Command/ Standing Task group: a permanently specified in the org.l structure and consists of a supervisor who exercises formal authority over subordinates. 2. Task Group: a temporary formal group, is created to solve specific pblms. - the grp comprises who work together to complete a particular task or project, but who do not necessarily report to the same supervisor. - the belong to different depts. - they stay together till the task is complete and once the work is completed they disband and return to their respective task grps.
  12. 12. Informal Group  grps are formed out of social interaction, social needs, attitudes, likes and dislikes, values, opinions, personality traits and other psychological factors.  It is outside the officially prescribed relationships, line of authority and responsibilities of the org.  These grps are formed within the structure of the org, but by the members themselves.  They are important in the org.s from the point of view of their members and they have a great utility to the org.
  13. 13. Theories of Group Formation 1. Propinquity theory: individuals affiliate with one another becz of spatial or geographical proximity. ex: in the org, working in the same area would more probably form into groups than those who are not physically located together. 2. Homan’s theory: George C. Homans “the more activities persons share , the more numerous will be their interactions and the stronger will be their shared activities and sentiments; and the more sentiments persons have for one another, the more will be shared activities and interactions.” it is based on three concepts: activities, interactions and sentiments which are directly related to each other. the members share activities and interact with one another not just becz of physical proximity, but also to accomplish grp goals. the key element is interaction becz which they develop common sentiments for one another. Activities Interactions Sentiments
  14. 14. 3. Balance Theory: Theodore Newcomb “persons are attracted to one another on the basis of similar attitudes towards commonly relevant objects and goals. Once a relationship is formed, it strive to maintain a systematical balance b/w the attraction and the common attitudes. If an imbalance occurs, attempts are made to restore the balance. If the balance cannot be restored, the relationship dissolves.”  both propinquity and interaction play a role in the balance theory.  there must be a balance in the relationship b/w the grp members for the grp to be formed and for its survival.
  15. 15. 4. Exchange Theory: based on reward-cost outcomes of interaction b/w pple.  to be attracted towards a grp, a person thinks in terms of what he will get in exchange of interaction with the grp members.  a minimum +ve level (reward > cost) of an outcome must exist in order for attraction or affiliation to take place.  rewards gratify needs and costs incur anxiety, frustrations, embarrassment, etc.  propinquity, interaction and balance theory all have roles in the exchange theory.